Maximal backgrounding = focus without (necessary) focus encoding

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price: $35.00+Taxes
Add to favourites

The full text of this article is not currently available.

Data & Media loading...


Full text loading...


Aboh, Enoch O
2006 When verbal predicates go fronting. In I. Fiedler & A. Schwarz (eds.), Papers on information structure in African languages (ZAS Papers in Linguistics 46), 21–48. Berlin: Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Typologie und Universalienforschung.
Anyanwu, Rose-Juliet & Abdourahmane Diallo
2005 Rhythmic units and stress: Word accent mobility in Fula. In Rose-Juliet Anyanwu (ed.), Tone systems in African languages (Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter 17), 65–89. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Apel, Viktoria
2012 Term focus in Fulfulde: Arguments for a grammaticalization of former cleft constructions. Paper presented at the 20 . Afrikanistentag, Köln, 29 May - 2 June 2012.
Arnott, David W
1970The nominal and verbal systems of Fula. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Banfield, Alexander W. & John L. Macintyre
1915A grammar of the Nupe language, together with a vocabulary. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Bao, Mingzhen
2012 Prosody of focus among information structures in Pulaar. Afrikanistik Online2012. (Accessed20 Feb 2016.)
Beacham, Charles G
1991Learning Yom: A Voltaic language of the Atacora Province (The Republic of Benin, West Africa). Charlotte, North Carolina: SIL USA.
Bearth, Thomas
1993 Satztyp und Situation in einigen Sprachen Westafrikas. In Wilhelm J.G. Möhlig , Siegmund Brauner & Herrmann Jungraithmayr (eds.), Beiträge zur afrikanischen Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft (IX. Afrikanistentag, Leipzig, September, 24-26, 1992), 91–104. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
1999 The contribution of African linguistics towards a general theory of focus: Update and critical review. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics20(2). 121–156. doi: 10.1515/jall.1999.20.2.121
Bodomo, Adams B
2000Dàgáárè. Languages of the World, Materials 165. München/ Newcastle: LINCOM Europa.
Büring, Daniel
2010 Towards a typology of focus realization. In Malte Zimmermann & Caroline Féry (eds.), Information structure: Theoretical, typological and experimental perspectives, 177–205. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Creissels, Denis et al.
2008 Africa as a morphosyntactic area. In Bernd Heine & Derek Nurse (eds.), A linguistic geography of Africa, 86–150. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dik, Simon C
1997 The theory of functional grammar, part 1: The structure of the clause, Kees Hengeveld (ed.), Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ellison, R.E
1937An English-Kanuri sentence book. London: Oxford University Press.
Evans, Nicholas D
2007 Insubordination and its uses. In Irina Nikolaeva (ed.), Finiteness: Theoretical and empirical foundations, 366–431. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Féry, Caroline
2013 Focus as prosodic alignment. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory31. 683–734. doi: 10.1007/s11049‑013‑9195‑7
Fiedler, Ines
2006 Focus expressions in Yom. Gur Papers7. 112–121.
2014 Conjoint and disjoint verb forms in Gur? Evidence from Yom. Unpublished manuscript.
Fiedler, Ines & Anne Schwarz
2005 Out-of-focus encoding in Gur and Kwa. In Stefanie Dipper , Michael Götze & Manfred Stede (eds.), Approaches and findings in oral, written and gestural language (Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure 3), 111–142. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag.
(eds.) 2006Papers on information structure in African languages (ZAS Papers in Linguistics 46). Berlin: Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Typologie und Universalienforschung.
(eds.) 2010The expression of information structure: A documentation of its diversity across Africa (Typological Studies in Language 91). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.91
Fiedler, Ines et al.
2010 Subject focus in West African languages. In Malte Zimmermann & Caroline Féry (eds.), Information structure: Theoretical, typological and experimental perspectives, 234–257. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
2004 Tense and aspect as coding means for information structure: A potential areal feature. Journal of West African Languages30(2): 53–67.
