Child L2 Writers

A room of their own

image of Child L2 Writers

Studies on L2 writing tasks with child learners have broken through several barriers in the past few years. Although long considered a solitary task, writing is now regularly done in collaborative pairs and groups as well. New and more comprehensive writing and feedback strategies have been implemented and task repetition has made its way from oral into writing tasks. Finally, research analyses of linguistic outcomes have been complemented by measures of task motivation. Drawing on knowledge from the fields of psychology, education and SLA, this book includes a comprehensive and interdisciplinary analysis of this body of research. It pinpoints the specificity of writing tasks for child L2 learners, identifies the research gaps that pave the way for future research, and offers a guide for teachers who wish to implement writing tasks with young language learners. In sum, this book demonstrates that child L2 writing constitutes a new field of inquiry and attempts to give child L2 writers a room of their own.


  1. Abe, M.
    (2008) Exploring the role of model essays in the IELTS writing test: A feedback tool (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Queensland, Australia.
  2. Adams, A. -M. , & Guillot, K.
    (2008) Working memory and writing in bilingual students. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 156 , 13–28. 10.2143/ITL.156.0.2034417
    https://doi.org/10.2143/ITL.156.0.2034417 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adams, R.
    (2003) L2 output, reformulation and noticing: Implications for IL development. Language Teaching Research, 7(3), 347–376. 10.1191/1362168803LR127OA
    https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168803LR127OA [Google Scholar]
  4. Adams, R. , & Ross-Feldman, L.
    (2008) Does writing influence learner attention to form? The speaking-writing connection in second language and academic literacy development. In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela . (Eds.), The oral/literate connection: Perspectives on L2 speaking, writing, and other media interactions (pp.210–225). University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahmadian, M. J.
    (2011) The effect of ‘massed’ task repetitions on complexity, accuracy and fluency: Does it transfer to a new task?The Language Learning Journal, 39 (3), 269–280. 10.1080/09571736.2010.545239
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2010.545239 [Google Scholar]
  6. (2012) Task repetition in ELT. ELT journal, 66 (3), 380–382. 10.1093/elt/ccs020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs020 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ahmadian, M. J. , & Tavakoli, M.
    (2010) The effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners’ oral production. Language Teaching Research, 15 , 35–59. 10.1177/1362168810383329
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810383329 [Google Scholar]
  8. Al Khalil, M. K.
    (2011) Second language motivation: Its relationship to noticing, affect, and production in task-based interaction (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, USA.
  9. (2016) Insights from measurement of task-related motivation. In A. Mackey & E. Marsden . (Eds.), Advancing methodology and practice: The IRIS repository of instruments for research into second languages (pp.243–262). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Albin, M. L. , Benton, S. L. , & Khramtsova, I.
    (1996) Individual differences in interest and narrative writing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21 (4), 305–324. 10.1006/ceps.1996.0024
    https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1996.0024 [Google Scholar]
  11. Alegría de la Colina, A. , & García Mayo, M. P.
    (2009) Oral interaction in task-based EFL learning: The use of the L1 as a cognitive tool. IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics, 47 (3–4), 325–345. 10.1515/iral.2009.014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2009.014 [Google Scholar]
  12. Alloway, T. P.
    (2011) Improving working memory: Supporting students’ learning. Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Alloway, T. P. , & Alloway, R. G.
    (2010) Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106 (1), 20–29. 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2009.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  14. Alloway, T. P. , Gathercole, S. E. , Willis, C. , & Adams, A. M.
    (2004) A structural analysis of working memory and related cognitive skills in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87 (2), 85–106. 10.1016/j.jecp.2003.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2003.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  15. Alvarez, E.
    (2006) Rate and route of acquisition in EFL narrative development at different ages. In C. Muñoz . (Ed.), Age and the rate of foreign language learning (pp.127–155). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853598937‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598937-008 [Google Scholar]
  16. Amiryousefi, M.
    (2016) The differential effects of two types of task repetition on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency in computer-mediated L2 written production: A focus on computer anxiety. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29 (5), 1052–1068. 10.1080/09588221.2016.1170040
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1170040 [Google Scholar]
  17. Anderman, E. M. , Maehr, M. L. , & Midgley, C.
    (1999) Declining motivation after the transition to middle school: Schools can make a difference. Journal of Research & Development in Education, 32 , 131–147.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Anderson, J. R.
    (1995) Learning and memory: An integrated approach. John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Antón, M. , & DiCamilla, F.
    (1998) Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 54 (3), 314–342. 10.3138/cmlr.54.3.314
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.54.3.314 [Google Scholar]
  20. Askew, S. , & Lodge, C.
    (2004) Gifts, ping-pong and loops–linking feedback and learning. In S. Askew . (Ed.). Feedback for learning (pp.13–30). Routledge. 10.4324/9780203017678
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203017678 [Google Scholar]
  21. Aula Blasco, J.
    (2016) The relationship between writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy, and Spanish EFL students’ use of metacognitive writing strategies: A case study. Journal of English Studies, 14 , 7–45. 10.18172/jes.3069
    https://doi.org/10.18172/jes.3069 [Google Scholar]
  22. Azkarai, A. , & García Mayo, M. P.
    (2016) Task repetition effects on L1 use in EFL child task-based interaction. Language Teaching Research, 21 (4), 480–495. 10.1177/1362168816654169
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816654169 [Google Scholar]
  23. Azkarai, A. , & Kopinska, M.
    (2020) Young EFL learners and collaborative writing: A study on patterns of interaction, engagement in LREs, and task motivation. System, 94 (1). 10.1016/j.system.2020.102338
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102338 [Google Scholar]
  24. Azpilicueta-Martinez, R.
    (2020) Verbal evidence of task-related strategies in EFL: Children and adult interactions. International Journal of English Studies, 20 (3), 1–28. 10.6018/ijes.409961
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes.409961 [Google Scholar]
  25. Baba, K. & Nitta, R.
    (2011) Task repetition and L2 writing development: A longitudinal study from a dynamic systems perspective. In H. Byrnes & R. M. Manchón . (Eds.), Task-based language learning and teaching: Insights from writing (pp.107–136). John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Baba, K. , & Nitta, R.
    (2014) Phase transitions in development of writing fluency from a complex dynamic systems perspective. Language Learning, 64 (1), 1–35. 10.1111/lang.12033
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12033 [Google Scholar]
  27. Baddeley, A. D.
    (2002) Is working memory still working?European Psychologist, 7 (2), 85. 10.1027//1016‑9040.7.2.85
    https://doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.7.2.85 [Google Scholar]
  28. Baddeley, A. D. , & Hitch, G.
    (1974) Working memory. In G. H. Bower . (Ed.), Recent advances in learning and motivation (pp.47–89). Academic Press. 10.1016/S0079‑7421(08)60452‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60452-1 [Google Scholar]
  29. Baddeley, A. D. , & Logie, R. H.
    (1999) Working memory: The multicomponent model. In A. Miyake & P. Shah . (Eds.), Models of working memory (pp.28–61). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139174909.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174909.005 [Google Scholar]
  30. Bandura, A.
    (1997) Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bennett, N. , & Cass, A.
    (1988) The effects of group composition on group interactive processes and pupil understanding. British Educational Research Journal, 15 , 19–32. 10.1080/0141192890150102
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192890150102 [Google Scholar]
  32. Becker, C. , & Roos, J.
    (2016) An approach to creative speaking activities in the young learners'classroom. Education Inquiry, 7(1), 9–26. 10.3402/edui.v7.27613
    https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v7.27613 [Google Scholar]
  33. Berk, L.
    (2013) Child development. Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Best, J. R. , Miller, P. H. , & Naglieri, J. A.
    (2011) Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21 , 327–336. 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007 [Google Scholar]
  35. Bilodeau, E. A.
    (1969) Principles of skill acquisition. Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Bitchener, J.
    (2012) A reflection on the language learning potential of written CF. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 348–363. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.006 [Google Scholar]
  37. (2016) To what extent has the published written CF research aided our understanding of its potential for L2 development?International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 167 (2), 111–131. 10.1075/itl.167.2.01bit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.167.2.01bit [Google Scholar]
  38. (2019) The intersection between SLA and feedback research. In Hyland, K. , & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp.85–105). 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108635547.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108635547.007 [Google Scholar]
  39. Bitchener, J. , & Knoch, U.
    (2010) Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 writers with written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19 (4), 207–217. 10.1016/j.jslw.2010.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2010.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  40. Bitchener, J. , Young, S. , & Cameron, D.
    (2005) The effect of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14, 191–205. 10.1016/j.jslw.2005.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2005.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  41. Black, P. , Harrison, C. , Lee, C. , Marshal, B. & Wiliam, D.
    (2003) Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. Open University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Black, P. , & Wiliam, D.
    (1998) Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5 (1), 7–74. 10.1080/0969595980050102
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050102 [Google Scholar]
  43. Bley-Vroman, R.
    (1986) Hypothesis testing in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 36 , 353–376. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1986.tb00559.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1986.tb00559.x [Google Scholar]
  44. (1989) What is the logical problem of foreign language learning?In S. Gass & J. Schachter . (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition (pp.41–68). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524544.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524544.005 [Google Scholar]
  45. Bloom, B. S.
    (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive domain. David McKay.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Bloom, B.
    (1976) Human characteristics and school learning. McGraw–Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Boo, Z. , Dörnyei, Z. , & Ryan, S.
    (2015) L2 motivation research 2005–2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55 , 145–157. 10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006 [Google Scholar]
  48. Britton, J. , Burgess, T. , Martin, N. , McLeod, A. , & Rosen, H.
    (1975) The development of writing abilities. Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Britton, J. R.
    (1970) Language and learning. Allen Lane.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Brophy, J.
    (1981) Teacher praise: A functional analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51 , 5–32. 10.3102/00346543051001005
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543051001005 [Google Scholar]
  51. Brown, A. V.
    (2009) Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of effective foreign language teaching: A comparison of ideals. The Modern Language Journal, 93 , 46–60. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00827.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00827.x [Google Scholar]
  52. Bruner, J. S.
    (1972) Nature and uses of immaturity. American Psychologist, 27 (8), 687–708. 10.1037/h0033144
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033144 [Google Scholar]
  53. (1996), Culture of education. Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674251083
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674251083 [Google Scholar]
  54. Bruner, R. F.
    (2001, August17). Repetition is the first principle of all learning. SSRN. Retrieved on4 August 2022fromhttps://ssrn.com/abstract=224340
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Bruning, R. , & Horn, C.
    (2000) Developing motivation to write. Educational Psychologist, 35 (1), 25–37. 10.1207/S15326985EP3501_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3501_4 [Google Scholar]
  56. Bui, G. , Ahmadian, M. J. , & Hunter, A. -M.
    (2018) Spacing effects on repeated L2 task performance. System, 81 , 1–13. 10.1016/j.system.2018.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  57. Bull, R. , & Scerif, G.
    (2001) Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematical ability: Inhibition, switching and working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19 , 273–293. 10.1207/S15326942DN1903_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326942DN1903_3 [Google Scholar]
  58. Busch, D.
    (2010) Pre-service teacher beliefs about language learning: The second language acquisition course as an agent for change. Language Teaching Research, 14 (3), 318–337. 10.1177/1362168810365239
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810365239 [Google Scholar]
  59. Butler, Y. G. , & Zeng, W.
    (2015) Young learners’ interactional development in task-based paired-assessment in their first and foreign languages: A case of English learners in China. Education, 43 (3), 292–321. 10.1080/03004279.2013.813955
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2013.813955 [Google Scholar]
  60. Bygate, M.
    (1996) Effect of task repetition: Appraising the development of second language learners. In J. Willis & D. Willis . (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp.136–146). Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (2001) Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In M. Bygate , M. Swain , & P. Skehan . (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning teaching and testing (pp.23–48). Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. (2006) Areas of research that influence L2 speaking instruction. In E. Usó-Juan & A. Martínez-Flor . (Eds.), Current trends in the development and teaching of the four skills (pp.159–186). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197778.3.159
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197778.3.159 [Google Scholar]
  63. (Ed.) (2018) Learning language through task repetition. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11 [Google Scholar]
  64. Bygate, M. , & Samuda, V.
    (2005) Integrative planning through the use of task repetition. In R. Ellis . (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language (pp.37–74). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.11.05byg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.11.05byg [Google Scholar]
  65. Cain, K. M. , & Dweck, C. S.
    (1995) The relation between motivational patterns and achievement cognitions through the elementary school years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41 , 25–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Cain, S.
    (2013) Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking. Broadway Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Calzada, A. , & García Mayo, M. P.
