1887

Reconstructing Non-Standard Languages

A socially-anchored approach

image of Reconstructing Non-Standard Languages

Focusing on language contact involving Russian, and the linguistic varieties that emerged from that contact in different social settings, this book analyzes issues and methodologies in reconstructing both the linguistic effects of language contact and the social contexts of usage. In-depth analyses of Odessan Russian, a southern Russian contact variety with Yiddish and Ukrainian elements, and Russian lexifier pidgins illustrate the reconstruction process, which involves making the most of all available documentation, particularly literature and stereotypical descriptions. Historical sociolinguistics of this kind straddles the fields of historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, and contact; this book brings together the methods and theories of these areas to show how they can result in a rich reconstruction of linguistic and socially-conditioned variation. We reconstruct the circumstances and social settings that produced this variation, and demonstrate how to reconstruct which variants were used by different types of speakers under different circumstances, and what kinds of social identities they indexed.

References

  1. Achard, Pierre
    1988 The development of language empires. In Ulrich Ammon , Norbart Dittmar , Klaus Mattheier & Peter Trudgill (eds.), Sociolinguistics – Soziolinguistik. An international handbook of the science of language and society, 1541–1551. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agha, Asif
    2005 Voicing, footing, and enregisterment. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology15(1). 38–59. 10.1525/jlin.2005.15.1.38
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.2005.15.1.38 [Google Scholar]
  3. Akbal’jan, E. R. & S. I. Degtev
    2004Severnaja ènciklopedija. Moscow: Paulsen.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alekseev, M. P.
    1968Slovari inostrannyx slov v russkom azbukovnike XVII veka. Leningrad: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alimova, T. A.
    1976 Dva pamiatnika pis’mennosti Drevlexranilishcha Pushkinskogo Doma o russko-skandinavskix svajazax xviii-xix vv. In D. S. Lixachev (ed.), Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoj literatury, vol.31, 390–392. Leningrad: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Anderson, Gregory D. S.
    2015 Russian colonialism and hegemony and Native Siberian languages. In Christel Stolz (ed.), Language empires in comparative perspective, 113–139. De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110408362.113
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110408362.113 [Google Scholar]
  7. Arsen’ev, Vladimir
    2016Dersu Uzala. St. Petersburg: Azbuka.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Arsen’ev, Vladimir K.
    1921Po Ussurijskomu kraju (Dersu Uzala): Puteshestvie v gornuju oblast’ Sixotè-Alin’. Vladivostok: Exo.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 1936Dersu Uzala. Moscow-Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo detskoj literatury CK VLKSM.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 1937V gorax Sixote-Alinja. Moscow: Molodaja gvardija.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 1986Dersu Uzala. Moscow: Sovetskaja Rossija.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Auer, Anita , Catharina Peersman , Simon Pickl , Gijsbert Rutten & Rik Vosters
    2015 Historical sociolinguistics: the field and its future. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics1(1). 1–12. 10.1515/jhsl‑2015‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsl-2015-0001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Auer, Peter
    1999 From code-switching via language mixing to fused lects: Toward a dynamic typology of bilingual speech. The International Journal of Bilingualism3(4). 309–332. 10.1177/13670069990030040101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069990030040101 [Google Scholar]
  14. Auer, Peter , Frans Hinskens & Paul Kerswill
    (eds.) 2005Dialect change: convergence and divergence in European languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486623
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486623 [Google Scholar]
  15. Auer, Peter & Raihan Muhamedova
    2005 ‘Embedded Language’ and ‘Matrix Language’ in insertional language mixing: Some problematic cases. Rivista di linguistica17(1). 35–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Azevedo, Milton M.
    2000 Shadows of a literary dialect: For Whom the Bell Tolls in five Romance languages. The Hemingway Review20(1). 30–48. 10.1353/hem.2000.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hem.2000.0007 [Google Scholar]
  17. Babel’, Isaak
    2006 Odesskie rasskazy. In I. N. Suxix (ed.), Sobranie sochinenij v chetyrjax tomax, 60–150. Moscow: Vremja.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bakich, Olga
    2011 Did you speak Harbin Sino-Russian?Itinerario35(3). 23–36. 10.1017/S0165115312000058
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0165115312000058 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bakich, Olga M.
    2014 Russian émigrés in Harbin’s multinational past: Censuses and identity. In Dan Ben-Canaan , Frank Grüner & Ines Prodöhl (eds.), Entangled histories: The transcultural past of Northeast ChinaHeidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context, 83–99. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02048‑8_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02048-8_6 [Google Scholar]
  20. Barannik, Ljudmila F.
    1982 Slovar’ russkix govorov Odesskoj oblasti. InRusskie govory na Ukraine, 181–211. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Becker, Kara
    2014 Linguistic repertoire and ethnic identity in New York City. Language & Communication35. 43–54. 10.1016/j.langcom.2013.12.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2013.12.007 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bell, Allan
    1984 Language style as audience design. Language in Society13(2). 145–204. 10.1017/S004740450001037X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001037X [Google Scholar]
  23. Benor, Sarah Bunin
    2008 Towards a new understanding of Jewish language in the twenty-first century. Religion Compass2(6). 1062–1080. 10.1111/j.1749‑8171.2008.00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8171.2008.00108.x [Google Scholar]
  24. 2010 Ethnolinguistic repertoire: Shifting the analytic focus in language and ethnicity. Journal of Sociolinguistics14(2). 159–183. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2010.00440.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2010.00440.x [Google Scholar]
  25. 2011 Mensch, bentsh, and balagan: Variation in American Jewish linguistic repertoire. Language & Communication31(2). 141–154. 10.1016/j.langcom.2010.08.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2010.08.006 [Google Scholar]
  26. Benzing, Johannes
    1958 I. A. Lopatin’s “Material on the Orochee language, the Goldi (Nanai) language and the Olchi (Nani) language”. Anthropos53(3/4). 597–603.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Bernsand, Niklas
    2001 Surzhyk and national identity in Ukrainian nationalist language ideology. Berliner Osteuropa Info17. 38–47. www.oei.fu-berlin.de/media/publikationen/boi/boi_17/11_bernsand.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bernshtam, T. A.
    1978Pomory: Formirovanie gruppy i sistema xozjajstva. Leningrad: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Biber, Douglas
    1986 On the investigation of spoken/written differences. Studia Linguistica40. 1–38. 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.1986.tb00759.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.1986.tb00759.x [Google Scholar]
  30. Bichurin, Nikita Y.
    1831 Pis’mo iz Kjaxty. Moskovskij telegraf21(141). 5.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1991Radi vechnoj pamjati: Poèzija. Stat’i, ocherki, zametki. Pis’ma. Cheboksary: Chuvashskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo. az.lib.ru/b/bichurin_i/text_0190.shtml
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bilaniuk, Laada
    1998 The politics of language and identity in Ukraine. Tech. rep.The University of Michigan.
  33. 2004 A typology of Surzhyk: Mixed Ukrainian-Russian language. International Journal of Bilingualism8(4). 409–425. 10.1177/13670069040080040101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069040080040101 [Google Scholar]
  34. 2005Contested tongues: Language politics and cultural correction in Ukraine. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Blake, Norman E.
    1981Non-standard language in English literature. London: Deutsch.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Blom, Gustav Peter
    1832Bemcekninger på en Reise i Nordlandene og igjennem Lapland til Stockholm i året 1827. Wulfsbergske Bogtrykkerie/R. Hviid.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Bogomolov, P. L. [Google Scholar]
  38. Bogoras, Waldemar
    1922 Chukchee. In Franz Boas (ed.), Handbook of American Indian languages, vol.II, 637–903. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Boldyrev, V. A.
