1887

s Pedagogical Realities of Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching

image of Pedagogical Realities of Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching

This book documents how teachers, working in school foreign language learning contexts and teaching beginner learners of languages other than English, learn about and use tasks. It first presents a pedagogically researched account of how teachers learn about, design and evaluate tasks, after being introduced to TBLT during an in-service programme. The authors then go into classrooms to explore ways in which teachers continue to use tasks, as part of their regular ongoing classroom language programmes, following their in-service education. The book documents how the teachers use tasks to open up opportunities for language learning for students and investigates how teachers understand and position tasks and TBLT as relevant and of value to their teaching contexts. The challenges that teachers face in incorporating TBLT into their practice are also explored. The book suggests how the use of the task as a pedagogic tool may contribute to ongoing understanding about TBLT.

References

  1. Adams, R. , & Newton, J.
    (2009) TBLT in Asia: Constraints and opportunities. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 19(1), 1–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Andon, N. , Dewey, M. , & Leung, C.
    (2018) Tasks in the pedagogic space: Using online discussion forum tasks and formative feedback to develop academic discourse skills at master’s level. In V. Samuda , K. Van den Branden , & M. Bygate (Eds.), TBLT as a researched pedagogy (pp.235–263). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12.10and
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12.10and [Google Scholar]
  3. Andon, N. , & Eckerth, J.
    (2009) Chacun à son gout. Task-based L2 pedagogy from the teacher’s point of view. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19, 286–310. doi:  10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2009.00240.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00240.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Bartolomeo-Maida, M.
    (2016) The use of learning journals to foster textbook reading in the community college psychology class. College Student Journal, 50(3), 440–453.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baumfield, V. , Hall, E. , & Wall, K.
    (2013) Action research in education: Learning through practitioner enquiry. Sage. 10.4135/9781526402240
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526402240 [Google Scholar]
  6. Benson, S.
    (2016) Task-based language teaching: An empirical study of task transfer. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 341–365. 10.1177/1362168815569829
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815569829 [Google Scholar]
  7. Borg, S.
    (2006) Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brandl, K.
    (2017) Task-based instruction and teacher training. In N. van Deusen-Scholl & S. May (Eds.), Second and foreign language education. Encyclopedia of language and education (3rd ed., pp.1–14). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02246‑8_34
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02246-8_34 [Google Scholar]
  9. Breen, M. P.
    (1987) Learner contributions to task design. In C. N. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.), Tasks in language learning (pp.23–46). Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (1989) The evaluation cycle for language learning tasks. In R. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum (pp.187–206). Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139524520.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524520.014 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brumfit, C. J.
    (1979) Communicative language teaching: An educational perspective. In C. Brumfit & K. Johnson (Eds.), The communicative approach to language teaching (pp183–193). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (1984) Communicative methodology in language teaching: The roles of fluency and accuracy. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1985) Language and literature teaching: From practice to principle. Pergamon.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bruner, J.
    (1973) The relevance of education (2nd ed.). Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bryfonski, L. , & McKay, T.
    (2019) TBLT implementation and evaluation: A meta-analysis. Language Teaching Research, 23(5), 603–632. 10.1177/1362168817744389
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817744389 [Google Scholar]
  16. Burns, A.
    (2019) Action research: Developments, characteristics, and future directions. In J. Schwieter & A. Benati (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of language learning (pp.166–185). Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/9781108333603.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.008 [Google Scholar]
  17. Butler, Y. G.
    (2011) The implementation of communicative and task-based language teaching in the Asia-Pacific region. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 36–57. doi:  10.1017/S0267190511000122
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000122 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bygate, M.
    (Ed.) (2015) Domains and directions in the development of TBLT. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.8 [Google Scholar]
  19. (Ed.) (2018) Learning language through task repetition. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2020) Some directions for the possible survival of TBLT as a real world project. Language Teaching53, 275–288. doi:  10.1017/S0261444820000014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000014 [Google Scholar]
  21. Calvert, M. , & Sheen, Y.
    (2015) Task-based language learning and teaching: An action-research study. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 226–244. 10.1177/1362168814547037
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814547037 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cameron, L.