    (2020a) Child EFL learners’ attitudes towards a collaborative writing task: An exploratory study. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2 (1), 52–72. 10.1075/ltyl.19008.cal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.19008.cal [Google Scholar]
  68. (2020b) Child EFL grammar learning through a collaborative writing task. Languaging in Language Learning and Teaching, 19–40. 10.1075/lllt.55.01cal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.55.01cal [Google Scholar]
  69. (2021a) Child learners’ reflections about EFL grammar in a collaborative writing task: When form is not at odds with communication. Language Awareness, 30 (1), 1–16. 10.1080/09658416.2020.1751178
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2020.1751178 [Google Scholar]
  70. (2021b) Effects of proficiency and collaborative work on child EFL individual dictogloss writing. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 3 (2), 246–274. 10.1075/ltyl.20003.cal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.20003.cal [Google Scholar]
  71. Cánovas Guirao, J. , Roca de Larios, J. , & Coyle, Y.
    (2015) The use of models as a written feedback technique with young EFL learners. System, 52 (1), 63–77. 10.1016/j.system.2015.04.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.002 [Google Scholar]
  72. Chandler, J.
    (2003) The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12 , 267–296. 10.1016/S1060‑3743(03)00038‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(03)00038-9 [Google Scholar]
  73. Charness, N. , Tuffiash, M. , Krampe, R. , Reingold, E. , & Vasyukova, E.
    (2005) The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19 , 151–165. 10.1002/acp.1106
    https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1106 [Google Scholar]
  74. Chaudron, C.
    (1988) Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524469
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524469 [Google Scholar]
  75. Chen, H. , & Myhill, D.
    (2016) Children talking about writing: Investigating metalinguistic understanding. Linguistics and Education, 35, 100e108. 10.1016/j.linged.2016.07.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2016.07.004 [Google Scholar]
  76. Chen, S. , Nassaji, H. , & Liu, Q.
    (2016) EFL learners’ perceptions and preferences of written corrective feedback: A case study of university students from Mainland China. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 1 (1), 1–17. 10.1186/s40862‑016‑0010‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-016-0010-y [Google Scholar]
  77. Chen, W.
    (2017) The effect of conversation engagement on L2 learning opportunities. ELT Journal Volume, 71 (3), 329–340. 10.1093/elt/ccw075
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccw075 [Google Scholar]
  78. (2018) Patterns of pair interaction in communicative tasks: The transition process and effect on L2 teaching and learning. ELT Journal, 72 (4), 425–434. 10.1093/elt/ccy015
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccy015 [Google Scholar]
  79. Chen, W. , & Yu, S.
    (2019) A longitudinal case study of changes in students’ attitudes, participation, and learning in collaborative writing. System, 82 , 83–96. 10.1016/j.system.2019.03.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.03.005 [Google Scholar]
  80. Cheung, H.
    (1996) Non-word span as a unique predictor of second language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 32 , 867–873. 10.1037/0012‑1649.32.5.867
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.32.5.867 [Google Scholar]
  81. Chomsky, N.
    (1975) Reflections on language. Pantheon.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Cockcroft, K.
    (2015) The role of working memory in childhood education: Five questions and answers. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 5 (1), 1–20. 10.4102/sajce.v5i1.347
    https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v5i1.347 [Google Scholar]
  83. Cohen, A. D.
    (1982, May1–6). Writing like a native: The process of reformulation. Paper presented at theAnnual Convention of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Honolulu, HI, United States.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. (1989) Reformulation: A technique for providing advanced feedback in writing. Guidelines: A Periodical for Classroom Language Teachers, 11 (2), 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Cook, G.
    (2015) Birds out of dinosaurs: The death and life of applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 36 (4), 425–433. 10.1093/applin/amv038
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv038 [Google Scholar]
  86. Cook, V.
    (1999) Using SLA research in language teaching. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9 (2), 267–284. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.1999.tb00176.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.1999.tb00176.x [Google Scholar]
  87. Copland, F. , Garton, S. , & Burns, A.
    (2014) Challenges in teaching English to young learners: Global perspectives and local realities. TESOL Quarterly, 48 (4), 738–762. 10.1002/tesq.148
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.148 [Google Scholar]
  88. Copley, K.
    (2018) Neoliberalism and ELT coursebook content. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 15 (1), 43–62. 10.1080/15427587.2017.1318664
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2017.1318664 [Google Scholar]
  89. Corder, S. P.
    (1967) The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5 , 161–167. 10.1515/iral.1967.5.1‑4.161
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1967.5.1-4.161 [Google Scholar]
  90. Corder, S. P.
    (1973) Introducing applied linguistics. Penguin
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Coulmas, F.
    (2003) Writing systems: An introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Courtney, L. , Graham, S. , Tonkyn, A. , & Marinis, T.
    (2017) Individual differences in early language learning: A study of English learners of French. Applied Linguistics, 38 (6), 824–847. 10.1093/applin/amv071
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv071 [Google Scholar]
  93. Cowan, N.
    (2010) The magic mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited and why?Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19 , 51–57. 10.1177/0963721409359277
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721409359277 [Google Scholar]
  94. (2014) Working memory underpins cognitive development, learning, and education. Educational Psychology Review, 26 (2), 197–223. 10.1007/s10648‑013‑9246‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-013-9246-y [Google Scholar]
  95. Coyle, Y. , Cánovas Guirao, J. , & Roca de Larios, J.
    (2018) Identifying the trajectories of young EFL learners across multi-stage writing and feedback processing tasks with model texts. Journal of Second Language Writing, 42 , 25–43. 10.1016/j.jslw.2018.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2018.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  96. Coyle, Y. , Férez Mora, P. A. , & Solís Becerra, J.
    (2020) Improving reference cohesion in young EFL learners’ collaboratively written narratives: Is there a role for reformulation?System, 94 , 102333. 10.1016/j.system.2020.102333
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102333 [Google Scholar]
  97. Coyle, Y. , & Roca de Larios, J.
    (2014) Exploring the role played by error correction and models on children’s reported noticing and output production in a L2 writing task. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36 (3), 451–485. 10.1017/S0272263113000612
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000612 [Google Scholar]
  98. (2020) Exploring young learners’ engagement with models as a written corrective technique in EFL and CLIL settings. System, 95 , 1–14. 10.1016/j.system.2020.102374
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102374 [Google Scholar]
  99. Crosthwaite, P.
    (2017) Retesting the limits of data-driven learning: Feedback and error correction. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30 (6), 447–473. 10.1080/09588221.2017.1312462
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1312462 [Google Scholar]
  100. Csizér, K. , & Kormos, J.
    (2009) Learning experiences, selves and motivated learning behavior: A comparative analysis of structural models for Hungarian secondary and university learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda . (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.98–119). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑006
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-006 [Google Scholar]
  101. Cumming, A. H.
    (Ed.) (2006) Goals for academic writing: ESL students and their instructors. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.15
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.15 [Google Scholar]
  102. Damon, W.
    (1983) Social and personality development: Infancy through adolescence. Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Damon, W. , & Phelps, E.
    (1989) Critical distinctions among three approaches to peer education. International Journal of Educational Research, 58 (1), 9–19. 10.1016/0883‑0355(89)90013‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-0355(89)90013-X [Google Scholar]
  104. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (1998) Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams . (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.42–63). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. DeKeyser, R.
    (2007a) Situating the concept of practice. In R. DeKeyser . (Ed.), Practice in a second language (pp.1–18). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002 [Google Scholar]
  106. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (2007b) Skill acquisition theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams . (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp.97–112). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. DeKeyser, R.
    (2010) Monitoring processes in Spanish as a second language during a study abroad program. Foreign Language Annals, 43 (1), 80–92. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01061.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01061.x [Google Scholar]
  108. DeKeyser, R. , & Criado, R.
    (2012) Automatization, skill acquisition, and practice in second language acquisition. In C. A. Chapelle . (Ed.). The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0067
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0067 [Google Scholar]
  109. DeKeyser, R. , & Juffs, A.
    (2005) Cognitive considerations in L2 learning. In E. Hinkel . (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.437–454). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. DeStefano, D. , & LeFevre, J.
    (2004) The role of working memory in mental arithmetic. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16 , 353–386. 10.1080/09541440244000328
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09541440244000328 [Google Scholar]
  111. Dewaele, J. -M. , Petrides, K. V. , & Furnham, A.
    (2008) Effect of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58 (4), 911–960. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00482.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00482.x [Google Scholar]
  112. DiCamilla, F. J. , & Antón, M.
    (2004) Private speech: A study of language for thought in the collaborative interaction of language learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14 (1), 36–69. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2004.00053.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2004.00053.x [Google Scholar]
  113. Dick, W. , Carey, L. , & Carey, J. O.
    (2001) The systematic design of instruction. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Dixon, L. Q. , Zhao, J. , Shin, J. Y. , Wu, S. , Su, J. H. , Burgess-Brigham, R. , Gezer, M. U. , & Snow, C.
    (2012) What we know about second language acquisition: A synthesis from four perspectives. Review of Educational Research, 82 (1), 5–60. 10.3102/0034654311433587
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311433587 [Google Scholar]
  115. Djigunović, J. M.
    (2009) Impact of learning conditions on young FL learners’ motivation. In M. Nikolov . (Ed.), Early learning of modern foreign languages. Processes and outcomes, (pp.75–89). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691477‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691477-008 [Google Scholar]
  116. Donato, R.
    (1988) Beyond group: A psycholinguistic rationale for collective activity in second-language learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Delaware, Newark.
  117. (1994) Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf & G. Appel . (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp.33–56). Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2001) New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21 , 43–59. 10.1017/S0267190501000034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000034 [Google Scholar]
  119. (2002) The motivational basis of language learning tasks. In P. Robinon . (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp.137–158). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.2.10dor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.2.10dor [Google Scholar]
  120. (2003) Attitudes, orientations and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53 (1), 3–32. 10.1111/1467‑9922.53222
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.53222 [Google Scholar]
  121. (2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 10.1017/S0272263107310061
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263107310061 [Google Scholar]
  122. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2009) The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda . (Eds), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.92–142). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-003 [Google Scholar]
  123. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2019) Task motivation. What makes an L2 task engaging?Researching L2 Task Performance and Pedagogy, 13 , 53–66. 10.1075/tblt.13.04dor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.13.04dor [Google Scholar]
  124. (2020) From integrative motivation to directed motivational currents: The evolution of the understanding of L2 motivation over three decades. In M. Lamb , K. Csizér , A. Henry , & S. Ryan . (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan handbook of motivation for language learning (pp.39–69). Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Dörnyei, Z. , Csizér, K. , & Németh, N.
    (2006) Motivation, language attitudes and globalisation: A Hungarian perspective. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853598876
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598876 [Google Scholar]
  126. Dörnyei, Z. , & Kormos, J.
    (2000) The role of individual and social variables in oral task performance. Language Teaching Research, 4 (3), 275–300. 10.1177/136216880000400305
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400305 [Google Scholar]
  127. Dörnyei, Z. , & Ryan, S.
    (2015) The psychology of the language learner revisited. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315779553
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315779553 [Google Scholar]
  128. Dörnyei, Z. & Skehan, P.
    (2003) Individual differences in second language learning. In C. Doughty & M. Long . (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.539–587). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch18
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch18 [Google Scholar]
  129. Dörnyei, Z. , & Ushioda, E.
    (2011) Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Doughty, C. , & Long, M. H.
    (Eds.) (2003) Handbook of second language acquisition. Basil Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492 [Google Scholar]
  131. Doughty, C. , & Varela, E.
    (1998) Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams . (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.114–138). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Doughty, C. , & Williams, J.
    (Eds.) (1998) Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Dweck, C. S.
    (1999) Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. (2002) Messages that motivate: How praise molds students’ beliefs, motivation, and performance (in surprising ways). In J. Aronson . (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp.37–60). Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑012064455‑1/50006‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012064455-1/50006-3 [Google Scholar]
  135. Ede, L. , & Lunsford, A.
    (1990) Singular texts/plural authors. Southern Illinois University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Edelenbos, P. , Johnstone, R. , & Kubanek, A.
    (2006) The main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of languages to very young learners. European Commission, Education and Culture, Culture and Communication Multilingualism Policy.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Edstrom, A.
    (2015) Triads in the L2 classroom: Interaction patterns and engagement during a collaborative task. System, 52 , 26–37. 10.1016/j.system.2015.04.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.014 [Google Scholar]
  138. Eisenberg, N. , Valiente, C. , Fabes, R. A. , Smith, C. L. , Reiser, M. , Shepard, S. A. , Losoya, A. H. , Guthrie, I. K. , Murphy, B. C. , & Cumberland, A. J.