    1990Itogi perepisi naselenija perepisi. Naselenie SSSR. Po dannym vsesojuznoj perepisi naselenija 1989 g. Moscow: Goskomstat.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Bowdre, Paul Hull
    1964 A study of eye dialect: University of Florida dissertation.
  41. Broch, Ingvild
    1998 Ocenka jazyka-pidzhina russenorsk glazami sovremennogo lingvista. Poljarnyj vestnik. Norwegian Journal of Slavic Studies1.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Broch, Ingvild & Ernst Håkon Jahr
    1980 The problem of stability in Russenorsk. In Even Hovdhaugen (ed.), The Nordic languages and modern linguistics. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Nordic and General Linguistics in Oslo, 242–250. Oslo/Bergen/Tromsø: Universitetsforlaget.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 1981Russenorsk – et pidginspråk i Norge. Oslo: Novus.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 1984 Russenorsk: a new look at the Russo-Norwegian pidgin in Northern Norway. In P. Sture Ureland & Iain Clarkson (eds.), Scandinavian language contacts, 21–65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Broch, Olaf
    1927 Russenorsk. Archiv für slavische Philologie41. 81–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1930 Russenorsk tekstmateriale. Maal og Minne113–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Bucholtz, Mary
    2003 Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics7(3). 398–416. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00232
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00232 [Google Scholar]
  48. Bulatova, Nadezhda Ja . & Lenore A. Grenoble
    2019 Translanguaging or code-mixing? Evenki-Russian frog stories. Manuscript.
  49. Bull, Kirsti Strøm
    2015 Russian fishing activities off the coast of Finnmark – a legal history. Arctic Review6(1). 3–10. https://arcticreview.no/index.php/arctic/article/view/60
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Bushkovitch, Paul
    2012A concise history of Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Campbell, Lyle & Martha Muntzel
    1992 The structural consequences of language death. In Nancy Dorian (ed.), Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death, 181–196. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Carter, James H.
    2002Creating a Chinese Harbin: Nationalism in an international city, 1916–1932. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 10.7591/9781501722493
    https://doi.org/10.7591/9781501722493 [Google Scholar]
  53. Chelliah, Shobhana & Willem J. de Reuse
    2011Handbook of descriptive linguistic fieldwork. London/New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑90‑481‑9026‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9026-3 [Google Scholar]
  54. Cherepanov, S. I.
    1853 Kjaxtinskoe kitajskoe narechie russkogo jazyka. Izvestija Akademii nauk po otdeleniju russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti2(10). 370–377.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Clark, Urzula
    2019Staging language: Place and identity in the enactment, performance, and representation of regional dialects. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Clyne, Michael
    2000 Lingua franca and ethnolects in Europe and beyond. Sociolinguistica14. 83–89. 10.1515/9783110245196.83
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110245196.83 [Google Scholar]
  57. Clyne, Michael G.
    1992Pluricentric languages: Different norms in different nations. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Conn, Phyllis
    2012 The dual roles of Brighton Beach: A local and global community. In Judith N. DeSena & Timothy Shortell (eds.), The world in Brooklyn: Gentrification, immigration, and ethnic politics in a global city, 337–362. Lanham: Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Coupland, Nikolas
    2003 Sociolinguistic authenticities. Journal of Sociolinguistics7(3). 417–431. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00233
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00233 [Google Scholar]
  60. Cukierman, Walenty
    1976 Galife feni-loksh. Russian Literature Triquarterly14.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1980 The Odessan myth and idiom in some early works of Odessa writers. Canadian-American Slavic Studies14(1). 36–51. 10.1163/221023980X00427
    https://doi.org/10.1163/221023980X00427 [Google Scholar]
  62. Culpeper, Jonathan & Merja Kytö
    1999 Investigating nonstandard language in a corpus of Early Modern English dialogues: Methodological considerations and problems. In Irma Taavitsainen , Gunnel Melchers & Paivi Pahta (eds.), Writing in nonstandard English, 171–187. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Culpeper, Jonathan & Merja Kytö
    2010Early Modern English dialogues: Spoken interaction as writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Cutler, Cecelia Anna
    2002 Crossing over: White youth, hip-hop, and African-American English. New York, NY: New York University dissertation.
  65. Dal’, Vladimir
    1991/1882Tolkovyj slovar’ zhivogo velikorusskogo jazyka. Moscow: Russkij jazyk.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Davies, Catherine E.
    2007 Language and identity in discourse in the American South: Sociolinguistic repertoire as expressive resource in the presentation of self. In Michael Bamberg , Anna De Fina & Deborah Schiffrin (eds.), Selves and identities in narrative and discourse, 71–88. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sin.9.05dav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sin.9.05dav [Google Scholar]
  67. Davydov, A. N. , V. N. Ponomarenko & A. A. Kuratova
    1987 Russenorsk – Arkticheskij pidzhin Evropy. In Igor’ Fridrikhovich Vardul’ & V. I. Belikov (eds.), Vozniknovenie i funkcionirovanie kontaktnyx jazykov: materialy rabochego soveshchanija, 43–47. Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Del Gaudio, Salvatore
    2012 The Russian language in Ukraine: Some unsettled questions about its status as a ‘national’ variety, 207–226. In Rudolf Muhr (ed.), Non-dominant varieties of pluricentric languages: Getting the picture (In memory of Michael Clyne), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 2017An introduction to Ukrainian dialectology, vol. 94 Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 10.3726/b12421
    https://doi.org/10.3726/b12421 [Google Scholar]
  70. Deuchar, Margaret , Pieter Muysken & Sung-Lan Wang
    2007 Structured variation in codeswitching: Towards an empirically based typology of bilingual speech patterns. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism10. 298–340. 10.2167/beb445.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/beb445.0 [Google Scholar]
  71. Devkin, V. D.
    1984 O vidax neliteraturnosti rechi. In E. A. Zemskaja & D. N. Shmelev (eds.), Gorodskoe prostorechie: Problemy izuchenija, 12–21. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Dickens, Charles
    1962David Copperfield. London: New American Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Dobrodomov, I. G.
    1967 Iz bul’garskogo vklada v slavjanskix jazykax. In Oleg N. Trubachev (ed.), Ètimologija 1967, 252–270. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Dolopchev, Vasilij R.
    1855Fonetika russkogo jazyka. Voronezh: Tip. V. I. Isaeva.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 1909Opyt slovaria nepravil’nostei v russkoi razgovornoj rechi. Warsaw: Tip. K. Kovalevskago.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Dorian, Nancy C.
    1981Language death. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 10.9783/9781512815580
    https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512815580 [Google Scholar]
  77. 2014Small-language fates and prospects: Lessons of persistence and change from endangered languages. Leiden/Boston: Brill. 10.1163/9789004261938
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261938 [Google Scholar]
  78. Doroshevich, V. M. [Google Scholar]
  79. Durkin, Philip
    2010 Assessing non-standard writing in lexicography. In Raymond Hickey (ed.), Varieties of English in writing: The written word as linguistic evidence, 42–60. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g41.03dur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g41.03dur [Google Scholar]
  80. Eckert, Penelope
    2003 Elephants in the room. Journal of Sociolinguistics7(3). 392–397. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00231
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00231 [Google Scholar]
  81. 2008 Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics12(4). 453–476. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00374.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00374.x [Google Scholar]
  82. 2012 Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology41. 87–100. 10.1146/annurev‑anthro‑092611‑145828
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145828 [Google Scholar]
  83. Eckert, Penelope
    2014 The trouble with authenticity. In Véronique Lacoste , Jakob Leimgruber & Thiemo Breyer (eds.), Indexing authenticity, 43–54. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110347012.43
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110347012.43 [Google Scholar]
  84. Ellis, Michael
    1994 Literary dialect as linguistic evidence: Subject-verb concord in nineteenth-century southern literature. American Speech69(2). 128–144. 10.2307/455697
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455697 [Google Scholar]
  85. Elson, David K. , Nicholas Dames & Kathleen R. McKeown
    2010 Extracting social networks from literary fiction. InProceedings of the 48th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics, 138–147. Uppsala: Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/P10-1015
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Emerson, Caryl
    1985 The Tolstoy connection in Bakhtin. PMLA/Publications of the Modern Language Association of America100(1). 68–80. 10.2307/462201
    https://doi.org/10.2307/462201 [Google Scholar]
  87. Estraikh, Gennady
    1996 On the acculturation of Jews in late Imperial Russia. La Rassegna Mensile di Israel62(1/2). 217–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Fasmer, Maks
    1973Ètimologicheskij slovar’ russogo jazyka. Moscow: Progress.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Fedorova, Kapitolina
    2011 Language contacts on the Russian-Chinese border: The ‘second birth’ of Russian-Chinese trade pidgin. In T. Bhambry , C. Griffin , J. T. O. Hjelm , C. Nicholson & O. G. Voronina (eds.), Perpetual motion? Transformation and transition in Central and Eastern Europe & Russia, 72–84. School of Slavonic and East European Studies, UCL: London, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 2013 Speaking with and about Chinese. Language attitudes, ethnic stereotypes and discourse strategies in interethnic communication on the Russian-Chinese border. Civilisations62(1/2). 71–89. 10.4000/civilisations.3334
    https://doi.org/10.4000/civilisations.3334 [Google Scholar]
  91. Ferguson, Charles A.
    1959 Diglossia. Word15. 325–340. 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702 [Google Scholar]
  92. Fishkin, Shelley Fisher
    1994Was Huck black? Mark Twain and African American voices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Fishman, Joshua A.