Gajdos, Martina
2004Fulfulde: Lehrbuch einer westafrikanischen Sprache. Wien: Edition Praesens.
George, Isaac
1971 The á-construction in Nupe: Perfective, stative, causative, or instrumental. In Chin-Wu Kim & Herbert Stahlke (eds.), Papers in African linguistics, 81–100. Edmonton/ Champaign: Linguistic Research, Inc.
Gimba, A. Maina
2005 On the functions of ‘ye’ in Bole. Paper presented at the International Conference on “Focus in African Languages” , Berlin, 6-8 October 2005.
Givón, Talmy
1975 Focus and the scope of assertion: Some Bantu evidence. Studies in African Linguistics6(2). 185–205.
Good, Jeff
2010 Topic and focus fields in Naki. In I. Fiedler & A. Schwarz (eds.), The expression of information structure: A documentation of its diversity across Africa (Typological Studies in Language 91), 35–67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.91.02goo
Grubic, Mira & Malte Zimmermann
2011 Conventional and free association with focus in Ngamo (West Chadic). In Ingo Reich et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn & Bedeutung15, 291–305. Saarbrücken: Saarland University Press.
Güldemann, Tom
1996Verbalmorphologie und Nebenprädikationen im Bantu: Eine Studie zur funktional motivierten Genese eines konjugationalen Subsystems. Bochum-Essener Beiträge zur Sprachwandelforschung 27. Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer.
2003 Present progressive vis-à-vis predication focus in Bantu: A verbal category between semantics and pragmatics. Studies in Language27(2). 323–360. doi: 10.1075/sl.27.2.05gul
2010 The relation between focus and theticity in the Tuu family. In I. Fiedler & A. Schwarz (eds.), The expression of information structure: A documentation of its diversity across Africa (Typological Studies in Language 91), 69–93. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.91.03gul
. in preparation. Predicate clefts, verb doubling, and co.: Towards a typology of dissected predicates and focus.
Güldemann, Tom et al.
2010 Preposed verb doubling and predicate-centered focus. Paper presented at the International Conference of the SFB 632 “Information structure” , University of Potsdam and Humboldt University of Berlin, 8-10 July 2010. (Accessed20 Feb 2016.)
Haida, Andreas
2004 Wh- and focus constructions in Gurune. Paper presented at the Workshop on Bantu Grammar: Theory and description , ZAS Berlin, 2004.
Haiman, John
1978 Conditionals are topics. Language54(3). 564–589. doi: 10.1353/lan.1978.0009
Hartmann, Katharina & Malte Zimmermann
2007 In place out of place? Focus strategies in Hausa. In Kerstin Schwabe & Susanne Winkler (eds.), On information structure, meaning and form: generalizing across languages, 365–403. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.100.20har
Hole, Daniel P
2004Focus and background marking in Mandarin Chinese: System and theory behind cái, jiù, dōu and yĕ. London: Routledge Curzon.
2011 The deconstruction of Chinese shì…de clefts revisited. In Edgar Onea & Malte Zimmermann (eds.), Focus marking and focus interpretation. Lingua121(11). 1707–1733.
Hopper, Paul J
1979a Aspect and foregrounding in discourse. In Talmy Givón (ed.), Discourse and syntax (Syntax and Semantics 12), 213–241. New York/ San Francisco/ London: Academic Press.
1979b Some observations on the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language. Studies in Language3(1). 37–64. doi: 10.1075/sl.3.1.03hop
(ed.) 1982Tense-aspect: Between semantics and pragmatics (Typological Studies in Language 1). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.1
Hudu, Fusheini
2006 Focus marking in Dagbani. University of British Columbia: unpublished manuscript.
2012 Focus particles in Dagbani: A descriptive analysis. Journal of West African Languages39(1). 97–129.
Hutchison, John P
1981The Kanuri language: A reference grammar. Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin.
Hyman, Larry & John Watters
1984 Auxiliary focus. Studies in African Linguistics15(3). 233–273.
Issah, Samuel A
2008Information packaging in Dagbani. Tromsø: Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Tromsø M.A. thesis.