    (2003) The relations of effortful control and ego control to children’s resiliency and social functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39 , 761–776. 10.1037/0012‑1649.39.4.761
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.4.761 [Google Scholar]
  139. Ellis, R.
    (2005) Planning and task performance in a second language. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.11 [Google Scholar]
  140. Ellis, R.
    (2009) A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63 , 97–107. 10.1093/elt/ccn023
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccn023 [Google Scholar]
  141. Ellis, R. , Tanaka, Y. , & Yamazaki, A.
    (1994) Classroom interaction, comprehension, and the acquisition of L2 word meanings. Language learning, 44 (3), 449–491. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1994.tb01114.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01114.x [Google Scholar]
  142. Ellis, S. , & Gauvain, M.
    (1992) Social and cultural influences on children’s collaborative interactions. In L. T. Winegar & J. Valsiner . (Eds.), Children’s development within social context (pp.155–180). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Elwood, J. A. , & Bode, J.
    (2014) Student preferences vis-à-vis teacher feedback in university EFL writing classes in Japan. System, 42 (1), 333–343. 10.1016/j.system.2013.12.023
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.023 [Google Scholar]
  144. Enever, J.
    (2018) Policy and politics in global primary English. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Engel de Abreu, P. M. J. , Gathercole, S. E. , & Martin, R.
    (2011) Disentangling the relationship between working memory and language: The roles of short-term storage and cognitive control. Learning and Individual Differences, 21 (5), 569–574. 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.06.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.06.002 [Google Scholar]
  146. Ericsson, K. A. , Krampe, R. T. , & Tesch-Römer, C.
    (1993) The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100 (3), 363–406. 10.1037/0033‑295X.100.3.363
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363 [Google Scholar]
  147. European Commission
    European Commission (2012) First European survey on languages competences. Final report. Retrieved from ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/languages/policy/strategic-framework/documents/language-survey-final-report_en.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Evans, D. W. , Leckman, J. F. , Carter, A. , Reznick, S. , Henshaw, D. , King, R. A. , & Pauls, D.
    (1997) Ritual, habit, and perfectionism: The prevalence and development of compulsive-like behavior in normal young children. Child Development, 68 , 58–68. 10.2307/1131925
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1131925 [Google Scholar]
  149. Fazio, L. L.
    (2001) The effect of corrections and commentaries on the journal writing accuracy of minority- and majority-language students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10 (4), 235–249. 10.1016/S1060‑3743(01)00042‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00042-X [Google Scholar]
  150. Ferkany, M.
    (2008) The educational importance of self-esteem. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 42 (1), 119–132. 10.1111/j.1467‑9752.2008.00610.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2008.00610.x [Google Scholar]
  151. Fernández Dobao, A.
    (2012) Collaborative writing tasks in the L2 classroom: Comparing group, pair, and individual work. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (1), 40–58. 10.1016/j.jslw.2011.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2011.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  152. Ferris, D. R.
    (2003) Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 10.4324/9781410607201
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410607201 [Google Scholar]
  153. (2004) The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13 (1), 49–62. 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Google Scholar]
  154. Ferris, D.
    (2006) Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long term effects of written error correction. In Hyland, K. , & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp.81–104). 1st edition. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524742.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524742.007 [Google Scholar]
  155. Ferris, D. R.
    (2010) Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA: Intersections and practical applications. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32 (2), 181–201. 10.1017/S0272263109990490
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109990490 [Google Scholar]
  156. Ferris, D. R. , & Roberts, B.
    (2001) Error feedback in L2 writing classes: how explicit does it need to be?Journal of Second Language Writing, 10 , 161–184. 10.1016/S1060‑3743(01)00039‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00039-X [Google Scholar]
  157. Finders, J. K. , McClelland, M. M. , Geldhof, G. J. , Rothwell, D. W. , & Hatfield, B. E.
    (2021) Explaining achievement gaps in kindergarten and third grade: The role of self-regulation and executive function skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 54 , 72–85. 10.1016/j.ecresq.2020.07.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2020.07.008 [Google Scholar]
  158. Flowerdew, J.
    (2002) Genre in the classroom: A linguistic approach. In A. M. Johns . (Ed.), Genre in the classroom: Multiple perspectives (pp.91–102). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Francis, D. J. , Shaywitz, S. E. , Stuebing, K. K. , Shaywitz, B. A. , & Fletcher, J. M.
    (1996) Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 3–17. 10.1037/0022‑0663.88.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.88.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  160. Fukuta, J.
    (2016) Effects of task repetition on learners’ attention orientation in L2 oral production. Language Teaching Research, 20 (3), 321–340. 10.1177/1362168815570142
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815570142 [Google Scholar]
  161. García Hernández, F. J. , Roca de Larios, J. , & Coyle, Y.
    (2017) Reformulation as a problem-solving space for young EFL writers: A longitudinal study of language learning strategies. In M. P. García Mayo . (Ed.), Learning foreign languages in primary school: Research insights (pp.193–222). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783098118‑012
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783098118-012 [Google Scholar]
  162. García Mayo, M. P.
    (Ed.) (2017) Learning foreign languages in primary school: Research insights. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. García-Mayo, M. P.
    (2018) Child task-supported interaction in the Spanish EFL setting. Research and challenges. International Journal of English Studies, 18 (2), 119–143. 10.6018/ijes/2018/2/319731
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2018/2/319731 [Google Scholar]
  164. García Mayo, M. P. , & Alcón Soler, E.
    (2013) Negotiated input and output. Interaction. In J. Herschensohn & M. Young-Scholten . (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.209–229). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  165. García Mayo, M. P. , & García Lecumberri, M. L.
    (2003) Age and the acquisition of English as a foreign language. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853596407
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596407 [Google Scholar]
  166. García Mayo, M. P. , & Imaz Agirre, A.
    (2016) Task repetition and its impact on EFL children’s negotiation of meaning strategies and pair dynamics: An exploratory study. The Language Learning Journal, 44 (4), 451–466. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1185799
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1185799 [Google Scholar]
  167. (2019) Task modality and pair formation method: Their impact on patterns of interaction and LREs among EFL primary school children. System, 80 , 165–175. 10.1016/j.system.2018.11.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.11.011 [Google Scholar]
  168. García Mayo, M. P. , Imaz Agirre, A. I. , & Azkarai, A.
    (2018) Task repetition effects on CAF in EFL child task-based oral interaction. In M. J. Ahmadian & M. P. García Mayo . (Eds.), Recent perspectives on task-based language learning and teaching (pp.9–27). De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. García Mayo, P. , Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Liceras, J.
    (2005) Placeholders in the English interlanguage of bilingual (Basque/Spanish) children. Language Learning, 55 (3), 445–489. 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00312.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00312.x [Google Scholar]
  170. García Mayo, M. P. , & Loidi Labandibar, U.
    (2017) The use of models as written corrective feedback in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37 , 110–127. 10.1017/S0267190517000071
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190517000071 [Google Scholar]
  171. Gardner, R. C.
    (1985), Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Gardner, R. C. , & Lambert, W. E.
    (1959) Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Journal of Psychology, 13 (4), 266–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Gass, S. M.
    (1988) Second language vocabulary acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 9 , 92–106. 10.1017/S0267190500000829
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500000829 [Google Scholar]
  174. (1990) Second and foreign language learning: Same, different or none of the above?In B. VanPatten & J. Lee . (Eds.), Second language acquisition (pp.34–44). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Gass, S. M. , & Mackey, A.
    (2007) Input, interaction, and output in second language acquisition. In B. VanPatten , & J. Williams . (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp.175–200). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Gass, S. , Mackey, A. , Alvarez-Torres, M. J. , & Fernández-García, M.
    (1999) The effects of task repetition on linguistic output. Language Learning, 49 (4), 549–581. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00102
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00102 [Google Scholar]
  177. Gathercole, S. E. , & Alloway, T. P.
    (2008) Working memory and learning: A practical guide for teachers. Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Gathercole, S. E. , Pickering, S. J. , Ambridge, B. , & Wearing, H.
    (2004) The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Developmental Psychology, 40 , 177–190. 10.1037/0012‑1649.40.2.177
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.177 [Google Scholar]
  179. Gerber, A. S. , & Malhotra, N.
    (2008) Publication bias in empirical sociological research: Do arbitrary significance levels distort published results?Sociological Methods & Research, 37 (1), 3–30. 10.1177/0049124108318973
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124108318973 [Google Scholar]
  180. Gilabert, R. , Manchón, R. , & Vasylets, O.
    (2016) Mode in theoretical and empirical TBLT research: Advancing research agendas. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36 , 117–135. 10.1017/S0267190515000112
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190515000112 [Google Scholar]
  181. Gobet, F. , & Campitelli, G.
    (2007) The role of domain-specific practice, handedness, and starting age in chess. Developmental Psychology, 43 (1), 159–172. 10.1037/0012‑1649.43.1.159
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.159 [Google Scholar]
  182. Gokhale, A. A.
    (1995) Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7 (1). 10.21061/jte.v7i1.a.2
    https://doi.org/10.21061/jte.v7i1.a.2 [Google Scholar]
  183. Gorman, M. , & Ellis, R.
    (2019) The relative effects of metalinguistic explanation and direct written corrective feedback on children’s grammatical accuracy in new writing. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 1 (1), 57–81. 10.1075/ltyl.00005.gor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.00005.gor [Google Scholar]
  184. Gottfried, A. E. , Fleming, J. S. , & Gottfried, A. W.
    (2001) Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (1), 3–13. 10.1037/0022‑0663.93.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  185. Graham, S.
    (2020) The sciences of reading and writing must become more fully integrated. Reading Research Quarterly, 55 , 35–44. 10.1002/rrq.332
    https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.332 [Google Scholar]
  186. Graham, S. , Harris, K. R. , & Mason, L.
    (2005) Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy of struggling young writers: The effects of self-regulated strategy development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30 (2), 207–241. 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  187. Graham, S. , & Hebert, M.
    (2011) Writing to read: A meta-analysis of the impact of writing and writing instruction on reading. Harvard Educational Review, 81 , 710–744. 10.17763/haer.81.4.t2k0m13756113566
    https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.81.4.t2k0m13756113566 [Google Scholar]
  188. Graham, S. , Kiuhara, S. A. , & MacKay, M.
    (2020) The effects of writing on learning in science, social studies, and mathematics: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 90 (2), 179–226. 10.3102/0034654320914744
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654320914744 [Google Scholar]
  189. Green, J. , Martin, A. J. , & Marsh, H. W.
    (2007) Motivation and engagement in English, mathematics and science high school subjects: Towards an understanding of multidimensional domain specificity. Learning and Individual Differences, 17 , 269–279. 10.1016/j.lindif.2006.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2006.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  190. Guénette, D.
    (2007) Is feedback pedagogically correct? Research design issues in studies of feedback on writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16 (1), 40–53. 10.1016/j.jslw.2007.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2007.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  191. Guiora, A. Z.
    (2005) The language sciences: The challenges ahead. A farewell address. Language Learning, 55 , 183–189. 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00302.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00302.x [Google Scholar]
  192. Hakkarainen, K. , Lipponen, L. , Jarvela, S. , & Niemivirta, M.
    (1999) The interaction of motivational orientation and knowledge-seeking inquiry in computer-supported collaborative learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 21 , 263–81. 10.2190/C525‑TDYQ‑WWKY‑87CB
    https://doi.org/10.2190/C525-TDYQ-WWKY-87CB [Google Scholar]
  193. Hamburg, D. A.
    (1968) Evolution of emotional responses: Evidence from recent research on non-human primates. Science and Psychoanalysis, 12 , 39–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Hamidun, N. , Hizwari, S. , Hashim, M. , & Othman, N.
    (2012) Enhancing students’ motivation by providing feedback on writing: The case of international students from Thailand. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 2 (6), 591–594. 10.7763/IJSSH.2012.V2.179
    https://doi.org/10.7763/IJSSH.2012.V2.179 [Google Scholar]
  195. Han, J. , & Jung, J. K.
    (2007) Patterns and preferences of corrective feedback and learner repair. Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics, 23 (1), 243–260.
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Han, Z. -H.
    (2000, October). Rethinking the role of corrective feedback in Communicative Language Teaching. Paper presented at the27th New York State TESOL Convention, Rochester, NY, United States.