    1967 Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues23(2). 29–38. 10.1111/j.1540‑4560.1967.tb00573.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00573.x [Google Scholar]
  94. Flier, Michael S.
    2000 Surzhyk: The rules of engagement. Harvard Ukrainian Studies22. 113–136.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 2008 Surzhyk or Surzhyks?In Gerd Hentschel & Siarhiej Zaprudski (eds.), Belarusian Trasjanka and Ukrainian Suržyk: Structural and social aspects of their description and categorization, 39–55. Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Forker, Diana & Lenore A. Grenoble
    2021 Some structural similarities in the outcomes of language contact with Russian. In Diana Forker & Lenore A. Grenoble (eds.), Language contact in the territory of the former Soviet Union, 259–287. John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.50.09for
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.50.09for [Google Scholar]
  97. Forsyth, James
    1992A history of the peoples of Siberia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Fought, Carmen
    2006Language and ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791215
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791215 [Google Scholar]
  99. Friedberg, Maurice
    1991How things were done in Odessa: Cultural and intellectual pursuits in a Soviet city. Boulder: Westview Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Friedman, Victor A.
    2006 The Balkans as a linguistic area. In Keith Brown (ed.), Elsevier encyclopedia of language and linguistics, vol.I, 657–672. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/00178‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00178-4 [Google Scholar]
  101. Friis, J. A.
    1871En sommer i Finmarken, Russisk Lapland og Nordkarelen. Christiana: Alb. Cammermeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Gal, Susan
    2006 Contradictions of standard language in Europe: Implications for the study of practices and publics. Social Anthropology14(2). 163–181.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. García, Ofelia & Li Wei
    2014Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  104. Giger, Markus & Marián Sloboda
    2008 Language management and language problems in Belarus: Education and beyond. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism11(3/4). 315–339. 10.1080/13670050802148715
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802148715 [Google Scholar]
  105. Gippert, Jost , Nikolaus P. Himmelmann & Ulrike Mosel
    (eds.) 2006Essentials of language documentation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197730
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197730 [Google Scholar]
  106. Goffman, Erving
    1981Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Grenoble, Lenore A.
    2003Language policy in the former Soviet Union. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press. 10.1007/0‑306‑48083‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48083-2 [Google Scholar]
  108. 2013 Unanswered questions in language documentation and revitalization: New directions for research and action. In Elena Mihas , Bernard Perley , Gabriel Rei-Doval & Kathleen Wheatley (eds.), Responses to language endangerment, 43–57. John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.142.03gre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.142.03gre [Google Scholar]
  109. 2015a Language contact in the East Slavic contact zone. Balkanistica28. 225–250.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 2015b The sociolinguistics of variation in Odessan Russian. In John M. Kopper & Michael Wachtel (eds.), A convenient territory: Russian literature at the edge of modernity, 337–354. Bloomington, IL: Slavica.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Grenoble, Lenore A. & N. Louanna Furbee
    (eds.) 2010Language documentation: Practice and values. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.158
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.158 [Google Scholar]
  112. Grenoble, Lenore A. & Lindsay J. Whaley
    2002 What does digital technology have to do with Yaghan?Linguistic Discovery1(1). 1–12, 10.1349/PS1.1537‑0852.A.101
    https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.101 [Google Scholar]
  113. Grković-Major, Jasmina
    2011 The development of predicative possession in Slavic languages. In Motoki Nomachi (ed.), The grammar of possessivity in South Slavic languages: Synchronic and diachronic perspectives, 35–54. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Gumperz, John J. , Hannah Kaltman & Mary Catherine O’Connor
    1984 Cohesion in spoken and written discourse: Ethnic styles and transition to literacy. In Deborah Tannen (ed.), Coherence in spoken and written discourse, 3–20. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Gustavsson, Sven
    1997 Byelorussia. In Hans Goebl , Peter H. Nelde & Zdenèk Starýand Wolfgang Wölck (eds.), Kontaktlinguistik: ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung, 1919–1926. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110151541.2.16.1919
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110151541.2.16.1919 [Google Scholar]
  116. Hamel, Rainer Enrique
    2006 The development of language empires / Entwicklung von Sprachimperien. In Ulrich Ammon , Norbert Dittmar , Klaus J. Mattheier & Peter Trudgill (eds.), Sociolinguistics – Soziolinguistik: An international handbook of the science of language and society, 2240–2258. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 2007 Sprachimperien, Sprachimperialismus und die Zukunft der Sprachenvielfalt. Jahrbuch Deutsch as Fremdsprache33. 141–172. Die Macht der Sprache; special issueed by Jutta Limbach and Katharina von Ruckteschell .
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Hammarström, Harald , Robert Forkel , Martin Haspelmath & Sebastian Bank
    2021Glottolog 4.4. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 10.5281/zenodo.4761960
    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4761960 [Google Scholar]
  119. Hansen, Julie
    2019 Reading War and Peace as a translingual novel. Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices16(4). 608–621. 10.22363/2618‑897X‑2019‑16‑4‑608‑621
    https://doi.org/10.22363/2618-897X-2019-16-4-608-621 [Google Scholar]
  120. Haspelmath, Martin & Uri Tadmor
    2009Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218442
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442 [Google Scholar]
  121. Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
    2006Changing languages of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  122. Heleniak, Timothy
    2004 Migration of the Russian diaspora after the breakup of the Soviet Union. International Journal of International Affairs57(2). 99–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Helland, Amund
    1905Norges land og folk. Topografisk-statistisk beskrivelse. XX: Finmarkens Amt. Kristiana: Aschehoug. https://www.nb.no/nbsok/nb/3917928d4bc688033d0b6822e4c65360?lang=no#0
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Hemingway, Ernest
    2004For whom the bell tolls. London: Arrow.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Henry, Olga
    2016 The use of the French language in Leo Tolstoy’s novel, War and Peace. Tuscaloosa The University of Alabama MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Hentschel, Gerd
    2014 Belarusian and Russian in the mixed speech of Belarus. In Juliane Besters-Dilger (ed.), Congruence in contact-induced language change, 93–121. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110338454.93
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110338454.93 [Google Scholar]
  127. Hentschel, Gerd & Bernhard Kittel
    2011 Weissrussischer Dreisprachigkeit? Zur sprachlichen Situation in Weissrussland auf der Basis von Urteilen von Weissrussen über die Verbreitung ‘Ihrer Sprachen’ im Lande. Wiener Slawistischer Almanach67. 107–135.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Hentschel, Gerd & Jan Patrick Zeller
    2012 Gemischte Rede, gemischter Diskurs, Sprechertypen: Weissrussisch, Russisch und gemischte Rede in der Kommunikation weissrussischer Familien. Wiener Slawistischer Almanach70. 127–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Herlihy, Patricia
    1986Odessa: A history, 1794–1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Hoffner, Harry A. Jr. & H. Craig Melchert
    2008A grammar of the Hittite language. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Högström, Pehr
    1746/1747Beskrifning öfwer de til Sweriges Krona lydande Lapmarker. Stockholm: Lars Salvi Kostnad. runeberg.org/lapmarker/
    [Google Scholar]
  132. van den Hout, Theo
    2011The elements of Hittite. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139013369
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139013369 [Google Scholar]
  133. Hughes, Rebecca
    1996English in speech and writing: Investigating language and literature. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Idov, Michael
    2009 The everything guide to Brighton Beach. New York Magazinehttps://nymag.com/guides/everything/brighton-beach/
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Ilf, Ilya Arnol’dovich
    2009Dom s krendeljami. Izbrannoe. Moscow: Tekst.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Inber, Vera M.