2013 The function of the post verbal la in Dagbani. Studies in African Linguistics42(2). 153–174.
Jackendoff, Ray
1972Semantic interpretation in generative grammar. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Jacob, Peggy
2010 On the obligatoriness of focus marking: Evidence from Tar B’arma. In I. Fiedler & A. Schwarz (eds.), The expression of information structure: A documentation of its diversity across Africa (Typological Studies in Language 91), 117–144. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.91.05jac
Jaggar, Philip J
2001Hausa. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/loall.7
2006 The Hausa perfective tense-aspect used in wh-/focus constructions and historical narratives: A unified account. In Paul Newman & Larry M. Hyman (eds.), West African linguistics: Papers in honor of Rusell G. Schuh. Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 11, 100–133. Columbus: Department of Linguistics, Ohio State University.
Jarrett, Kevin A
1980 Tense/aspect/mood in Kanuri verb forms. Harsunan Nijeriya10. 1–28.
Kalinowski, Cristin & Jeff Good
2014 Non-canonical head-marking of information structure in African languages. Paper presented at the ISHML Workshop , Nijmegen, 28 March 2014.
Kandybowicz, Jason
2008The grammar of repetition: Nupe grammar at the syntax-phonology interface. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.136
Krifka, Manfred
2007 Basic notions of information structure. In Caroline Féry , Gisbert Fanselow & Manfred Krifka (eds.), The notions of information structure (Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure 6), 13–55. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag.
Kropp Dakubu, Mary E
2000 The particle la in Gurene. Gur Papers5. 59–65.
Lukas, Johannes
1937A study of the Kanuri language: Grammar and vocabulary. London: Oxford University Press.
Manessy, Gabriel
1975Les langues oti-volta (Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale 15). Paris: SELAF.
Matić, Dejan & Daniel Wedgwood
2013 The meanings of focus: The significance of an interpretation-based category in cross-linguistic analysis. Journal of Linguistics49(1): 127–163. doi: 10.1017/S0022226712000345
McKay, Graham R
1988 Figure and ground in Rembarrnga complex sentences. In Peter Austin (ed.), Complex sentence constructions in Australian languages (Typological Studies in Language 15), 7–36. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.15.03mck
Ndumbu, J.M.G. & Wilfred H. Whiteley
1962 Some problems of stability and emphasis in Kamba one-word tenses. Journal of African Languages1(2): 167–180.
Olawsky, Knut J
1999Aspects of Dagbani grammar: With special emphasis on phonology and morphology (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 41). München: LINCOM Europa.
Olson, Michael
1981Barai clause junctures: Toward a functional theory of interclausal relations. Canberra: Australian National University Ph.D. thesis.
Purvis, Tristan M
2012 Left dislocation in Dagbani: A preliminary survey. In Matthias Brenzinger & Anne-Maria Fehn (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th World Congress of African Linguistics, Cologne, 17-21 August 2009, 501–513. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Reinhart, Tanya
2006Interface strategies: Optimal and costly computations (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs 45). MIT Press.
Rizzi, Luigi
1997 The fine structure of the left periphery. In Liliane Haegeman (ed.), Elements of grammar: Handbook in generative syntax (Kluwer International Handbooks of Linguistics 1), 281–337. Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: Kluwer.
2004 On the cartography of syntactic structures. In Luigi Rizzi (ed.), The structure of CP and IP: The cartography of syntactic structures, vol. 2, 3–15. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rooth, Mats
1985Association with focus. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, Amherst Ph.D. thesis.