    (2001) Teaching languages to young children. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511733109
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511733109 [Google Scholar]
  23. Candlin, C. N.
    (1987) Towards task-based language learning. In C. N. Candlin & D. F. Murphy (Eds.), Language learning tasks (pp.5–22). Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carless, D.
    (2003) Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary schools. System, 31(4), 485–500. 10.1016/j.system.2003.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2003.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  25. (2004) Issues in teachers’ reinterpretation of task-based teaching in primary schools. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 639–662. doi:  10.2307/3588283
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588283 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2007) The suitability of task-based approaches for secondary schools: Perspectives from Hong Kong. System, 35(4), 595–608. 10.1016/j.system.2007.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2012) TBLT in EFL settings: Looking back and moving forward. In A. Shedadeh & C. Coombe (Eds.), Task-based language teaching in foreign language contexts: Research and Implementation (pp.345–358). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.4.20car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.4.20car [Google Scholar]
  28. (2013) Innovation in language teaching and learning. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.1–4). Wiley-Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0540
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0540 [Google Scholar]
  29. (2015) Teachers’ adaptations of TBLT: The Hong Kong story. In M. Thomas & H. Reinders (Eds.), Contemporary task-based language teaching in Asia (pp.366–380). Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cochran-Smith, M. , & Lytle, S.
    (1999) Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in communities. Review of Research in Education, 24, 249–305. doi:  10.3102/0091732X024001249
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X024001249 [Google Scholar]
  31. Coffey, S.
    (2015) Reframing teachers’ language knowledge through metaphor analysis of language portraits. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 500–514. doi:  10.1111/modl.12235
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12235 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cook, V.
    (2010) Linguistic relativity and language teaching. In V. Cook & A. Bassetti (Eds.), Language and bilingual cognition (pp.509–518). Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Corder, S. P.
    (1967) The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 161–169. 10.1515/iral.1967.5.1‑4.161
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1967.5.1-4.161 [Google Scholar]
  34. Costa, A. , & Kallick, B.
    (2009) Learning through reflection. In A. Costa & B. Kallick , (Eds.), Leading and learning with habits of mind (pp.221–235). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Creswell, J. W.
    (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dangel, J. R. , Guyton, E. , & McIntyre, C. B.
    (2004) Constructivist pedagogy in primary classrooms: Learning from teachers and their classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 237–245. doi:  10.1080/1090102040240404
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1090102040240404 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dao, T. T.
    (2016) Perceptions of teachers towards the implementation of task based language teaching: A case study in a Vietnamese University. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 3(12), 48–55. doi:  10.1017/9781108333603.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.022 [Google Scholar]
  39. Darling-Hammond, L. , Hyler, M. E. , & Gardner, M.
    (2017) Effective teacher professional development. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/teacher-prof-dev. 10.54300/122.311
    https://doi.org/10.54300/122.311 [Google Scholar]
  40. Darling-Hammond, L. , & Richardson, N.
    (2009) Teacher learning: What matters?Educational Leadership, 66(5), 46–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. DeKeyser, R.
    (1998) Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspective on learning and practising second language grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.42–63). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2007) Situating the concept of practice. In R. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp.1–18). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002 [Google Scholar]
  43. DeKeyser, R. , & Robinson, P.
    (2001) Automaticity and automatization. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.125–151). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524780.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.007 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dewey, J.
    (1933) How we think. Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dupuy, B.
    (1999) Narrow listening: An alternative way to develop listening comprehension in the foreign language classroom. System, 24(1), 97–100. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(99)00030‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00030-5 [Google Scholar]