    1965Sobranie sochinenij v chetyrex tomax, vol.2. Moscow: Xudozhestvennaja literatura.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Irvine, Judith T. & Susan Gal
    2000 Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In Paul Kroskrity (ed.), Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities, 35–84. School of American Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Isachenko, Alexander V.
    1974 On ‘have’ and ‘be’ languages: A typological sketch. In Michael S. Flier (ed.), Slavic forum: Essays in linguistics and literature, 43–77. The Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110888386‑006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110888386-006 [Google Scholar]
  139. Ives, Sumner
    1971 A theory of literary dialect. In Juanita V. Williamson & Virginia M. Burke (eds.), A various language: Perspectives on American dialects, 145–177. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Jabłońska, Antonina
    1957 Jȩzyk mieszany chińsko-rosyjski w Mandžurii. Przegla̧d Orientalistyczny21. 157–168.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Jabotinsky, Vladimir
    2005The Five: A novel of Jewish life in turn-of-the-century Odessa. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Jahr, Ernst Håkon
    1996 On the pidgin status of Russenorsk. In Ingvild Broch & Ernst Håkon Jahr (eds.), Language contact in the Arctic: Northern pidgins and contact languages, 107–122. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110813302.107
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110813302.107 [Google Scholar]
  143. Jernsletten, Nils
    2011 Sami language communities and the conflict between Sami and Norwegian. In Ernst H. Jahr (ed.), Language conflict and language planning, 115–132. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110886580.115
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110886580.115 [Google Scholar]
  144. Johnstone, Babara , Jennifer Andrus & Andrew E. Danielson
    2006 Mobility, indexicality, and the enregisterment of “Pittsburghese”. Journal of English Linguistics34(2). 77104. 10.1177/0075424206290692
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424206290692 [Google Scholar]
  145. Jucker, Andreas H.
    2012 Review of Culpeper and Kytö 2010. English Language and Linguistics16. 519–523. 10.1017/S1360674312000214
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674312000214 [Google Scholar]
  146. Kadushin, Charles
    2012Understanding social networks: Theories, concepts, and findings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Kantarovich, Jessica
    2012 The linguistic legacy of Russians in Alaska: Russian contact and linguistic variation in Alaska, with special attention to Ninilchik Russian. Chicago University of Chicago B.A. Honors Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 2020 Argument structure in language shift: Morphosyntactic variation and grammatical resilience in Modern Chukchi. Chicago: University of Chicago dissertation.
  149. Kantarovich, Jessica & Lenore A. Grenoble
    2017 Reconstructing sociolinguistic variation. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America2(27). 1–15. 10.3765/plsa.v2i0.4080
    https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v2i0.4080 [Google Scholar]
  150. Kantarovich, Jessica , Lenore A. Grenoble , Antonina Vinokurova & Elena Nesterova
    2021 Complexity and simplification in language shift. Frontiers in Communication6. 10.3389/fcomm.2021.638118
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.638118 [Google Scholar]
  151. Karmen, Lazar O.
    1977Rasskazy. Moscow: Xudozhestvennaja literatura.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Kasstan, Jonathan
    2019 Emergent sociolinguistic variation in severe language endangerment. Language in Society48(5). 685–720. 10.1017/S0047404519000472
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404519000472 [Google Scholar]
  153. Kataev, Valentin P.
    1989Beleet parus odinokij. Xutorok v stepi: Povest’, roman. Moscow: Pravda.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Kent, Kateryna
    2012 Morphosyntactic analysis of Surzhyk, a Russian-Ukrainian mixed lect: University of Minnesota dissertation.
  155. Kozinskij, Isaak Sh
    1973 K voprosu o proisxozhdenii kjaxtinskogo (russko-kitajskogo) jazyka. InGeneticheskie i areal’nye sviazi iazykov azii i afriki, 36–38. Moscow: Akademii Nauk SSSR, Institut Vostokovedenija.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Krapp, George Phillip
    1925The English language in America. New York: The Century Co., for the Modern Language Association of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Kretzschmarr, William A., Jr.
    2008 Standard American English pronunciation. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Varieties of English 2: The Americas and the Caribbean, 37–51. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110208405.1.37
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110208405.1.37 [Google Scholar]
  158. Krysin, Leonid Petrovich
    2003 Formy sushchestvovanija (podsistemoj) russkogo nacional’nogo jazyka. In Leonid Petrovich Krysin (ed.), Sovremennyj jazyk: Social’naja i funkcional’naja differenciacija, 33–77. Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Kulick, Don
    1992Language shift and cultural reproduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Kurosawa, Akira
    , director 1975Dersu Uzala. Daiei Film and Mosfilm.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Laakso, Johanna
    2001 Reflections on the verb suffix -om in Russenorsk and some preliminary remarks on “docking” in language contact. In Sándor Maticsák , Gábor Zaicz & Tuomo Lahdelma (eds.), Ünnei könyv Keresztes lászló tiszteletére, 315–324. Folia Uralica Debreceniensia 8.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Labov, William
    1972aLanguage in the inner city. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. 1972bSociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. 2006The social stratification of English in New York. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618208
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618208 [Google Scholar]
  165. Leech, Geoffrey & Mick Short
    2007Style in fiction. Harlow, England: Pearson Longman 2nd edn.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Léglise, Isabelle & Claudine Chamoreau
    2013 Variation and change in contact settings. In Isabelle Léglise & Claudine Chamoreau (eds.), The interplay of variation and change in contact settings, 1–21. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/silv.12.01leg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.12.01leg [Google Scholar]
  167. Levinson, Andrej
    1927 O nekotoryx chertax tvorchestva S. S. Jushkevicha. In Semyon S. Jushkevich (ed.), Posmertnye proizvedenija, 83–95. Paris: Imprimerie d’Art Voltaire.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Li, Wei
    1994Three generations, two languages, one family: Language choice and language shift in a Chinese community in Britain. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. 2016 New Chinglish and the post-multilingualism challenge: Translanguage ELF in China. Journal of English as a Lingua France 5 (1). 1–25. 10.1515/jelf‑2016‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2016-0001 [Google Scholar]
  170. Li, Wei
    2018 Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics39(1). 9–30. 10.1093/applin/amx039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039 [Google Scholar]
  171. Lippi-Green, Rosina
    1997English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Lipski, John M.
    2009 “Fluent dysfluency” as congruent lexicalization: A special case of radical code-mixing. Journal of Language Contact2(2). 1–39. 10.1163/000000009792497742
    https://doi.org/10.1163/000000009792497742 [Google Scholar]
  173. Liskovets, Irina
    2006 Russkij i belorusskij jazyki v Minske: problemy bilingvizma i otnoshenija k jazyku. St. Petersburg: European University dissertation.
  174. Lönnrot, Elias
    1911Elias Lönnrots svenska skrifter utgifna af, vol.2. Helsingsfors: n.p.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Lonsdale, Laura
    2018Multilingualism and modernity: Barbarisms in Spanish and American literature. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑67328‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67328-8 [Google Scholar]
  176. Lopatin, I. A.
    1913Leto sredi oročej i gol’dov. Vladivostok: Obščestvo izučenija Amurskogo kraja otdel’nye ottiski gazety “Dalekaja Okraina” edn.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. 1957Material on the Orochee language, the Goldi (Nanai) language, and the Olchi (Nani) language, vol.26. Micro-Bibliotheca Anthropos.
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Lopatin, Ivan A.