1992 A theory of focus interpretation. Natural Language Semantics1. 75–116. doi: 10.1007/BF02342617
Samek-Lodovici, Vieri
2006 When right dislocation meets the left-periphery: A unified analysis of Italian non-final focus. Lingua116. 836–873. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2005.04.001
Sasse, Hans-Jürgen
1987 The thetic/categorical distinction revisited. Linguistics25. 511–580. doi: 10.1515/ling.1987.25.3.511
Schuh, Russell G
1982 Questioned and focussed subjects and objects in Bade/Ngizim. In Herrmann Jungraithmayr (ed.), The Chad languages in the Hamitosemitic-Nigritic border area (Papers of the Marburg Symposion, 1979) (Marburger Studien zur Afrika- und Asienkunde A27), 160–173. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
2005 Yobe State, Nigeria as a linguistic area. In Rebecca T. Cover and Yuni Kim (eds.), Languages of West Africa. Berkeley Linguistics Society31(2). 77–94.
Schwarz, Anne
2009 How many focus markers are there in Konkomba?In Matondo Masangu , Fiona McLaughlin & Eric Potsdam (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 38th annual conference on African linguistics: Linguistic theory and African language documentation, 182–192. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Schwarzschild, Roger
1999 GIVENness, AvoidF and other constraints on the placement of accent. Natural Language Semantics7. 141–177. doi: 10.1023/A:1008370902407
Smith, N.V
1967An outline grammar of Nupe. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
Stucky, Susan U
1979 Focus of contrast aspects in Makua: Syntactic and semantic evidence. Berkeley Linguistics Society5. 362–372. doi: 10.3765/bls.v5i0.2153
Sylla, Yèro
1993Syntaxe peule: Contribution à la recherche sur les universaux du langage. Dakar: Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines du Sénégal.
Talmy, Leonard
1978 Figure and ground in complex sentences. In Joseph H. Greenberg , Charles A. Ferguson & Edith A. Moravcsik (eds.), Universals of human language, volume 4: Syntax, 625–649. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Tomlin, Russell S
1985 Foreground-background information and the syntax of subordination. Text5: 85–122.
(ed.) 1987Coherence and grounding in discourse (Typological Studies in Language 11). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.11
Townsend, David J. & Thomas G. Bever
1977Main and subordinate clauses: A study in figure and ground. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Truckenbrodt, Hubert
1995Phonological phrases: Their relation to syntax, focus and prominence. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ph.D. thesis.
Van der Wal, Jenneke
2011 Focus excluding alternatives: Conjoint/disjoint marking in Makhuwa. Lingua121. 1734–1750. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.10.013
Van Valin, Robert D
1984 A typology of syntactic relations in clause linkage. Berkeley Linguistics Society10. 542–558. doi: 10.3765/bls.v10i0.1975
Wilson, W.A.A
1963 Relative constructions in Dagbani. Journal of African Languages2. 139–144.
Wolff, H. Ekkehard & Doris Löhr
2006 Encoding focus in Kanuri verbal morphology: Predication focus and the “Kanuri focus shift”. In I. Fiedler and A. Schwarz (eds.), Papers on information structure in African languages (ZAS Papers in Linguistics 46), 185–209. Berlin: Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Typologie und Universalienforschung.
Ziegelmeyer, Georg
2011 On argument focus in Kanuri. In Doris Löhr , Eva Rothmaler & Georg Ziegelmeyer (eds.), Kanuri, Borno and beyond: Current studies on the Lake Chad region (Topics in Interdisciplinary African Studies 22), 191–205. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Zima, Petr
1991 Le problème des formes verbales dites “relatives” en tchadique. In Herrmann Jungraithmayr & Henry Tourneux (eds.), Etudes tchadiques la phrase complexe, 15–26. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
2006 TAM verbal paradigms in the West African Sahel as areal (Sprachbund), genetic and sociolinguistic features (Where are we 75 years after Klingenheben?). In Bernard Caron & Petr Zima (eds.), Sprachbund in the West African Sahel (Afrique et Langage 11), 221–237. Leuven/ Paris: Peeters.
Zimmermann, Malte
2011 The grammatical expression of focus in West Chadic: Variation and uniformity in and across languages. Linguistics49(5). 1163–1213. doi: 10.1515/ling.2011.032
Zimmermann, Malte & Caroline Féry
(eds.) 2010Information structure: Theoretical, typological and experimental perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address