    [Google Scholar]
  197. (2001) Fine-tuning corrective feedback. Foreign Language Annals, 34 , 582–599. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2001.tb02105.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2001.tb02105.x [Google Scholar]
  198. (2002) A study of the impact of recasts on tense consistency in L2 output. TESOL Quarterly, 36 (4), 543–572. 10.2307/3588240
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588240 [Google Scholar]
  199. Hanaoka, O.
    (2006a) Exploring the role of models in promoting noticing in L2 writing. Jacket Bulletin, 42 , 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  200. (2006b) Noticing from models and reformulations: A case study of two Japanese EFL learners. Sophia Linguistica, 54 , 167–192.
    [Google Scholar]
  201. (2007) Output, noticing, and learning: An investigation into the role of spontaneous attention to form in a four-stage writing task. Language Teaching Research, 11 (4), 459–479. 10.1177/1362168807080963
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168807080963 [Google Scholar]
  202. Hanaoka, O. , & Izumi, S.
    (2012) Noticing and uptake: Addressing pre-articulated covert problems in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 332–347. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.008 [Google Scholar]
  203. Harter, S.
    (2003) The development of self-representations during childhood and adolescence. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney . (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp.610–642). Guilford.
    [Google Scholar]
  204. (2006) The self. In N. Eisenberg . (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed., Vol.3, pp.505–570). John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Hartup, W. W.
    (1982) Peer relations. In C. B. Kopp & J. B. Krakow . (Eds.), The child: Development in a social context (pp.514–575). Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Hashemian, M. , & Heidari, A.
    (2013) The relationship between L2 learners’ motivation/attitude and success in L2 writing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70 , 476–489. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.085
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.085 [Google Scholar]
  207. Hattie, J.
    (2012) Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203181522
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203181522 [Google Scholar]
  208. Hattie, J. , & Timperley, H.
    (2007) The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77 (1), 81–112. 10.3102/003465430298487
    https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 [Google Scholar]
  209. Hawkes, M.
    (2012) Using task repetition to direct learner attention and focus on form. ELT Journal, 66 (3), 327–336. 10.1093/elt/ccr059
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr059 [Google Scholar]
  210. Hedgcock, J. , & Lefkowitz, N.
    (1994) Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity to teacher response in L2 composing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3 (2), 141–163. 10.1016/1060‑3743(94)90012‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/1060-3743(94)90012-4 [Google Scholar]
  211. Henry, A.
    (2009) Gender differences in compulsory school pupils’ L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study. System, 37 , 177–193. 10.1016/j.system.2008.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2008.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  212. Hidalgo, M. Á. , & Garcia Mayo, M. P.
    (2021) The influence of task repetition type on young EFL learners’ attention to form. Language Teaching Research, 25 (4), 565–586. 10.1177/1362168819865559
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168819865559 [Google Scholar]
  213. Hidalgo, M. Á. , & Lázaro-Ibarrola, A.
    (2020) Task repetition and collaborative writing by EFL children: Beyond CAF measures. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10 (3), 501–522. 10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.5
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.5 [Google Scholar]
  214. Hinde, R. A.
    (1974) Biological bases of human social behaviour. McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Hirvela, A. , & Belcher, D.
    (2016) Reading/writing and speaking/writing connections: The advantages of multimodal pedagogy. In R. M. Manchón & P. K. Matsuda . (Eds.), Handbook of second and foreign language writing (pp.587–612). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511335‑030
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511335-030 [Google Scholar]
  216. Hornstra, L. , van der Veen, I. , Peetsma, T. , & Volman, M.
    (2013) Developments in motivation and achievement during primary school: A longitudinal study on group-specific differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 23 , 195–204. 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  217. Housen, A. , & Kuiken, F.
    (2009) Complexity, accuracy and fluency in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 30 , 461–473. 10.1093/applin/amp048
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp048 [Google Scholar]
  218. Humphrey, N.
    (2004) The death of the feel-good factor? Self-esteem in the educational context. School Psychology International, 25 (3), 347–360. 10.1177/0143034304046906
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034304046906 [Google Scholar]
  219. Hyde, M.
    (1993) Pair work – A blessing or a curse? An analysis of pair work from pedagogical, cultural, social and psychological perspectives. System, 21 (3), 343–348. 10.1016/0346‑251X(93)90024‑B
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(93)90024-B [Google Scholar]
  220. Hyland, F.
    (1998) The impact of teacher written feedback on individual writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7 (3), 255–286. 10.1016/S1060‑3743(98)90017‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(98)90017-0 [Google Scholar]
  221. Hyland, K.
    (2003) Second language writing. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667251
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667251 [Google Scholar]
  222. Hyland, K. , & Hyland, F.
    (Eds.) (2006) Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524742
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524742 [Google Scholar]
  223. Imaz-Agirre, A. , & García-Mayo
    (2020) The impact of agency in pair formation on the degree of participation in young learners’ collaborative dialogue. In C. Lambert & R. Oliver . (Eds.), Using tasks in second language teaching (pp.306–323). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Ives, D.
    (2004) Three NS-NNS upper primary school pairs. A case study. Australian Language and Literacy Matters, 1 , 11–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Jacobs, J. E. , Lanza, S. , Osgood, D. W. , Eccles, J. S. , & Wigfield, A.
    (2002) Changes in children’s self-competence and values: Gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve. Child Development, 73 , 509–527. 10.1111/1467‑8624.00421
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00421 [Google Scholar]
  226. Jang, H. , & Cheung, Y. L.
    (2020) Impacts of dyadic interaction on second language writing: A study with eight bilingual primary school students in Singapore. Education 3–13, 48 (5), 527–540. 10.1080/03004279.2019.1624804
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2019.1624804 [Google Scholar]
  227. Johnson, D. R. , Alvarez, P. , Longerbeam, S. , Soldner, M. , Inkelas, K. K. , Leonard, J. B. , & Rowan-Kenyon, H.
    (2007) Examining sense of belonging among first-year undergraduates from different racial/ethnic groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48 (5), 525–542. 10.1353/csd.2007.0054
    https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2007.0054 [Google Scholar]
  228. Johnson, D. W. , & Johnson, R. T.
    (1999) Making cooperative learning work. Theory into Practice, 38 , 67–73. 10.1080/00405849909543834
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849909543834 [Google Scholar]
  229. Johnson, K.
    (2008) An introduction to foreign language learning and teaching. Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Johnson, R. T. , & Johnson, D. W.
    (1986) Action research: Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Journal of Science and Children, 24 (2), 31–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Jordan, G. , & Gray, H.
    (2019) We need to talk about coursebooks. ELT Journal, 73 (4), 438–446. 10.1093/elt/ccz038
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccz038 [Google Scholar]
  232. Julkunen, K.
    (2001) Situation- and task-specific motivation in foreign language learning. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt . (Eds.), Motivation and second language learning (pp.29–42). University of Hawai‘i.
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Kalis, T. M. , Vannest, K. J. , & Parker, R.
    (2007) Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure, 51 (3), 20–27. 10.3200/PSFL.51.3.20‑27
    https://doi.org/10.3200/PSFL.51.3.20-27 [Google Scholar]
  234. Kang, E. Y.
    (2020) Using model texts as a form of feedback in L2 writing. System, 89 , 102196. 10.1016/j.system.2019.102196
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.102196 [Google Scholar]
  235. Kang, E. , & Han, Z.
    (2015) The efficacy of written corrective feedback in improving L2 written accuracy: A meta-analysis. Modern Language Journal, 99 (1), 1–18. 10.1111/modl.12189
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12189 [Google Scholar]
  236. Kear, D. J. , Coffman, G. A. , McKenna, M. C. , & Ambrosio, A. L.
    (2000) Measuring attitude toward writing: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 34 , 10–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Keith, N. , & Ericsson, K. A.
    (2007) A deliberate practice account of typing proficiency in everyday typists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13 (3), 135–145. 10.1037/1076‑898X.13.3.135
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.13.3.135 [Google Scholar]
  238. Kellogg, R. T. , & Whiteford, A. P.
    (2009) Training advanced writing skills: The case for deliberate practice. Educational Psychologist, 44 (4), 250–266. 10.1080/00461520903213600
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903213600 [Google Scholar]
  239. Kim, H. R. , & Bowles, M.
    (2019) How deeply do second language learners process written corrective feedback? Insights gained from think-alouds. TESOL Quarterly, 53 (4), 913–938. 10.1002/tesq.522
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.522 [Google Scholar]
  240. Kim, J. H.
    (2015) The role of models and error correction in L2 young learners’ noticing and output. English Teaching, 70 (2), 3–26. 10.15858/engtea.70.2.201506.3
    https://doi.org/10.15858/engtea.70.2.201506.3 [Google Scholar]
  241. Kim, Y.
    (2013) Promoting attention to form through task repetition in a Korean EFL context. In K. McDonough & A. Mackey . (Eds.), Second language interaction in diverse educational settings (pp.3–24). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.34.04ch1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.34.04ch1 [Google Scholar]
  242. Kim, Y. , Choi, B. , Yun, H. , Kim, B. , & Choi, S.
    (2020) Task repetition, synchronous written corrective feedback and the learning of Korean grammar: A classroom-based study. Language Teaching Research, 1–27. 10.1177/1362168820912354
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820912354 [Google Scholar]
  243. Kim, Y. , Kang, S. , Yun, H. , Kim, B. , & Choi, B.
    (2020) The role of task repetition in a Korean as a foreign language classroom: Writing quality, attention to form, and learning of Korean grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 53 (4), 827–849. 10.1111/flan.12501
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12501 [Google Scholar]
  244. Kim, Y. , & McDonough, K.
    (2011) Using pretask modelling to encourage collaborative learning opportunities. Language Teaching Research, 15 (2), 183–199. 10.1177/1362168810388711
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810388711 [Google Scholar]
  245. Kim, Y. , & Payant, C.
    (2014) A pedagogical proposal for task sequencing: An exploration of task repetition and task complexity on learning opportunities. In M. Baralt , R. Gilabert , & P. Robinson . (Eds.), Task sequencing and instructed second language learning (pp.151–177). Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Kim, Y. , & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2013) The role of task repetition in L2 performance development: What needs to be repeated during task-based interaction?System, 41, 829–840. 10.1016/j.system.2013.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  247. King, K. M. , Lengua, L. J. , & Monahan, K. C.
    (2013) Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: Connections to context and adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41 (1), 57–69. 10.1007/s10802‑012‑9665‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9665-0 [Google Scholar]
  248. Kiss, C. , & Nikolov, M.
    (2005) Developing, piloting, and validating an instrument to measure young learners’ aptitude. Language Learning, 55 (1), 99–150. 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00291.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00291.x [Google Scholar]
  249. Klein, P. , Boscolo, P. , Kirkpatrick, L. , & Gelati, C.
    (Eds.) (2014) Writing as a learning activity. Brill. 10.1163/9789004265011
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004265011 [Google Scholar]
  250. Klein, P. D. , & Boscolo, P.
    (2016) Trends in research on writing as a learning activity. Journal of Writing Research, 7 (3), 311–350. 10.17239/jowr‑2016.07.03.01
    https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2016.07.03.01 [Google Scholar]
  251. Kluger, A. N. , & DeNisi, A.
    (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119 (2), 254–284. 10.1037/0033‑2909.119.2.254
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254 [Google Scholar]
  252. Kopinska, M. , & Azkarai, A.
    (2020) Exploring young EFL learners’ motivation: Individual versus pair work on dictogloss tasks. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10 (3), 607–630. 10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.10
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.3.10 [Google Scholar]
  253. Kormos, J.
    (2012) The role of individual differences in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 390–403. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  254. Kormos, J. , & Dörnyei, Z.
    (2004) The interaction of linguistic and motivational variables in second language task performance. Zeitschrift für interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 9 (2), 19. Retrieved on4 August 2022fromciteseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Kotovsky, K. , Hayes, J. R. , & Simon, H. A.
    (1985) Why are some problems hard? Evidence from Tower of Hanoi. Cognitive Psychology, 17 (2), 248–294. 10.1016/0010‑0285(85)90009‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(85)90009-X [Google Scholar]
  256. Krashen, S.
    (1982) Principles and practices of second language acquisition. Pergamon.
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Krashen, S.
    (1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Krashen, S.
    (1991) The input hypothesis: An update. In J. Alatis . (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics. Linguistics and language pedagogy: The state of the art (pp.409–431). Georgetown University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Krueger, R. F. , Hicks, B. M. , Patrick, C. J. , Carlson, S. R. , Iacono, W. G. , & McGue, M.