    1937 Anthropology of the Orochee. American Journal of Physical Anthropology22(2). 201–227. 10.1002/ajpa.1330220203
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330220203 [Google Scholar]
  179. Lucas, Christopher
    2012 Contact-induced grammatical change: Towards an explicit account. Diachronica29(3). 275–300. 10.1075/dia.29.3.01luc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.29.3.01luc [Google Scholar]
  180. Lund, Nicolay
    1842Reise igjennem Nordlandene og Vestfinmarken i Sommeren, 1841. Christiana: Guldberg & Dzwonkowski.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Lunde, Ingunn & Tine Roesen
    2006Landslide of the norm: Language culture in Post-Soviet RussiaSlavica Bergensia. Bergen: University of Bergen. 10.15845/sb.3.5
    https://doi.org/10.15845/sb.3.5 [Google Scholar]
  182. Lunden, Siri Sverdrup
    1978aRussenorsk revisited, Meddelelser 15 . Oslo: University of Oslo, Slavic-Baltic Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. 1978b Tracing the ancestry of Russenorsk. Slavia Orientalis27. 213–217.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. MacSwan, Jeff
    2016 Codeswitching and the timing of lexical insertion. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism6(6). 786–791. 10.1075/lab.6.6.08mac. 10.1075/lab.6.6.08mac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.6.6.08mac [Google Scholar]
  185. MacSwan, Jeff
    2017 A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal54(1). 167–201. 10.3102/0002831216683935. 10.3102/0002831216683935
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216683935 [Google Scholar]
  186. Magosci, Paul R.
    1985Ukraine: A historical atlas. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Makoni, Sinfree & Alastair Pennycook
    2006 Disinventing and reconstituting languages. In Sinfree Makoni & Alastair Pennycook (eds.), Disinventing and reconstituting languages, 1–41. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599255‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599255-003 [Google Scholar]
  188. Maksimov, A. N.
    1919Kakie narody zhivut v rossii?Moscow: Kooperativenoe Izdatel’stvo.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Maksimov, Sergej Vasil’evich
    1864God na severe. St. Petersburg: Obshchestvennaja pol’za.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. 1871Na vostoke: Poezdka na Amur (v 1860–1861 godax). Dorozhnye pometki i vospominanija. St. Petersburg: Tipografija Tovairshchestva “Obshchestvanennaja Pol’za”.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Mansfield, John & James Stanford
    2017 Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied Indigenous communitites: Challenges and practical solutions. Language Documentation & Conservation13. 116–136. Special publication onDocumenting Variation in Endangered Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Margaritov, Vasilij Petr
    1888Ob orochakh imperatorskoj gavani. St. Petersburg: Tip. Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk.
    [Google Scholar]
  193. de Martinville, Édouard-Léon Scott
  194. Maslova, Elena S. & Nikolai B. Vakhtin
    1996 The far north-east of Russia. In Stephen A. Wurm , Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon (eds.), Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, 999–1001. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110819724.3.999
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110819724.3.999 [Google Scholar]
  195. Matras, Yaron
    2011 Universals of structural borrowing. In Peter Siemund (ed.), Linguistic universals and language variation, 220–229. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110238068.204
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238068.204 [Google Scholar]
  196. Matras, Yaron & Peter Bakker
    2003 The study of mixed languages. In Yaron Matras & Peter Bakker (eds.), The mixed language debate: Theoretical and empirical advances, 1–19. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197242.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197242.1 [Google Scholar]
  197. Mayo, Peter
    1993 Belorussian. In Bernard Comrie & Greville Corbett (eds.), The Slavonic languages, 887–946. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Mazzitelli, Lidia Federica
    2017 Predicative possession in the languages of the Circum-Baltic area. Folia Linguistica51(1). 1–60. 10.1515/flin‑2017‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2017-0001 [Google Scholar]
  199. McAnallen, Julia
    2011 The history of predicative possession in Slavic: Internal development vs. language contact. Berkeley: University of California dissertation.
  200. McCafferty, Kevin
    2005 William Carleton between Irish and English: Using literary dialect to study language contact and change. Language and Literature14(4). 339–362. 10.1177/0963947005051288
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947005051288 [Google Scholar]
  201. McCawley, James D.
    1999 Participant roles, frames, and speech acts. Linguistics and Philosophy22(6). 595–619. 10.1023/A:1005563915544
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005563915544 [Google Scholar]
  202. Meakins, Felicity , Xia Hua , Cassandra Algy & Lindell Bromham
    2019 Birth of a contact language did not favor simplification. Language95(2). 294–332. 10.1353/lan.2019.0032
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2019.0032 [Google Scholar]
  203. Mechkovskaja, Nina Borisovna
    2006 Russian linguistics. Russkij jazyk v Odesse: Vchera, segodnja, zavtra30(2). 263–281. 10.1007/s11185‑006‑0704‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11185-006-0704-8 [Google Scholar]
  204. Melchers, Gunnel
    1999 Dedialectalisation and Norfolk dialect orthography. In Irma Taavitsainen , Gunnel Melchers & Päiva Pahta (eds.), Writing in nonstandard English, 323–9. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.67.19mel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.67.19mel [Google Scholar]
  205. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    2019 Unnatural bedfellows? The sociolinguistic analysis of variation and language documentation. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand49(2). 229–241. 10.1080/03036758.2019.1619599
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03036758.2019.1619599 [Google Scholar]
  206. Meyerhoff, Miriam & Naomi Nagy
    2008 Introduction: Social lives in language. In Miriam Meyerhoff & Naomi Nagy (eds.), Social lives in language: Sociolinguistics and multilingual speech communities, 1–16. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.24 [Google Scholar]
  207. Miloshevich, Sergej
    1996Prikljuchenija Shury Xolmova i fel’dshera Vazmana. Odessa: Xajtex.
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Milroy, James & Lesley Milroy
    1999Authority in language: Investigating Standard English. New York and London: Routledge 3rd edn.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Milroy, James & Leslie Milroy
    1985 Linguistic change, social network, and speaker innovation. Journal of Linguistics21(2). 339–384. 10.1017/S0022226700010306
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010306 [Google Scholar]
  210. Milroy, Leslie & James Milroy
    1992 Social network and social class: Toward an integrated sociolinguistic model. Language in Society21. 1–26. 10.1017/S0047404500015013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500015013 [Google Scholar]
  211. Minnick, Lisa
    2004Dialect and dichotomy: Literary representions of African American speech. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Minnick, Lisa Cohen
    2001 Jim’s language and the issue of race in Huckleberry Finn. Language and Literature10(2). 111–128. 10.1177/0963‑9470‑20011002‑02. 10.1177/0963‑9470‑20011002‑02
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963-9470-20011002-02 [Google Scholar]
  213. Minutko, Igor’ A.
    1966 Odesskij tramvaj. Junost’7(35–38).
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Mironov, Boris N.
    1991 The development of literacy in Russia and the USSR from the tenth to the twentieth centuries. History of Education Quarterly31(2). 229–252. 10.2307/368437
    https://doi.org/10.2307/368437 [Google Scholar]
  215. Mitch, David
    2004 Education and skill of the British labour force. In Roderick Floud & Paul Johnson (eds.), The Cambridge economic history of modern Britain. vol. 1: Industrialization, 1700–1860, 332–356. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CHOL9780521820363.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521820363.013 [Google Scholar]
  216. Mithun, Marianne
    2001 Who shapes the record: The speaker and the linguist. In Paul Newman & Martha Ratliff (eds.), Linguistic fieldwork, 34–54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511810206.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810206.003 [Google Scholar]
  217. Mobarg, Mats
    2008 Some observations on the uses, functions, and limitations of literary dialect. Gothenburg Studies in English94. 147–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Moon, David
    1996 Estimating the peasant population of late Imperial Russia from the 1897 census: A research note. Europe-Asia Studies48(1). 141–153. 10.1080/09668139608412337
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09668139608412337 [Google Scholar]
  219. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    2001The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  220. 1997 Pidgins and creoles: An introduction by Jacques Arends, Pieter Muysken, Norval Smith. Language73(3). 644–647. 10.2307/415907
    https://doi.org/10.2307/415907 [Google Scholar]
  221. 2003 The shared ancestry of African-American and American-White Southern Englishes: Some speculations dictated by history. In Stephen J. Nagle & Sara L. Sanders (eds.), English in the Southern United States, 64–81. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486715.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486715.005 [Google Scholar]
  222. Muysken, Pieter
    2000Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Nagy, Naomi
    2017 Documenting variation in (endangered) heritage languages: How and why?Language Documentation & Conservation13. 33–64. Special publication onDocumenting Variation in Endangered Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Nakhimovsky, Alexander
    2017 Krest’janskij jazyk i revoljucija: Pis’ma vo vlast’ do i posle 1917 goda. Revue des Études SlavesLXXXVIII(1–2). 113–134. 10.4000/res.942
    https://doi.org/10.4000/res.942 [Google Scholar]
  225. Namboodiripad, Savithry , Dayoung Kim & Gyeongnam Kim
    2017 English-dominant Korean speakers show reduced flexibility in constituent order. Proceedings of the 53rd annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society53(1). 247–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Nevalainen, Terttu
    2015 What are historical sociolinguistics?Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics1(2). 243–269. 10.1515/jhsl‑2015‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsl-2015-0014 [Google Scholar]
  227. Newman, Michael
    2010 Focusing, implicational scaling, and the dialect status of New York Latino English. Journal of Sociolinguistics14. 207–238. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2010.00441.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2010.00441.x [Google Scholar]
  228. Nichols, Johanna
    1980 Pidginization and foreigner talk: Chinese Pidgin Russian. In Elizabeth C. Traugott (ed.), Papers from the 4th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, 397–407. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.14.40nic
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.14.40nic [Google Scholar]
  229. 1986 The bottom line: Chinese Pidgin Russian. In Wallace Chafe & Johanna Nichols (eds.), Evidentiality: The linguistic coding of epistemiology, 239–57. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  230. 1993 Stereotyping interethnic communication: The Siberian native in Soviet literature. In Galya Diment & Yuri Slezkine (eds.), Between heaven and hell: The myth of Siberia in Russian culture, 183–214. St. Martin’s Press, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Nikolich, Ivan M.