  46. East, M.
    (2012) Task-based language teaching from the teachers’ perspective. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.3 [Google Scholar]
  47. (2014a) Encouraging innovation in a modern foreign language initial teacher education programme: What do beginning teachers make of task-based language teaching?The Language Learning Journal, 42(3), 261–274. doi:  10.1080/09571736.2013.856455
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.856455 [Google Scholar]
  48. (2014b) Mediating pedagogical innovation via reflective practice: A comparison of preservice and in-service teachers’ experiences. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 15(5), 686–699. doi:  10.1080/14623943.2014.944128
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2014.944128 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2018) How do beginning teachers conceptualise and enact tasks in school foreign language classrooms?In V. Samuda , K. Van den Branden , & M. Bygate (Eds.), TBLT as a researched pedagogy (pp.23–50). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12.02eas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12.02eas [Google Scholar]
  50. (2019) Embedding innovation into school modern foreign languages programmes: Outcomes of two teachers’ inquiries into their own practices. The European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 8(2), 141–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ellis, N. C. , & Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (2009) Constructing a second language: Analyses and computational simulations of the emergence of linguistic constructions from usage. Language Learning, 59, 90–125. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00537.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00537.x [Google Scholar]
  52. Ellis, N. C. , & Wulff, S.
    (2015) Usage-based approaches in second language acquisition. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp.75–93). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ellis, R.
    (1994) A theory of instructed second language acquisition. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp.79–114). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (1997) SLA research and language teaching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2001) Investigating Form-Focused Instruction. In R. Ellis (Ed.) Form-Focused Instruction and second language learning. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2003) Task-based language teaching and learning. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2005) Instructed second language acquisition: A literature review. Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2009) Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221–246. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2009.00231.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00231.x [Google Scholar]
  59. (2010) Second language acquisition, teacher education and language pedagogy. Language Teaching, 43(2), 182–201. doi:  10.1017/S0261444809990139
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444809990139 [Google Scholar]
  60. (2011) Macro- and micro-evaluations of task-based teaching. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Materials development in language teaching (2nd ed., pp.212–235). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (2012) Language teaching research and language pedagogy. Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118271643
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118271643 [Google Scholar]
  62. (2019) Towards a modular language curriculum for using tasks. Language Teaching Research, 23(4), 454–475. 10.1177/1362168818765315
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818765315 [Google Scholar]
  63. Ellis, R. , & Barkhuizen, G.
    (2005) Analysing learner language. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Ellis, R. , Basturkmen, H. , & Loewen, S.
    (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons. Language Learning, 51(2), 281–318. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00156
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00156 [Google Scholar]
  65. Ellis, R. , Loewen, S. , Elder, C. , Erlam, R. , Philp, J. , & Reinders, H.
    (2009) Implicit and explicit language knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ellis, R. , Loewen, S. , & Erlam, R.
    (2006) Implicit and explicit feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339–368. 10.1017/S0272263106060141
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060141 [Google Scholar]
  67. Ellis, R. , & Shintani, N.
    (2014) Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Ellis, R. , Skehan, P. , Li, S. , Shintani, N. , & Lambert, C.
    (2020) Task-based language teaching: Theory and practice. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108643689
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108643689 [Google Scholar]
  69. Erlam, R.
    (2008) What do you researchers know about language teaching? Bridging the gap between SLA research and language pedagogy. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 2(3), 253–267. doi:  10.1080/17501220802158958
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17501220802158958 [Google Scholar]
  70. (2013) Listing and comparing tasks in the language classroom: Examples of Willis and Willis’s (2007) taxonomy in practice. The New Zealand Language Teacher, 39, 7–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. (2015a) “New tricks”: Teachers talk about task-based language teaching. Babel, 50(1), 4–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. (2015b) Why the Interact standard is good for your classroom. The New Zealand Language Teacher, 41, 22–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. (2016a) “I’m still not sure what a task is”: Teachers designing language tasks. Language Teaching Research. 20(3), 279–299. doi:  10.1177/1362168814566087
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814566087 [Google Scholar]
  74. (2016b) Using evaluation to promote change in language teacher practice. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 5(1), 41–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Erlam, R. , & Ellis, R.