    (2002) Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111 , 411–424. 10.1037/0021‑843X.111.3.411
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.111.3.411 [Google Scholar]
  260. Laal, M. , & Laal, M.
    (2012) Collaborative learning: what is it?Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31 , 491–495. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.092
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.092 [Google Scholar]
  261. Lalande, J. F.
    (1982) Reducing composition errors: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal, 66, 140–149. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1982.tb06973.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1982.tb06973.x [Google Scholar]
  262. Lamb, M.
    (2016) Motivation. In G. Hall . (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of English language teaching (pp.324–338). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676203‑28
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676203-28 [Google Scholar]
  263. Lanauze, M. , & Snow, C.
    (1989) The relation between first- and second-language writing skills: Evidence from Puerto Rican elementary school children in bilingual programs. Linguistics and Education, 1 (4), 323–339. 10.1016/S0898‑5898(89)80005‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0898-5898(89)80005-1 [Google Scholar]
  264. Lannie, A. L. , & McCurdy, B. L.
    (2007) Preventing disruptive behavior in the urban classroom: Effects of the good behavior game on student and teacher behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 30 (1), 85–98. Retrieved on4 August 2022from10.1353/etc.2007.0002
    https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2007.0002 [Google Scholar]
  265. Lapkin, S. , Swain, M. , & Smith, M.
    (2002) Reformulation and the learning of French pronominal verbs in a Canadian French immersion context. The Modern Language Journal, 86 (4), 485–507. 10.1111/1540‑4781.00157
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00157 [Google Scholar]
  266. Larson, R. W.
    (2000) Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 170–183. 10.1037/0003‑066X.55.1.170
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.170 [Google Scholar]
  267. Lasagabaster, D. , & Doiz, A.
    (2003) Maturational constraints on foreign-language written production. In M. P. García Mayo & M. L. García Lecumberri . (Eds.), Age and the acquisition of English as a foreign language: Theoretical issues and fieldwork (pp.136–160). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853596407‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596407-008 [Google Scholar]
  268. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A.
    (2011) Faster and further morphosyntactic development of CLIL vs EFL Basque-Spanish bilinguals learning English in high school. International Journal of English Studies, 12 (1), 79–96. 10.6018/ijes.12.1.125621
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes.12.1.125621 [Google Scholar]
  269. (2013) Reformulation and self-correction: Insights into correction strategies for EFL writing in a school context. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10 (1), 29–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  270. (2021) Model texts in collaborative and individual writing among EFL children: noticing, incorporations, and draft quality. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. 10.1515/iral‑2020‑0160
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2020-0160 [Google Scholar]
  271. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Azplicueta-Martínez, R.
    (2019a) Spotting the differences between child–child and child–adult interactions: Evidence from Spanish EFL learners at low levels of proficiency. In J. Rokita-Jaśkow & M. Ellis . (Eds.), Early instructed second language acquisition: Pathways to competence (pp.80–105). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  272. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Azpilicueta-Martínez, R.
    (2019b) Negotiation of meaning in child-child vs. adult-adult interactions: Evidence from low proficiency EFL learners. IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 60(2), 463–489. 10.1515/iral‑2019‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2019-0013 [Google Scholar]
  273. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Azpilicueta-Martínez, R.
    (2021) Motivation towards the foreign language (English) and regional language (Basque) in immersion schools: Does CLIL in the foreign language make a difference? Advance online publication. Language Teaching Research. 10.1177/13621688211031737
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211031737 [Google Scholar]
  274. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Hidalgo, M. Á.
    (2017) Procedural repetition in task-based interaction among young EFL learners: Does it make a difference?International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168 (2), 183–202. 10.1075/itl.16024.laz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.16024.laz [Google Scholar]
  275. (2021) Give me a second chance: Task repetition and collaborative writing with child EFL learners. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 3 (2), 275–299. 10.1075/ltyl.20009.laz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.20009.laz [Google Scholar]
  276. Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Villarreal, I.
    (2019) Questioning the effectiveness of procedural repetition: the case of Spanish EFL primary school learners. Porta Linguarum, 31 , 7–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  277. (2021) Are EFL writers motivated or demotivated by model texts and task repetition? Evidence from young collaborative writers. International Journal of English Studies, 21 (2), 29–55. 10.6018/ijes.466401
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes.466401 [Google Scholar]
  278. Lee, E.
    (2013) Corrective feedback preferences and learner repair among advanced ESL students. System, 41 , 217–230. 10.1016/j.system.2013.01.022
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.01.022 [Google Scholar]
  279. Lee, I.
    (2008) Student reactions to teacher feedback in two Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17 (3), 144–164. 10.1016/j.jslw.2007.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2007.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  280. Lee, I. , Yu, S. , & Liu, Y.
    (2018) Hong Kong secondary students’ motivation in EFL writing: A survey study. TESOL Quarterly, 52 (1), 176–187. 10.1002/tesq.364
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.364 [Google Scholar]
  281. Leeser, M. J.
    (2007) Learner-based factors in L2 reading comprehension and processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language Learning, 57 , 229–270. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2007.00408.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00408.x [Google Scholar]
  282. Leki, I.
    (1991) The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals, 24 (3), 203–218. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1991.tb00464.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1991.tb00464.x [Google Scholar]
  283. Leow, R. P.
    (Ed.) (2019a) The Routledge handbook of second language research in classroom learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315165080
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315165080 [Google Scholar]
  284. (2019b) From SLA > ISLA > ILL: A curricular perspective. In R. P. Leow . (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of second language research in classroom learning (pp.485–493). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315165080‑33
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315165080-33 [Google Scholar]
  285. Leow, R.
    (2019c) ISLA: How explicit or how implicit should it be? Theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical/curricular issues. Language Teaching Research, 23 , 476–493. 10.1177/1362168818776674
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818776674 [Google Scholar]
  286. Leow, R. P.
    (2015) Explicit learning in the L2 classroom: A student-centered approach. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315887074
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315887074 [Google Scholar]
  287. (2020) L2 writing-to-learn: Theory, research, and a curricular approach. In Manchón, R. (Ed.), Writing and language learning: Advancing research agendas (pp.95–118). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.56.05leo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.56.05leo [Google Scholar]
  288. Leow, R. P. , & Cerezo, L.
    (2016) Deconstructing the “I” and “SLA” in ISLA: One curricular approach. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6 , 43–63. 10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  289. Leow, R. P. , & Suh, B. R.
    (2021) Theoretical perspectives on L2 writing, written corrective feedback, and language learning in individual writing conditions. In R. M. Manchón & C. Polio . (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and writing (pp.9–21). Routledge. 10.4324/9780429199691‑3
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429199691-3 [Google Scholar]
  290. Levelt, W. J. M.
    (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Li, M. , & Kim, D.
    (2016) One wiki, two groups: Dynamic interactions across ESL collaborative writing tasks. Journal of Second Language Writing, 31 , 25–42. 10.1016/j.jslw.2016.01.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.01.002 [Google Scholar]
  292. Lightbown, P. M. , & Spada, N.
    (2020) Teaching and learning L2 in the classroom: It’s about time. Language Teaching, 53 (4), 422–432. 10.1017/S0261444819000454
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444819000454 [Google Scholar]
  293. Loewen, S. , & Sato, M.
    (2018) Interaction and instructed second language acquisition. Language teaching, 51 (3), 285–329. 10.1017/S0261444818000125
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000125 [Google Scholar]
  294. Long, M. H.
    (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie , & T. Bathia . (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  295. Long, M.
    (2015) Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Long, M. , Inagaki, S. , & Ortega, L.
    (1998) The role of implicit negative evidence in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 82 , 357–371. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01213.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01213.x [Google Scholar]
  297. Luckasson, R.
    (2006) The human rights basis for personal empowerment in education. In E. B. Keefe , V. M. Moore , & F. R. Duff . (Eds.), Listening to the experts (pp.11–20). Paul H. Brookes.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Luquin, M. , & García Mayo, M. P.
    (2020) Collaborative writing and feedback: An exploratory study of the potential of models in primary EFL students’ writing performance. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2 (1), 73–100. 10.1075/ltyl.19007.luq
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.19007.luq [Google Scholar]
  299. (2021) Exploring the use of models as a written corrective feedback technique among EFL children. System, 98 , 102465. 10.1016/j.system.2021.102465
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102465 [Google Scholar]
  300. Lynch, T. , & Maclean, J.
    (2000) Exploring the benefits of task repetition and recycling for classroom language learning. Language Teaching Research, 4 , 221–250. 10.1177/136216880000400303
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400303 [Google Scholar]
  301. (2001) Effects of immediate task repetition on learners’ performance. In M. Bygate , P. Skehan , & M. Swain . (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks, second language learning, teaching and testing (pp.99–118). Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Lyster, R.
    (1998a) Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48 , 183–218. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00039
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00039 [Google Scholar]
  303. (1998b) Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20 , 51–81. 10.1017/S027226319800103X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226319800103X [Google Scholar]
  304. (2001) Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 51 , 265–301. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.2001.tb00019.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.2001.tb00019.x [Google Scholar]
  305. Lyster, R. , & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19 , 37–66. 10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  306. Lyster, R. , & Saito, K.
    (2010) Oral feedback in classroom SLA: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32 , 265–302. 10.1017/S0272263109990520
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109990520 [Google Scholar]
  307. Lyster, R. , Saito, K. , & Sato, M.
    (2013) Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46 , 1–40. 10.1017/S0261444812000365
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444812000365 [Google Scholar]
  308. MacIntyre, P. D. , & Serroul, A.
    (2014) Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach-avoidance motivation during L2 task performance. In Z. Dörnyei , P. MacIntyre , & A. Henry . (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp.109–138). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783092574‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092574-013 [Google Scholar]
  309. Mackey, A.
    (2007) Interaction as practice. In R. DeKeyser . (Ed.), Practice in a second language (pp.85–110). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.006 [Google Scholar]
  310. (2012) Input, interaction and corrective feedback in L2 classrooms. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  311. Mackey, A. , Gass, S. , & McDonough, K.
    (2000) How do learners perceive interactional feedback?Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22 , 471–497. 10.1017/S0272263100004010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100004010 [Google Scholar]
  312. Mackey, A. , & Goo, J.
    (2007) Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. In A. Mackey . (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies (pp.407–451). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Mackey, A. , Kanganas, A. P. , & Oliver, R.
    (2007) Task familiarity and interactional feedback in child ESL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 41 (2), 285–312. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2007.tb00060.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2007.tb00060.x [Google Scholar]
  314. Mackey, A. , & Philp, J.
    (1998) Conversational interaction and second language development: Recasts, responses, and red herrings?Modern Language Journal, 82 , 338–356. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01211.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01211.x [Google Scholar]
  315. Mackey, A. , Philp, J. , Egi, T. , Fujii, A. , & Tatsumi, T.
    (2002) Individual differences in working memory, noticing of interactional feedback and L2 development. In P. Robinson . (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp.181–209. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.2.12mac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.2.12mac [Google Scholar]
  316. Mahn, H.
    (2013) Vygotsky and second language acquisition. In C. A. Chapelle . (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.1–7). Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  317. Manchón, R.
    (Ed.) (2011) Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.31
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.31 [Google Scholar]
  318. Manchón, R. M.
    (2014a) The distinctive nature of task repetition in writing. Implications for theory, research, and pedagogy. Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada, 14 , 13–41. 10.12795/elia.2014.i14.02
    https://doi.org/10.12795/elia.2014.i14.02 [Google Scholar]
  319. (2014b) The internal dimension of tasks: The interaction between task factors and learner factors in bringing about learning through writing. In H. Byrnes & R. M. Manchón . (Eds.), Task-based language learning: Insights from and for L2 writing (pp.27–52). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.7.02man
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.7.02man [Google Scholar]
  320. (Ed.) (2020) Writing and language learning: Advancing research agendas. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.56
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.56 [Google Scholar]
  321. Manchón, R. M. , & Leow, R. P.
    (2020) An ISLA perspective on L2 learning through writing. In R. M. Manchón . (Ed.), Writing and Language Learning: Advancing research agendas (pp.335–356). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.56.14man
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.56.14man [Google Scholar]
  322. Manchón, R. M. , & Roca de Larios, J.
    (2011) Writing-to-learn in FL contexts. In R. M. Manchón . (Ed.), Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language (181–208). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.31.13man
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.31.13man [Google Scholar]
  323. Manchón, R. M. & Roca de Larios, J.
    Eds. (Forthcoming). Research methods in the study of writing processes. John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  324. Manchón, R. M. , & Vasylets, O.