    1877 Nepravil’nosti v vyrazhenijax, dopuskaemye v sovremennoj pechati. Filologicheskie zapisi1(1). 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Nordenskiöld, Adolf E.
    1881The voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe, Volume I and II. London: Macmillan and Co. www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/24365
    [Google Scholar]
  233. O’Grady, William , Amy J. Schafer , Jawee Perla , On-Soon Lee & Julia Wieting
    2009 A psycholinguistic tool for the assessment of language loss: The HALA project. Language Documentation & Conservation3(1). 100–112. hdl.handle.net/10125/4427
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Ostler, Nicholas
    2005Empires of the word: A language history of the world. New York: Harper Perennial.
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Ozick, Cynthia
    2002 Introduction. In Nathalie Babel (ed.), The complete works of Isaac Babel, 13–18. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Pallas, Simon Peter
    1778Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs III: in denen Jahren 1772 und 1773. Frankfurt and Leipzig: Johan Georg Fleischer.
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Parkvall, Mikael & Michael Dunn
    2018 The Vega Pidgin: A 19th century episode of Chukchi-Swedish language contact. Paper presented at theFirst Conference on Uralic, Altaic and Paleo-Asiatic languages in the memory of Alexander P. Volodin.
    [Google Scholar]
  238. 2019 Pidgin Chukchi: A unique document of a 19th century contact language from the Swedish ‘Vega’ expedition. Unpublished manuscript.
  239. Paulaharju, Samuli
    1928Ruijan suomalaisia. Helsinki: Kirja.
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Pavlenko, Aneta
    2011 Linguistic russification in the Russian Empire: Peasants into Russians?Russian Linguistics35(3). 331–350. 10.1007/s11185‑011‑9078‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11185-011-9078-7 [Google Scholar]
  241. Peel, Edgar & Pat Southern
    1969The trials of the Lancaster witches: A study of seventeenth-century witchcraft. Newton Abbot: David and Charles.
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Perekhvalskaya, Elena
    2021 Analyzing modern Chinese Pidgin Russian: Variability and the feature pool. In Diana Forker & Lenore A. Grenoble (eds.), Language contact in the territory of the former Soviet Union, 315–343. John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.50.11per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.50.11per [Google Scholar]
  243. Perekhvalskaya, Elena V.
    2003 Quantification in the Russian-Chinese Pidgin. In Pirkko Suihkonen & Bernard Comrie (eds.), International symposium on deictic systems and quantification in languages spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia (Udmurt State University, Iževsk, Udmurt Republic, Russia May 22–25, 2001): Collection of Comrie: Publications 6 papers, 153–163. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Perexvalskaja, Elena V.
    2008Russkie pidzhiny. St. Petersburg: Aletejja.
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Peter I, Tsar
    1710Azbuka grazhdanskaja s nravouchenijami. Moscow: Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA). https://prlib.ru/en/node/315769
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Poplack, Shana
    1980 Sometimes I’ll start a sentence y termino en español. Linguistics18. 581–618. 10.1515/ling.1980.18.7‑8.581
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581 [Google Scholar]
  247. Potts, Thomas
    1613/1929 The wonderfvll discoverie of witches in the covntie of Lancaster. In G. B. Harrison (ed.), Trial of the Lancaster witches A. D. MDCXII, London: Peter Davies.
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Poussa, Patricia
    1999 Dickens as sociolinguist: Dialect in David Copperfield. In Irma Taavitsainen , Gunnel Melchers & Paiva Pahta (eds.), Writing in nonstandard English, 27–44. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  249. 1999 Writing in nonstandard English: Introduction. In Irma Taavitsainen , Gunnel Melchers & Paiva Pahta (eds.), Writing in nonstandard English, 1–26. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.67.02pou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.67.02pou [Google Scholar]
  250. Pozharitskaja, S. K.
    2005Russkaja dialektologija. Moscow: Paradigma.
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Preston, Dennis
    1982 Ritin fowklower daun rong: Folklorists’ failure in phonology. Journal of American Folklore304–326. 10.2307/539912
    https://doi.org/10.2307/539912 [Google Scholar]
  252. Prince, Ellen
    2001 Yiddish as a contact language. In Norval Smith & Tonjes Veenstra (eds.), Creolization and contact, 263–289. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.23.12pri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.23.12pri [Google Scholar]
  253. Prishvin, Mixail Mixajlovich
    1934Kolobok. Moscow: Gosud. izdat. khudozhestvenoj literatury.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Pugh, Stefan M. & Ian Press
    1999Ukrainian: A comprehensive grammar. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Radchuk, Vytalyj A.
    2002 Mova v Ukraïni: stan, funkciï, perspektyvy. Divoslovo: Ukraïns’ka mova i literatura v navčal’nix zakladax2. 2–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Rahman, Jacqueline
    2007 An AY for an AH: Language of survival in African American narrative comedy. American Speech82(2). 65–96. 10.1215/00031283‑2007‑003
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2007-003 [Google Scholar]
  257. Ramza, Tassjana
    2008 Die Evolution der Trasjanka in literarischen Texten. Zeitschrift für Slawistik53(3). 305–325. 10.1524/slaw.2008.0022
    https://doi.org/10.1524/slaw.2008.0022 [Google Scholar]
  258. de Reuse, Willem J.
    1988 Studies in Siberian Yupik Eskimo morphology and syntax: University of Texas, Austin dissertation.
  259. Richardson, Tanya
    2008Kaleidoscopic Odessa: History and place in contemporary Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 10.3138/9781442688438
    https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442688438 [Google Scholar]
  260. Rickford, John Russell & Russell John Rickford
    2000Spoken soul: The story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Rode, Fredrik
    1842Optegnelser fra Finmarken samlede i årene 1826–1834 og senere udgivne som et Bidrag til Finmarkens Statistik. Skien: Peter Feilberg.
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Rosa, Jonathan
    2019Looking like a language, sounding like a race: Raciolinguistic ideologies and the learning of Latinidad. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780190634728.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190634728.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  263. Rosten, Leo & Lawrence Bush
    2003The new joys of Yiddish. New York: Harmony/Rodale.
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Rothstein, Robert
    2001 How it was sung in Odessa: At the intersection of Russian and Yiddish folk culture. Slavic Review60(4). 781–801. 10.2307/2697495
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2697495 [Google Scholar]
  265. Ruannalu
    Ruannalu 2013 Rossijskie pensionery seljatsja v kitae. China-Times.ruchina-times.ru/rossijskie-pensionery-selyatsya-v-kitae-2013-10-16
    [Google Scholar]
  266. Rudjak, Il’ja
    1994Tol’ko v Odesse: Rasskazy 1973–1983, 2nd edition. New York: Parus.
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Sankoff, David & Shana Poplack
    1981 A formal grammar for code-switching. Papers in Linguistics14(1–4). 3–45. 10.1080/08351818109370523
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351818109370523 [Google Scholar]
  268. Sankoff, David , Shana Poplack & Swathi Vannjarajan
    1990 The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change2(1). 71–101. 10.1017/S0954394500000272
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000272 [Google Scholar]
  269. Sasse, Hans-Jürgen
    1992 Theory of language death. In Matthias Brenzinger (ed.), Language death: Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa, 7–30. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Saussure, Ferdinand de
    1916/2011Course in general linguistics. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2013a Investigating historical variation and change in written documents. In J. K. Chamber & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), Handbook of language variation and change, 2nd edition, 57–81. Malden, MA/Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118335598.ch3
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598.ch3 [Google Scholar]
  272. 2013b Written data sources. In Christine Mallinson , Becky Childs & Gerard Van Herk (eds.), Data collection in sociolinguistics: Methods and applications, 169–178. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Schneider, Edgar W. & Christian Wagner
    2006 The variability of literary dialect in Jamaican creole: Thelwell’s The Harder They Come . Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages21(1). 45–96. 10.1075/jpcl.21.1.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.21.1.02sch [Google Scholar]
  274. Schuchardt, Hugo
    1884 Majmačinskoe narečie. Russkij filologičeskij vestnik4. 318–320.
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Senft, Gunter & Ellen B. Basso
    2009Ritual communication. Oxford and New York: Berg.
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Serbens’ka, Oleksandra A.
    1994Antisuržyk. Lviv: Svyt.
    [Google Scholar]
  277. Shapiro, Roman
    2010 Chinese Pidgin Russian. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages25(1). 5–62. 10.1075/jpcl.25.1.02sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.25.1.02sha [Google Scholar]
  278. Sharma, Devyani
    2017 Scalar effects of social networks on language variation. Language Variation and Change29(3). 393–418. 10.1017/S0954394517000205
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394517000205 [Google Scholar]
  279. Sharma, Devyani & Robin Dodsworth
    2020 Language variation and social networks. Annual Review of Linguistics6(1). 341–361. 10.1146/annurev‑linguistics‑011619‑030524
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011619-030524 [Google Scholar]
  280. Shevelov, George Y.
    1993 Ukrainian. In Bernard Comrie & Greville Corbett (eds.), The Slavonic languages, 947–98. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Shishkova, Zinaida
    1973Eduard Bagritskij: Vospominanija sovremennikov. Moscow: Sovestkij pisatel’.
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Shmelev, Aleksej D.
    2016 Jazykovye zaprety v sovremennoj Rossii: obshchestvennye tabu i gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie. Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie72(2). 271–288. www.jstor.org/stable/26583035
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Shorrocks, Graham
    1996 Non-standard dialect literature and popular culture. In Juhani Klemola , Merja Kytö & Matti Rissanen (eds.), Speech past and present: Studies in English dialectology in memory of Ossi Ihalainen, 385–411. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Shrayer, Maxim D.
    2010 Iushkevich, Semen Solomonovich. InThe YIVO encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, YIVO. https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Iushkevich_Semen_Solomonovich
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Siaro, Anni
    2009 Methodological and practical aspects of historical network analysis: A case study of the Bluestocking letters. In Arja Nurmi , Minna Nevala & Minna Palander-Collin (eds.), The language of daily life in England (1400–1800), 107–135. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.183.08sai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.183.08sai [Google Scholar]
  286. Siljeström, Per Adam
    1842Anteckningar och Observationer rörande Norrige, i synnerhet de nordligaste delerna af detta land. Norrköping: Östlund och Beling.
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Silverstein, Michael
    2003 Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language & Communication23. 193–229. 10.1016/S0271‑5309(03)00013‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00013-2 [Google Scholar]
  288. Skachkov, P. E.
    1977Ocherki istorii russkogo kitaevedenija. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Slaght, Jonathan C.
    2020 Arsen’ev’s lament: A century of change to wildlife and wild places in Primorye, Russia. Sibirica19(3). 79–89. 10.3167/sib.2020.190306
    https://doi.org/10.3167/sib.2020.190306 [Google Scholar]
  290. Smirnov, Valerij
    2008aUmer-šmumer-liš’ by byl zdorov!Odessa: Poligraf.
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Smirnov, Valerij P.
    1992Taki-da. Kiev: Bukinistka.
    [Google Scholar]
  292. 2002Bol’shoj polutolkovyj slovar’ odesskogo jazyka. Kiev: Druk.
    [Google Scholar]
  293. 2008bOdesskij jazyk. Moscow: Poligraf.
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Smith, Norval
    1994 An annotated list of creoles, pidgins and mixed languages. In Jacques Arends , Pieter Muysken & Norval Smith (eds.), Pidgins and creoles: An introduction, 331–374. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.15.34smi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.15.34smi [Google Scholar]
  295. Smotritskij, Meletij
    1619/1979Gramatika slov’jans’ka. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Spitzer, Leo
    1952 Confusion schmooshun. The Journal of English and Germanic Philology51(2). 226–233.
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Stetsjuchenko, Aleksej & Aleksandr Ostashko
    1999Samuchitel’ poluzhivogo odesskogo jazyka. Moscow: Novoe vremja.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Stepanov, Ie. M.
    2004Rosiis’ke movlennie Odesi: Monografiia. Odessa: Odessa National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Stern, Dieter
    2002 Russische pidgins. Welt der Slaven-Halbjaresschrift für SLAVISTIK47(1). 1–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  300. 2005 Myths and facts about the Kyakhta Trade Pidgin. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages20(1). 175–187. 10.1075/jpcl.20.1.10ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.20.1.10ste [Google Scholar]
  301. 2006 Social functions of speaking pidgin: The case of Russian lexifier pidgins. In Dieter Stern & Christian Voss (eds.), Marginal linguistic identities: Studies in Slavic contact and borderland varieties, 161–175. Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  302. 2008 Pidgin-Russisch oder gebrochenes Russisch?Deutsche Beiträge zum 14. Internationalen Slavistenkongress Ohrid 200832. 345–356.
    [Google Scholar]
  303. 2012Tajmyr-Pidgin-Russisch. Munich: Otto Sagner.
    [Google Scholar]
  304. 2014 Grammaticalization in Russian-lexifier pidgins. In Motoki Nomachi (ed.), Grammaticalization in Slavic languages: From areal to typological perspectives, 49–90. Slavic Research Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  305. Sternberg, Meir
    1981 Polylingualism as reality and translation as mimesis. Poetics Today2(4). 221–239. 10.2307/1772500
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1772500 [Google Scholar]
  306. Stockwell, Peter
    2020 Literary dialect as social deixis. Language and Literature29(4). 358–372. 10.1177/0963947020968661
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947020968661 [Google Scholar]
  307. Stolz, Christel
    (ed.) 2015Language empires in comparative perspective. Munich: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110408362
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110408362 [Google Scholar]
  308. Stolz, Thomas
    2008 Total reduplication vs. echo-word formation in language contact situations. InLanguage contact and contact languages, 107–132. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.7.07sto
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.7.07sto [Google Scholar]
  309. Storch, Anne
    2017 Typology of secret languages and linguistic taboos. In Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic typology, 287–321. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316135716.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316135716.010 [Google Scholar]
  310. Sylvester, Roshanna P.
    2001 City of thieves: Moldavanka, criminality, and respectability in prerevolutionary Odessa. Journal of Urban History27(2). 131–157. 10.1177/009614420102700201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/009614420102700201 [Google Scholar]
  311. Tanny, Jarrod
    2011City of rogues and schnorrers: Russia’s Jews and the myth of Old Odessa. Bloomington, IL: University of Indiana Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Thomason, Sarah G. & Terence Kaufman
    1988Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  313. Thomason, Sarah Grey
    2001Language contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Timberlake, Alan
    2004A reference grammar of Russian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  315. Timkovskij, Egor F.
    1824Puteshchestvie v Kitaj cherez Mongoliju v 1820 i 1821 godax. St. Petersburg: Ministry of Internal Affairs.
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Timm, Lenora A.