    (2019) Language learning through writing: Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. In J. W. Schwieter & A. Benati . (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of language learning (pp.341–362). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108333603.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.015 [Google Scholar]
  325. Manchón, R. M. , & Williams, J.
    (2016) L2 writing and SLA studies. In R. M. Manchón & P. K. Matsuda . (Eds.), The handbook of second and foreign language writing (pp.567–586). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511335‑029
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511335-029 [Google Scholar]
  326. Mann, M. , Hosman, C. , Schaalma, H. , & De Vries, N.
    (2004) Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19, 357–372. 10.1093/her/cyg041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyg041 [Google Scholar]
  327. Marsden, E.
    (2006) Exploring input processing in the classroom: An experimental comparison of processing instruction and enriched input. Language Learning, 56 (3), 507–566. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00375.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00375.x [Google Scholar]
  328. Marsden, E. , & Torgerson, C.
    (2012) Single group, pre- and post-test research designs: Some methodological concerns. Oxford Review of Education, 38 (5), 583–616. 10.1080/03054985.2012.731208
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.731208 [Google Scholar]
  329. Martin, A. J.
    (2007) Examining a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using a construct validation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77 , 413–440. 10.1348/000709906X118036
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000709906X118036 [Google Scholar]
  330. (2008a) Enhancing student motivation and engagement: The effects of a multidimensional intervention. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33 , 239–269. 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  331. (2008b) Motivation and engagement in music and sport: Testing a multidimensional framework in diverse performance settings. Journal of Personality, 76 , 135–170. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2007.00482.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00482.x [Google Scholar]
  332. Martin, A. J. , & Dowson, M.
    (2009) Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79 (1), 327–365. 10.3102/0034654308325583
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308325583 [Google Scholar]
  333. Martínez-Adrián, M. , Gutiérrez-Mangado, M. J. , Gallardo-del-Puerto, F. , & Basterrechea, M.
    (2021) Language-related episodes by young CLIL learners: A review of task modality effects. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 3 (2), 214–245. 10.1075/ltyl.20005.mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.20005.mar [Google Scholar]
  334. Martínez Esteban, N. , & Roca de Larios, J.
    (2010) The use of models as a form of written feedback to secondary school pupils of English. International Journal of English Studies, 10 , 143–170. 10.6018/ijes/2010/2/119241
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2010/2/119241 [Google Scholar]
  335. Masgoret, A. M. , & Gardner, R. C.
    (2003) Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53 (1), 167–210. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00227
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00227 [Google Scholar]
  336. McDonough, K.
    (2004) Learner-learner interaction during pair and small group activities in a Thai EFL context. System, 32 (2), 207–224. 10.1016/j.system.2004.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  337. McDonough, K. , & García Fuentes, C.
    (2015) The effect of writing task and task conditions on Colombian EFL learners’ language use. TESL Canada Journal, 32 (2), 67–67. 10.18806/tesl.v32i2.1208
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v32i2.1208 [Google Scholar]
  338. Meeuwisse, M. , Severiens, S. E. , & Born, M. P.
    (2010) Learning environment, interaction, sense of belonging and study success in ethnically diverse student groups. Research in Higher Education, 51 , 528–545. 10.1007/s11162‑010‑9168‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-010-9168-1 [Google Scholar]
  339. Mertens, J.
    (2003) Rhythm, rhymes and rules. Vom Nutzen der Schrift (nicht nur) beim frühen Englischlernen. Fremdsprachenunterricht, 47 (56) 3, 168–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  340. Meyer, W. U.
    (1992) Paradoxical effects of praise and criticism on perceived ability. European Review of Social Psychology, 3 , 259–283. 10.1080/14792779243000087
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779243000087 [Google Scholar]
  341. Mihaljević Djigunović, J.
    (2012) Early EFL learning in context: Evidence from a country case study. The British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Mihaljević Djigunović, J. , & Lopriore, L.
    (2011) The learner: Do individual differences matter?In J. Enever . (Ed.), ELLiE: Early Language Learning in Europe (pp.43–60). British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Miller, A. T. , & Hom, H. L.
    (1997) Conceptions of ability and the interpretation of praise, blame, and material rewards. Journal of Experimental Education, 65 , 163–174. 10.1080/00220973.1997.9943790
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1997.9943790 [Google Scholar]
  344. Mischel, W. , Shoda, Y. , & Peake, K.
    (1988) The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54 , 687–696. 10.1037/0022‑3514.54.4.687
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.4.687 [Google Scholar]
  345. Möller, J.
    (2005) Paradoxical effects of praise and criticism: Social, dimensional and temporal comparisons. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75 (2), 275–295. 10.1348/000709904X24744
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904X24744 [Google Scholar]
  346. Monahan, K. C. , Steinberg, L. , Cauffman, E. , & Mulvey, E. P.
    (2009) Trajectories of antisocial behavior and psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 45 , 1654–1668. 10.1037/a0015862
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015862 [Google Scholar]
  347. Mosing, M. A. , Madison, G. , Pedersen, N. L. , Kuja-Halkola, R. , & Ullén, F.
    (2014) Practice does not make perfect: No causal effect of music practice on music ability. Psychological science, 25 (9), 1795–1803. 10.1177/0956797614541990
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614541990 [Google Scholar]
  348. Mruk, C.
    (2006) Self-esteem research, theory, and practice (3rd ed.). Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  349. Muñoz, C.
    (2017) Tracing trajectories of young learners: Ten years of school English learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37 , 168–184. 10.1017/S0267190517000095
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190517000095 [Google Scholar]
  350. Murphy, V. A.
    (2014) Second language learning in the early school years: Trends and contexts. Oxford University Press. 10.1111/ijal.12116
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12116 [Google Scholar]
  351. Murtiningsih, S. R.
    (2016) Collaborative writing in an EFL context. Journal of Foreign Languange Teaching and Learning, 1 (1), 82–90. 10.18196/ftl.118
    https://doi.org/10.18196/ftl.118 [Google Scholar]
  352. Nassaji, H.
    (2012) The relationship between SLA research and language pedagogy: Teachers’ perspectives. Language Teaching Research, 16 (3), 337–365. 10.1177/1362168812436903
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168812436903 [Google Scholar]
  353. Nelson, G. L. , & Murphy, J. M.
    (1993) Peer response groups: Do L2 writers use peer comments in revising their drafts?TESOL Quarterly, 27 (1), 135–141. 10.2307/3586965
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586965 [Google Scholar]
  354. Nicol, D. J. , & Macfarlane-Dick, D.
    (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31 (2), 199–218. 10.1080/03075070600572090
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572090 [Google Scholar]
  355. Nikolov, M.
    (1999) ‘Why do you learn English?’ ‘Because the teacher is short’. A study of Hungarian children’s foreign language learning motivation. Language Teaching Research, 3 (1), 33–56. 10.1177/136216889900300103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216889900300103 [Google Scholar]
  356. (Ed.) (2009) The age factor and early language learning. De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218282
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218282 [Google Scholar]
  357. Nikolov, M. , & Mihaljević Djigunovic, J.
    (2011) All shades of every color: An overview of early teaching and learning of foreign languages. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31 , 95–119. 10.1017/S0267190511000183
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000183 [Google Scholar]
  358. Nitta, R. , & Baba, K.
    (2014) Task repetition and L2 writing development. In H. Byrnes & R. M. Manchón . (Eds.), Task-based language learning: Insights from and for L2 writing (pp.107–136). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.7.05nit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.7.05nit [Google Scholar]
  359. Nitta, R. , & Baba, K.
    (2018) Understanding benefits of repetition from a complex dynamic systems perspective. In M. Bygate . (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp.279–309). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11.11nit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11.11nit [Google Scholar]
  360. Norris, J. M. , & Ortega, L.
    (2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50 (3), 417–528. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00136
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00136 [Google Scholar]
  361. Nurmi, J. E. , & Aunola, K.
    (2005) Task-motivation during the first school years: A person-oriented approach to longitudinal data. Learning and Instruction, 15 (2), 103–122. 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.04.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.04.009 [Google Scholar]
  362. O’Brien, I. , Segalowitz, N. , Collentine, J. , & Freed, B.
    (2006) Phonological memory and lexical narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27 , 377–402. 10.1017/S0142716406060322
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716406060322 [Google Scholar]
  363. Ohta, A. S.
    (2001) Second language acquisition processes in the classroom: Learning Japanese. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 10.4324/9781410604712
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604712 [Google Scholar]
  364. Oliver, R.
    (1995) Negative feedback in child NS–NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17 , 459–481. 10.1017/S0272263100014418
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014418 [Google Scholar]
  365. (2002) The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interaction. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 97–111. 10.1111/1540‑4781.00138
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00138 [Google Scholar]
  366. (2009) How young is too young? Investigating negotiation of meaning and feedback in children aged five to seven years. In A. Mackey , & C. Polio . (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on interaction (pp.135–156). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  367. Ortega, L.
    (2007) Meaningful practice in foreign language classrooms: A cognitive-interactionist perspective. In R. DeKeyser . (Ed.), Practice in a second language (pp.180–207). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.011 [Google Scholar]
  368. Pajares, F. , & Valiante, G.
    (1999) Grade level and gender differences in the writing self-beliefs of middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24 (4), 390–405. 10.1006/ceps.1998.0995
    https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1998.0995 [Google Scholar]
  369. Patanasorn, C.
    (2010) Effects of procedural, content, and task repetition on accuracy and fluency in an EFL context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northern Arizona University.
  370. Paulesu, E. , Demonet, J. F. , Fazio, F. , McCrory, E. , Chanoine, V. , Brunswick, N. , Cappa, S. F. , Cossu, G. , Habib, M. , Frith, C. D. , & Frith, U.
    (2001) Dyslexia – cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 291 , 2165–2167. 10.1126/science.1057179
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1057179 [Google Scholar]
  371. Paulesu, E. , McCrory, E. , Fazio, F. , Menoncello, L. , Brunswick, N. , Cappa, S. , Cotelli, M. , Cossu, G. , Corte, F. , Lorusso, M. , Pesenti, S. , Gallagher, A. , Perani, D. , Price, C. , Frith, C. , & Frith, U.
    (2000) A cultural effect on brain function. Nature Neuroscience, 3 , 91–96. 10.1038/71163
    https://doi.org/10.1038/71163 [Google Scholar]
  372. Paulston, C. B. , & Bruder, M. N.
    (1976) Teaching English as a second language. Techniques and procedures. Winthrop
    [Google Scholar]
  373. Pexman, P. M.
    (2008) It’s fascinating research: The cognition of verbal irony. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17 (4), 286–290. 10.1111/j.1467‑8721.2008.00591.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00591.x [Google Scholar]
  374. Philp, J. , Adams, R. , & Iwashita, N.
    (2013) Peer interaction and second language learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203551349
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203551349 [Google Scholar]
  375. Philp, J. , Oliver, R. , & Mackey, A.
    (Eds.) (2008) Second language acquisition and the younger learner: Child’s play?John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.23 [Google Scholar]
  376. Pianta, R. C.
    (1998) Applying the concept of resilience in schools: Cautions from a developmental systems perspective. School Psychology Review, 27 , 407–428. 10.1080/02796015.1998.12085925
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.1998.12085925 [Google Scholar]
  377. Pianta, R. C. , Belsky, J. , Vandergrift, N. , Houts, R. , & Morrison, F. J.
    (2008) Classroom effects on children’s achievement trajectories in elementary school. American Journal of Educational Research, 45 , 365–397. 10.3102/0002831207308230
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207308230 [Google Scholar]
  378. Pienemann, M. , & Johnston, M.
    (1987) Factors influencing the development of language proficiency. In D. Nunan . (Ed.), Applying second language acquisition research (pp.45–141). University of Sidney, Australia, National Curriculum Resource Center, AMEP.
    [Google Scholar]
  379. Pienemann, M. , Johnston, M. , & Brindley, G.
    (1988) Constructing an acquisition-based procedure for second language assessment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10 , 217–243. 10.1017/S0272263100007324
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100007324 [Google Scholar]
  380. Pinter, A.
    (2006) Verbal evidence of task-related strategies: Child versus adult interactions. System, 34 , 615–63. 10.1016/j.system.2006.09.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.09.005 [Google Scholar]
  381. (2007) Benefits of peer–peer interaction: 10-year-old children practising with a communication task. Language Teaching Research, 11 (2), 1–19. 10.1177/1362168807074604
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168807074604 [Google Scholar]
  382. (2011) Children learning second languages. Palgrave McMillan. 10.1057/9780230302297
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230302297 [Google Scholar]
  383. (2017) Teaching young language learners (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  384. Pinter, A. , Mathew, R. , & Smith, R.
    (2016) Children and teachers as co-researchers in Indian primary English classrooms. British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  385. Pintrich, P. R. , & Schunk, D. H.
    (2007) Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications (3rd ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  386. Pladevall-Ballester, E.
    (2018) A longitudinal study of primary school EFL learning motivation in CLIL and non-CLIL settings. Language Teaching Research, 23 (6), 765–786. 10.1177/1362168818765877
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818765877 [Google Scholar]
  387. Polio, C.
    (2012) The relevance of second language acquisition theory to the written error correction debate. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 375–389. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  388. Poupore, G.
    (2013) Task motivation in process: A complex systems perspective. Canadian Modern Language Review, 69 (1), 91–116. 10.3138/cmlr.1139
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.1139 [Google Scholar]
  389. Prince, M.
    (2004) Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93 (3), 223–231. 10.1002/j.2168‑9830.2004.tb00809.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x [Google Scholar]
  390. Qi, D. S. , & Lapkin, S.
    (2001) Exploring the role of noticing in a three-stage second language writing task. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10 , 277–303. 10.1016/S1060‑3743(01)00046‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00046-7 [Google Scholar]
  391. Rai, M. K. , Loschky, L. C. , Harris, R. J. , Peck, N. R. , & Cook, L. G.
    (2011) Effects of stress and working memory capacity on foreign language readers’ inferential processing during comprehension. Language Learning, 61 (1), 187–218. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00592.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00592.x [Google Scholar]
  392. Robb, T. , Ross, S. , Shortreed, I.
    (1986) Salience of feedback on error and its effect on EFL writing quality. TESOL Quarterly, 20 , 83–93. 10.2307/3586390
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586390 [Google Scholar]
  393. Robinson, P.
    (1995) Attention, memory, and the “noticing” hypothesis. Language Learning, 45 (2), 283–331. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1995.tb00441.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1995.tb00441.x [Google Scholar]
  394. Robinson, P.
    (2005) Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25 , 45–73. 10.1017/S0267190505000036
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190505000036 [Google Scholar]
  395. Robinson, P.
    (2011) Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61 , 1–36. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00641.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00641.x [Google Scholar]
  396. Roca de Larios, J. , García Hernández, F. J. , & Coyle, Y.
    (2021) A theoretically-grounded classification of EFL children’s formulation strategies in collaborative writing. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 3 (2), 300–336. 10.1075/ltyl.20008.roc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltyl.20008.roc [Google Scholar]
  397. Rokita-Jaśkow, J. , & Ellis, M.
    (Eds.) (2019) Early instructed second language acquisition: Pathways to competence. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/ROKITA2500
    https://doi.org/10.21832/ROKITA2500 [Google Scholar]
  398. Roothooft, H. , Lázaro-Ibarrola, A. , & Bulté, B.
    (2022) Task repetition and corrective feedback via models and direct corrections among young EFL writers: Draft quality and task motivation. Language Teaching Research (ahead of print). 10.1177/13621688221082041
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688221082041 [Google Scholar]
  399. Rothbart, M. K. , Ahadi, S. A. , & Evans, D. E.
    (2000) Temperament and personality: origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 , 122–135. 10.1037/0022‑3514.78.1.122
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.1.122 [Google Scholar]
  400. Rothbart, M. K. , Ellis, L. K. , & Posner, M. I.
    (2004) Temperament and self-regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs . (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp.357–370). Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  401. Rouhshad, A. , & Storch, N.
    (2016) A focus on mode. Patterns of interaction in face-to-face and computer-mediated contexts. In M. Sato , & S. Ballinger . (Eds.), Peer interaction and second language learning. Pedagogical potential and research agenda (pp.267–289). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.45.11rou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.45.11rou [Google Scholar]
  402. Ruiz Funes, M.
    (1999) Writing, reading, and reading-to-write in a foreign language: A critical review. Foreign Language Annals, 32 (4), 514–526. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1999.tb00880.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1999.tb00880.x [Google Scholar]
  403. Sachs, R. , & Polio, C.
    (2007) Learners’ uses of two types of written feedback on an L2 writing revision task. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29 (1), 67–100. 10.1017/S0272263107070039
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263107070039 [Google Scholar]
  404. Sample, E. , & Michel, M.
    (2014) An exploratory study into trade-off effects of complexity, accuracy and fluency on young learners’ oral task repetition. TESL Canada Journal, 31 (8), 23–47. 10.18806/tesl.v31i0.1185
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v31i0.1185 [Google Scholar]
  405. Samuda, V. , & Bygate, M.
    (2008) Tasks in second language learning. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230596429
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230596429 [Google Scholar]
  406. Sánchez, A. J. , Manchón, R. M. , & Gilabert, R.
    (2020) The effects of task repetition across modalities and proficiency levels. In R. M. Manchón . (Ed.), Writing and language learning: Advancing research agendas (pp.121–144). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.56.06san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.56.06san [Google Scholar]
  407. Santos, M. , López Serrano, S. , & Manchón, R. M.
    (2010) The differential effects of two types of direct written corrective feedback on noticing and uptake: Reformulation vs. error correction. International Journal of English Studies, 10 , 131–154. 10.6018/ijes/2010/1/114011
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2010/1/114011 [Google Scholar]
  408. Sato, M. , & Csizér, K.
    (2021) Introduction: Combining learner psychology and ISLA research: Intersections in the classroom. Language Teaching Research, 25(6), 839–855. 10.1177/13621688211044237
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211044237 [Google Scholar]
  409. Sato, M. , & Loewen, S.
    (2019) Do teachers care about research? The research–pedagogy dialogue. ELT Journal, 73 , 1–10. 10.1093/elt/ccy048
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccy048 [Google Scholar]
  410. Schachter, J.
    (1991) Corrective feedback in historical perspective. Second Language Research, 7 (2), 89–102. 10.1177/026765839100700202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026765839100700202 [Google Scholar]
  411. Schmidt, R.
    (1990) The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11 , 129–158. 10.1093/applin/11.2.129
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129 [Google Scholar]
  412. Schmidt, R. W.
    (1994) Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review, 11 , 11–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  413. (2001) Attention. In P. Robinson . (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.3–32). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524780.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.003 [Google Scholar]
  414. Schmidt, R.
    (2012) Attention, awareness, and individual differences in language learning. In W. M. Chan , K. N. Chin , S. Bhatt , & I. Walker . (Eds.), Perspectives on individual characteristics and foreign language education (pp.27–50). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614510932.27
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614510932.27 [Google Scholar]
  415. Schoonen, R. , Snellings, P. , Stevenson, M. , & van Gelderen, A.
    (2009) Toward a blueprint of the foreign language writer: The linguistic and cognitive demands of foreign language writing. In R. M. Manchón . (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts (pp.77–101). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691859‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691859-007 [Google Scholar]
  416. Schulz, R. A.
    (1996) Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: Students’ and teachers’ views on error correction and the role of grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 29 , 343–364. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1996.tb01247.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1996.tb01247.x [Google Scholar]
  417. (2001) Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback. The Modern Language Journal, 85 , 244–258. 10.1111/0026‑7902.00107
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00107 [Google Scholar]
  418. Schunk, D. H. , & Pajares, F.
    (2002) The development of academic self-efficacy. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles . (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation. A volume in the educational psychology series. (pp.15–31). Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑012750053‑9/50003‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012750053-9/50003-6 [Google Scholar]
  419. Schunk, D. H. , & Zimmerman, B. J.
    (2013) Self-regulation and learning. In W. M. Reynolds , G. E. Miller , & I. B. Weiner . (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Educational psychology (pp.45–68). John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  420. Shak, J.
    (2006) Children using dictogloss to focus on form. Reflection on English Language Teaching, 5 , 47–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  421. Shak, J. , & Gardner, S.
    (2008) Young learner perspectives on four focus-on-form tasks. Language Teaching Research, 12 (3), 387–408. 10.1177/1362168808089923
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168808089923 [Google Scholar]
  422. Sharmat, M. W.
    (1975) Nate the Great and the lost list. Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  423. Sheppard, C.
    (2006) The effects of instruction directed at the gaps second language learners noticed in their oral production (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    [Google Scholar]
  424. Simard, D. , Guénette, D. , & Bergeron, A.
    (2015) L2 learners’ interpretation and understanding of written corrective feedback: Insights from their metalinguistic reflections. Language Awareness, 24 (3), 233–254. 10.1080/09658416.2015.1076432
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2015.1076432 [Google Scholar]
  425. Simmering, V. R. , & Perone, S.
    (2013) Working memory capacity as a dynamic process. Frontiers in Psychology, 3 , 1–26. 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00567
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00567 [Google Scholar]
  426. Skehan, P.
    (1996) A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17 , 38–62. 10.1093/applin/17.1.38
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.1.38 [Google Scholar]
  427. (1998) A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  428. Skehan, P.
    (2007) Task research and language teaching: Reciprocal relationships. In S. Fotos & H. Nassaji . (Eds.), Form focused instruction and teacher education (pp.55–69). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  429. Skehan, P.
    (2009) Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30 (4), 510–532. 10.1093/applin/amp047
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp047 [Google Scholar]
  430. Snowling, M.
    (2000) Dyslexia. Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  431. Spada, N. , & Lightbown, P. M.
    (1999) Instruction, first language influence, and developmental readiness in second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 83 (1), 1–22. 10.1111/0026‑7902.00002
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00002 [Google Scholar]
  432. Spinath, B. , & Spinath, F. M.
    (2005) Longitudinal analysis of the link between learning motivation and competence beliefs among elementary school children. Learning and Instruction, 15 (2), 87–102. 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.04.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.04.008 [Google Scholar]
  433. Steinberg, L. , Albert, D. , Cauffman, E. , Banich, M. , Graham, S. , & Woolard, J.
    (2008) Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: evidence for a dual systems model. Developmental Psychology, 44 , 1764–1778. 10.1037/a0012955
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012955 [Google Scholar]
  434. Steinmayr, R. , & Spinath, B.
    (2009) The importance of motivation as a predictor of school achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 19 (1), 80–90. 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  435. Stevenson, C. E. , Bergwerff, C. E. , Heisera, W. J. , & Resinga, W. C. M.
    (2014) Working memory and dynamic measures of analogical reasoning as predictors of children’s math and reading achievement. Infant and Child Development, 23(1), 51–66. 10.1002/icd.1833
    https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1833 [Google Scholar]
  436. Stoel, R. D. , Peetsma, T. T. D. , & Roeleveld, J.
    (2001) Relations between the development of school investment, self-confidence and language achievement in elementary education: A multivariate latent growth curve approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 13 (4), 313–333. 10.1016/S1041‑6080(03)00017‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(03)00017-7 [Google Scholar]
  437. Storch, N.
    (1999) Are two heads better than one? Pair work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27(3), 363–374. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(99)00031‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00031-7 [Google Scholar]
  438. (2001) How collaborative is pair work? ESL tertiary students composing in pairs. Language Teaching Research, 5 (1), 29–53. 10.1177/136216880100500103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880100500103 [Google Scholar]
  439. (2002) Patterns of interaction in ESL pair work. Language Learning, 52 (1), 119–158. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00179
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00179 [Google Scholar]
  440. (2004) Using activity theory to explain differences in patterns of dyadic interactions in an ESL class. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 60 (4), 457–480. 10.3138/cmlr.60.4.457
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.60.4.457 [Google Scholar]
  441. (2005) Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14 (3), 153–173. 10.1016/j.jslw.2005.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2005.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  442. (2008) Metatalk in a pair work activity: Level of engagement and implications for language development. Language awareness, 17(2), 95–114. 10.1080/09658410802146644
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410802146644 [Google Scholar]
  443. (2011) Collaborative writing in L2 contexts: Processes, outcomes, and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31 , 275–288. 10.1017/S0267190511000079
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000079 [Google Scholar]
  444. (2013) Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847699954
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847699954 [Google Scholar]
  445. Storch, N.
    (2016) Collaborative writing. In R. M. Manchón & P. Matsuda . (Eds.), Handbook of second and foreign language writing (pp.387–406). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614511335‑021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511335-021 [Google Scholar]
  446. Storch, N.
    (2018) Written corrective feedback from sociocultural theoretical perspectives: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 51 (2), 262–277. 10.1017/S0261444818000034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000034 [Google Scholar]
  447. (2019) Collaborative writing. Language Teaching, 52 , 40–59. 10.1017/S0261444818000320
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000320 [Google Scholar]
  448. (2021a) Collaborative writing: Promoting languaging among language learners. In M. P. García Mayo . (Ed.), Working collaboratively in second/foreign language learning (pp.13–34). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501511318‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501511318-002 [Google Scholar]
  449. (2021b) Theoretical perspectives on L2 writing and language learning in collaborative writing and the collaborative processing of written corrective feedback. In R. M. Manchón & C. Polio . (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and writing (pp.22–34). Routledge. 10.4324/9780429199691‑4
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429199691-4 [Google Scholar]
  450. Storch, N. , & Wigglesworth, G.
    (2003) Is there a role for the use of the L1 in an L2 setting?TESOL Quarterly, 37 (4), 760–770. 10.2307/3588224
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588224 [Google Scholar]
  451. Sutton, A. J. , Song, F. , Gilbody, S. M. , & Abrams, K. R.
    (2000) Modelling publication bias in meta-analysis: A review. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 9 (5), p.421–445. 10.1177/096228020000900503
    https://doi.org/10.1177/096228020000900503 [Google Scholar]
  452. Swain, M.
    (1993) The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. Canadian Modern Language Review, 50 (1), 158–164. 10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158 [Google Scholar]
  453. (1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer . (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson (pp.125–144). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  454. (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. Lantolf . (Ed.), Sociocultural approaches to second language research (pp.97–115). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  455. (2005) The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel . (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.471–483). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  456. (2006) Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes . (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp.95–108). Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  457. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (1995) Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning. Applied linguistics, 16(3), 371–391. 10.1093/applin/16.3.371
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.371 [Google Scholar]
  458. Swain, M. , & Watanabe, Y.
    (2013) Languaging: Collaborative dialogue as a source of second language learning. The encyclopedia of applied linguistics, 3218–3225.