    1978 Code-switching in War and Peace. In Michel Paradis (ed.), Aspects of bilingualism, 302–315. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  317. Tkachev, S. V. & N. N. Tkacheva
    2016 Istoki konkurencii mezhdu russkimi i kitajskimi poselencami v nachal’nyj period kolonizacii Juzhno-Ussurijskogo kraja (seredina XIX – nachal XX veka). Ètnograficheskoe obozrenie1. 104–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Tosco, Mauro
    1998 ‘People who are not the language they speak’: On language shift without language decay in East Africa. In Matthias Brenzinger (ed.), Endangered languages in Africa, 119–141. Cologne: Koppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Trudgill, Peter
    1972 Sex, covert prestige, and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society1. 179–195. 10.1017/S0047404500000488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000488 [Google Scholar]
  320. 1986Dialects in contact. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  321. 1996 Dual-source pidgins and reverse creoloids: Northern perspectives on language contact. In Ingvild Broch & Ernst Håkon Jahr (eds.), Language contact in the Arctic: Northern pidgins and contact langauges, 5–14. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110813302.5
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110813302.5 [Google Scholar]
  322. Trudgill, Peter
    1999 Dedialectalisation and Norfolk dialect orthography. In Irma Taavitsainen , Gunnel Melchers & Päiva Pahta (eds.), Writing in nonstandard English, 323–329. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Tsudinov, Konstantin
    1992 Norskundervisning i nord-russland i pomortida. Otta192. 29–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  324. Turgenev, I. S.
    1982/1882 Russkij jazyk. InPolnoe sobranie sochinenij i pisem, vol.X, 172. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  325. Uspenskij, B. A.
    2002Istorija russkogo literaturnogo jazyka (xi-xvii vv.). Moscow: Aspekt Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Utësov, Leonid O.
    1976Spasibo, serdce! Vospominanja, vstrechi, razdum’ja. Moscow: Vserossijskoe teatral’noe obshchestvo.
    [Google Scholar]
  327. Vajda, Edward
    2009 Loanwords in Ket. In Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor (eds.), Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook, 471–495. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110218442.471
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442.471 [Google Scholar]
  328. Vakhtin, Nikolai , Oksana Zhironkina , Irina Liskovets & Ekaterina Romanova
    2003Otčet po rezul’tatam issledovatel’skogo proekta ‘novye jazyki novyx gosudarstv: javlenija na styke blizkorodstvennyx jazykov na postsovetskom prostranstve’. Tech. rep. European University in St. Petersburg. old.eu.spb.ru/ethno/projects/project3/list.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Veenker, Wolfgang
    1967Die Frage des finnougrischen Substrats in der russischen Sprache, Uralic and Altaic Series 82. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Verschik, Anna
    2007 Jewish Russian and the field of ethnolect study. Language in Society36. 213–232. 10.1017/S004740450707011X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450707011X [Google Scholar]
  331. 2016 Jewish Russian. In Lily Kahn & Aaron D. Rubin (eds.), Jewish languages, 593–598. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004297357_020
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004297357_020 [Google Scholar]
  332. 2018 Yiddish, Jewish Russian and Jewish Lithuanian in the former Soviet Union. In Benjamin Hary & Sarah Bunin Benor (eds.), Languages in Jewish communities, past and present, 627–643. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501504631‑024
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501504631-024 [Google Scholar]
  333. 2021 Yiddish-Slavic language contact in multilingual songs: Describing deliberate code-switching. International Journal of Bilingualism12. 1–22. 10.1177/13670069211036931
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069211036931 [Google Scholar]
  334. Vinogradov, V. V.
    2002Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Russkij jazyk.
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Vinokur, Grigorii O.
    2006Russkij jazyk: Istoricheskij ocherk, 3rd edition. Moscow: URSS 3rd edn.
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Vlasto, A. P.
    1986A linguistic history of Russia to the end of the Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Vrubel’, S. A.
    1931 Russko-kitajskie jazykovye skreshchenija. Kul’tura i pismennost’ Vostoka7–8. 131–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Wagenknecht, Edward
    1971James Russell Lowell: Portrait of a many-sided man. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  339. van der Wal, Marijke & Gijsbert Rutten
    2013 Ego-documents in a historical-sociolinguistic perspective. In Marijke van der Wal & Gijsbert Rutten (eds.), Touching the past: Studies in the historical sociolinguistics of ego-documents, 1–17. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ahs.1.01wal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ahs.1.01wal [Google Scholar]
  340. Walters, K.
    2003 Fergie’s prescience: The changing nature of diglossia in Tunisia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language163. 77–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Weinreich, Max
    2008/1980History of the Yiddish language. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Weinreich, Uriel
    1953Languages in contact: Findings and problems. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Weiss, Daniel
    2016 The new Russian legislation on blasphemy and swearing: the parliamentary debates. Zeitschrift fur Slavische Philologie72(2). 289–321. www.jstor.org/stable/26583036
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Wexler, Paul N.
    1974Purism and language: A study in modern Ukrainian and Belorussian nationalism (1840–1967). Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  345. Winford, Donald
    2013 Social factors in contact languages. In Peter Bakker & Yaron Matras (eds.), Contact languages: A comprehensive guide, 363–416. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614513711.363
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513711.363 [Google Scholar]
  346. Winter, Werner
    1999 Sociolinguistics and dead languages. In Ernst Håkon Jahr (ed.), Language change: Advances in historical sociolinguistics, 67–84. Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110807653.67
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110807653.67 [Google Scholar]
  347. Wirth-Nesher, Hana
    2008Call it English: The languages of Jewish American literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Wolfram, Walt
    1974 The relationship of White Southern Speech to Vernacular Black English. Language50(3). 498–527. www.jstor.org/stable/412221
    [Google Scholar]
  349. Wong, Amy Wing-mei
    2014 Goose-fronting among Chinese Americans in New York City. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics20(2).
    [Google Scholar]
  350. Wood, Johanna
    2007 Text in context: A critical discourse analysis approach to Margaret Paston. In Terttu Nevalainen & Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds.), Letter writing, 47–71. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/bct.1.05woo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bct.1.05woo [Google Scholar]
  351. Wurm, Stephen
    1992 Some contact languages and pidgin and creole languages in the Siberian region. Language Sciences14(3). 249–285. 10.1016/0388‑0001(92)90007‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0388-0001(92)90007-2 [Google Scholar]
  352. Yang, Jie
    2007 Zabajkal’sko-man’chzhurskij prepdizhin. Voprosy jazykoznanija2. 67–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  353. Yokoyama, Olga
    2008Russian peasant letters: Texts and contexts. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  354. 2010Russian peasant letters: Life and times of a 19th-century family. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  355. Yuan, Xin
    2014 Intercultural speakers in Harbin: The sociolinguistic profile of Chinese Pidgin Russian. In Dan Ben-Canaan , Frank Grüner & Ines Prodöhl (eds.), Entangled histories: The transcultural past of Northeast China, Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context, 35–45. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02048‑8_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02048-8_3 [Google Scholar]
  356. Zaprudski, Siarhiej
    2007 In the grip of replacive bilingualism: The Belarusian language in contact with Russian. International Journal of the Sociology of Language183. 97–118. 10.1515/IJSL.2007.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2007.006 [Google Scholar]
  357. Zelenetskij, K.
    1855O russkom jazyke v novorossijskom krae. Odessa: Odesskij ochebnyj okrug.
    [Google Scholar]
  358. Zemskaja, Elena A. & Dmitrij N. Shmelev
    1984Gorodskoe prostorechie: Problemy izuchenija. Moscow: Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  359. Zgusta, Richard
    2015The peoples of Northeast Asia through time. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004300439
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004300439 [Google Scholar]
  360. Zhabotinskij, Vladimir E.
    1930 Moja stolica. InCauseries: Pravda ob ostrove, 75–85. Paris: Tipografija Voltaire.
    [Google Scholar]
  361. Zipperstein, Steve J.
    1982 Jewish enlightenment in Odessa: Cultural characteristics, 1794–1871. Jewish Social Studies44(1). 19–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  362. Zipperstein, Steven J.
    1985The Jews of Odessa: A cultural history, 1794–1881. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  363. 2010 Odessa. InYivo encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, YIVO. https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Odessa
    [Google Scholar]
  364. Zybatow, Lew N.
    1997 Alte slavische Mehrsprachigkeitsorte Europas im neuen soziound kontaklinguistichen Licht. Sociolinguistica11. 130–141. 10.1515/9783110245165.130
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110245165.130 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/books/9789027257345
Loading
/content/books/9789027257345
dcterms_subject,pub_keyword
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
10
5
Chapter
content/books/9789027257345
Book
false
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error