    [Google Scholar]
  459. Swain, M. , Kinnear, P. , & Steinman, L. C.
    (2011) Sociocultural theory in second language acquisition: An introduction through narratives. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  460. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (1998) Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. Modern Language Journal, 82 (3), 320–337. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01209.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01209.x [Google Scholar]
  461. (2000) Task-based second language learning: The uses of the first language. Language Teaching Research, 4 (3), 251–274. 10.1177/136216880000400304
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400304 [Google Scholar]
  462. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (2001) Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  463. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (2002) Talking it through: Two French immersion learners’ response to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research, 37 (3–4), 285–304. 10.1016/S0883‑0355(03)00006‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(03)00006-5 [Google Scholar]
  464. Swing, S. R. , & Peterson, P. L.
    (1982) The relationship of student ability and small group interaction to student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 19 (2), 259–274. 10.3102/00028312019002259
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312019002259 [Google Scholar]
  465. Tan, L. , Wigglesworth, G. , & Storch, N.
    (2010) Pair interaction and mode of communication: Comparing face-to-face and computer mediated communication. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 33 , 1–27. 10.2104/aral1027
    https://doi.org/10.2104/aral1027 [Google Scholar]
  466. Tang, C. , & Liu, Y.
    (2018) Effects of indirect coded corrective feedback with and without short affective teacher comments on L2 writing performance, learner uptake and motivation. Assessing Writing, 35 , 26–40. 10.1016/j.asw.2017.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2017.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  467. Tavakoli, P.
    (2014) Storyline complexity and syntactic complexity in writing and speaking tasks. In H. Byrnes & R. M. Manchon . (Eds.), Task-based language learning insights from and for L2 writing (pp.217–236). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.7.09tav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.7.09tav [Google Scholar]
  468. Taylor, R.
    (1987) Selecting effective courseware: three fundamental instructional factors. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 12 (3), 231–243. 10.1016/S0361‑476X(87)80028‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-476X(87)80028-0 [Google Scholar]
  469. Tennant, J. , & Gardner, R. C.
    (2004) The computerized mini-AMTB. CALICO Journal, 21 (2), 245–263. 10.1558/cj.v21i2.245‑263
    https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.v21i2.245-263 [Google Scholar]
  470. Thornbury, S.
    (1997) Reformulation and reconstruction: Tasks that promote ‘noticing’. ELT Journal, 51 , 326–335. 10.1093/elt/51.4.326
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/51.4.326 [Google Scholar]
  471. (2013) Resisting coursebooks. In J. Gray . (Ed.), Critical perspectives on language teaching materials. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137384263_10
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137384263_10 [Google Scholar]
  472. Tin, T. B.
    (2011) Language creativity and co-emergence of form and meaning in creative writing tasks. Applied Linguistics, 32 (2), 215–235. 10.1093/applin/amq050
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amq050 [Google Scholar]
  473. Tomasello, M.
    (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  474. Totten, S. , Sills, T. , Digby, A. , & Ross, P.
    (Eds.) (1991) Cooperative learning: A guide to research. Garland.
    [Google Scholar]
  475. Truscott, J.
    (1996) The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46 (2), 327–369. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1996.tb01238.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1996.tb01238.x [Google Scholar]
  476. Twenge, J. M. , & Campbell, W. K.
    (2001) Age and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: A cross-temporal meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5 , 321–344. 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0504_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0504_3 [Google Scholar]
  477. Umbach, P. D. , & Wawrzynski, M. R.
    (2005) Faculty do matter: The role of college faculty in student learning and engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46 (2), 153–184. 10.1007/s11162‑004‑1598‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-004-1598-1 [Google Scholar]
  478. UNESCO Institute for Statistics
    UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2008) International literacy statistics: A review of concepts, methodology, and current data. Retrieved on5 August 2022fromuis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/international-literacy-statistics-a-review-of-concepts-methodology-and-current-data-en_0.pdf
  479. Ushioda, E.
    (2009) A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. In Z. Dornyei & E. Ushioda . (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.215–228). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑012
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-012 [Google Scholar]
  480. Ushioda, E.
    (2017) The impact of global English on motivation to learn other languages: Toward an ideal multilingual self. Modern Language Journal, 101 (3), 469–482. 10.1111/modl.12413
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12413 [Google Scholar]
  481. Ushioda, E. , & Dörnyei, Z.
    (2017) Beyond global English: Motivation to learn languages in a multicultural world: Introduction to the special issue. The Modern Language Journal, 101 (3), 451–454. 10.1111/modl.12407
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12407 [Google Scholar]
  482. Van Beuningen, C. G. , De Jong, N. H. , & Kuiken, F.
    (2008) The effect of direct and indirect corrective feedback on L2 learners’ written accuracy. ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 156, 279–296. 10.2143/ITL.156.0.2034439
    https://doi.org/10.2143/ITL.156.0.2034439 [Google Scholar]
  483. (2012) Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing. Language Learning, 62, 1–41. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00674.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00674.x [Google Scholar]
  484. van den Noort, M. W. M. L. , Bosch, P. , & Hugdahl, K.
    (2006) Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity. European Psychologist, 11 , 289–296. 10.1027/1016‑9040.11.4.289
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.11.4.289 [Google Scholar]
  485. van der Veen, I. , & Peetsma, T. T. D.
    (2009) The development in self-regulated learning behaviour of first-year students in the lowest level of secondary school in The Netherlands. Learning and Individual Differences, 19 (1), 34–46. 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  486. Van Lawick-Goodall, J.
    (1968) The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Animal Behaviour Monographs, 1 , 161–311. 10.1016/S0066‑1856(68)80003‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0066-1856(68)80003-2 [Google Scholar]
  487. VanPatten, B.
    (1990) Attending to content and form in the input: An experiment in consciousness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12 , 287–301. 10.1017/S0272263100009177
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100009177 [Google Scholar]
  488. (Ed.) (2003) Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  489. VanPatten, B. , & Williams, J.
    (Eds.) (2007) Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  490. Vickov, G.
    (2007) Pisanje na engleskom u prvom razredu osnovne skole [Writing skills in English in the first grade of primary school]. Stranijezici.
    [Google Scholar]
  491. Villarreal, I. , & Gil-Sarratea, N.
    (2020) The effect of collaborative writing in an EFL secondary setting. Language Teaching Research, 24 (6), 874–897. 10.1177/1362168819829017
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168819829017 [Google Scholar]
  492. Villarreal, I. & Lázaro-Ibarrola, A.
    (2022). Models in collaborative writing among CLIL English learners in Primary School: Linguistic outcomes and motivation matters. System, 102922. 10.1016/j.system.2022.102922
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2022.102922 [Google Scholar]
  493. Von Der Haar, C. M.
    (2005) Social psychology: A sociological perspective. Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  494. Vygotsky, L. S.
    (1978) Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  495. (1981) The genesis of higher mental functions. In J. V. Wertsch . (Ed.), The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp.144–188). M. E. Sharpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  496. Wadsworth, B. J.
    (1989) Piaget’s theory of cognitive and affective development (4th ed.). Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  497. Wajnryb, R.
    (1990) Grammar dictation. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  498. Walter, C.
    (2006) Transfer of reading comprehension skills to L2 is linked to mental representations of text and to L2 working memory. Applied Linguistics, 25 (3), 315–339. 10.1093/applin/25.3.315
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/25.3.315 [Google Scholar]
  499. Watanabe, Y.
    (2008) Peer-peer interaction between L2 learners of different proficiency levels: Their interactions and reflections. Canadian Modern Language Review, 64 , 605–635. 10.3138/cmlr.64.4.605
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.64.4.605 [Google Scholar]
  500. Watanabe, Y. , & Swain, M.
    (2007) Effects of proficiency differences and patterns of pair interaction on second language learning: Collaborative dialogue between adult ESL learners. Language Teaching Research, 11 (2), 121–142. 10.1177/136216880607074599
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880607074599 [Google Scholar]
  501. Webb, N. M.
    (1982) Group composition, group interaction, and achievement in small groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74 (4), 475–484. 10.1037/0022‑0663.74.4.475
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.74.4.475 [Google Scholar]
  502. Weigle, S.
    (2002) Assessing Writing. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511732997
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511732997 [Google Scholar]
  503. White, L.
    (1988) Implications of learnability theories for second language learning and teaching. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics/Cahiers Linguistiques de McGill, 5 , 148–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  504. Wigfield, A. , Eccles, J. S. , Schiefele, U. , Roeser, R. , & Davis-Kean, P.
    (2008) Development of achievement motivation. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner . (Eds.), Child and adolescent development: An advanced course (pp.406–434). John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  505. Wigglesworth, G. , & Storch, N.
    (2009) Pair versus individual writing: Effects on fluency, complexity and accuracy. Language Testing, 26 (3), 445–466. 10.1177/0265532209104670
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532209104670 [Google Scholar]
  506. (2012) What role for collaboration in writing and writing feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 364–374. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.005 [Google Scholar]
  507. Williams, J.
    (2012) The potential role(s) of writing in second language development. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (4), 321–331. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007 [Google Scholar]
  508. Williams, J. N. , & Lovatt, P. P.
    (2003) Phonological memory and rule learning. Language Learning, 53 , 67–121. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00211
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00211 [Google Scholar]
  509. Williams, M. , & Burden, R.
    (1997) Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  510. Winne, P. H. , & Marx, R. W.
    (1989) A cognitive-processing analysis of motivation with classroom tasks. In C. Ames & R. Ames . (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (pp.297–327). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  511. Wong, W. , & VanPatten, B.
    (2003) The evidence is in drills are out. Foreign Language Annals, 36 (3), 403–423. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2003.tb02123.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2003.tb02123.x [Google Scholar]
  512. Wood, D. , Bruner, J. S. , & Ross, G.
    (1976) The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17 (2), 89–100. 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.1976.tb00381.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x [Google Scholar]
  513. Wydell, T. N.
    (2000) Advances in understanding cross cultural differences in dyslexia through a bilingual individual with monolingual dyslexia. In F. Columbus . (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol.2, pp.141–162). Nova Science Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  514. (2003) Dyslexia in Japanese and the ‘hypothesis of granularity and transparency’. In N. Goulandris . (Ed.), Dyslexia in different languages: Cross-linguistic comparisons (pp.255–276). Whurr Publishers
    [Google Scholar]
  515. Yang, L. , Baba, K. , & Cumming, A.
    (2004) Activity systems for ESL writing improvement: Case studies of three Chinese and three Japanese adult learners of English. Angles on the English-Speaking World, 4 , 13–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  516. Yang, L. , & Zhang, L.
    (2010) Exploring the role of reformulations and a model text in EFL students’ writing performance. Language Teaching Research, 14 , 464–484. 10.1177/1362168810375369
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810375369 [Google Scholar]
  517. Yu, S. , Jiang, L. , & Zhou, N.
    (2020) Investigating what feedback practices contribute to students’ writing motivation and engagement in Chinese EFL context: A large scale study. Assessing Writing, 44 , 100451. 10.1016/j.asw.2020.100451
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2020.100451 [Google Scholar]
  518. Zhang, M.
    (2019) Towards a quantitative model of understanding the dynamics of collaboration in collaborative writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 45 , 16–30. 10.1016/j.jslw.2019.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2019.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  519. Zimmerman, B. J. , & Martinez-Pons, M.
    (1990) Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (1), 51–59. 10.1037/0022‑0663.82.1.51
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.51 [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error