    (2018) Task-based language teaching for beginner-level learners of L2 French: An exploratory study. Canadian Modern Language Review, 71(1), 1–26. 10.3138/cmlr.3831
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.3831 [Google Scholar]
  76. (2019) Input-based tasks for beginner-level learners: An approximate replication and extension of Erlam and Ellis (2018). Language Teaching, 52(4), 490–511. doi:  10.1017/S0261444818000216
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000216 [Google Scholar]
  77. Erlam, R. , & Pimentel-Hellier, M.
    (2017) Opportunities to attend to language form in the adolescent near-beginner foreign language classroom. Language Awareness, 26(2), 59–77. 10.1080/09658416.2017.1314487
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2017.1314487 [Google Scholar]
  78. Erlam, R. , & Sakui, K.
    (2006) Instructed second language acquisition case studies. Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Farrell, T. S. C.
    (2016) The practices of encouraging TESOL teachers to engage in reflective practice: An appraisal of recent research contributions. Language Teaching Research, 20(2), 223–247. doi:  10.1177/1362168815617335
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815617335 [Google Scholar]
  80. Farrell, T. S. C. , & Ives, J.
    (2015) Exploring teacher beliefs and classroom practices through reflective practice. Language Teaching Research, 19(5), 594–610. doi:  10.1177/1362168814541722
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814541722 [Google Scholar]
  81. Feiman-Nemser, S.
    (2008) Teacher learning: How do teachers learn to teach?In M. Cochran-Smith , S. Feiman-Nemser , J. McIntyre , & K. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp.697–705). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Freese, A. R.
    (2006) Reframing one’s teaching: Discovering our teacher selves through reflection and inquiry reflective practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 100–119. doi:  10.1016/j.tate.2005.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  83. Gatbonton, E.
    (2015, September16–18). Task repetition to utterance repetition and accuracy. [Colloquium presentation] 6th Biennial Task Based Language Teaching conference, Leuven, Belgium.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Gibbs, C. J. , & Holt, R. F.
    (2003) The teaching of international languages in New Zealand schools in Years 7 and 8: An evaluation study. Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Gower, R. , & Walters, S.
    (1983) Teaching practice handbook. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hammerness, K. M. , Darling-Hammond, L. , & Bransford, J.
    (2005) How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond , & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp.358–389). Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Hu, G.
    (2002) Recent important developments in secondary English language teaching in the P. R. China. Language Culture and Curriculum, 15(1), 30–49. 10.1080/07908310208666631
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310208666631 [Google Scholar]
  88. Hu, G. , & McKay, S. L.
    (2012) English language education in East Asia: Some recent developments. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(4), 345–362. 10.1080/01434632.2012.661434
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.661434 [Google Scholar]
  89. Hu, R.
    (2013) Task-based language teaching: Responses from Chinese teachers of English. TESL-EJ, 16(4), 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Insley, S. , & Thomson, W.
    (2008) Supporting teachers to increase the quality and quantity of student target language use: Description and analysis of the “Teacher Professional Development in Languages” (TPDL) programme. The New Zealand Language Teacher, 34, 21–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Jeon, I. J. , & Hahn, J. W.
    (2006) Exploring EFL teachers’ perceptions of task-based language teaching: A case study of Korean secondary school classroom practice. Asian EFL Journal, 8(1), 123–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Johnson, K. E. , & Golombeck, P. R.
    (2018) Informing and transforming language teacher education pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 24(1), 116–127. doi:  10.1177/1362168818777539
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818777539 [Google Scholar]
  93. Keck, C. , Iberri-Shea, G. , Tracy-Venturea, N. , & Wa-Mbaleka, S.
    (2006) Investigating the empirical link between task-based interaction and acquisition: A quantitative meta-analysis. In J. M. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp.91–131). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.13.08kec
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.13.08kec [Google Scholar]
  94. Keck, C. , & Kim, Y.
    (2014) Pedagogical grammar. John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.190
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.190 [Google Scholar]
  95. Keenan, J. M. , & MacWhinney, B.
    (1987) Understanding the relationship between comprehension and production. In H. W. Dechert & M. Raupach (Eds.), Psycholinguistic models of production (pp.150–155). Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Kennedy, M. M.
    (1999) The role of preservice teacher education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp.54–85). Jossey Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Killion, J. , & Todnem, G.
    (1991) A process of personal theory building. Educational Leadership, 48(6), 14–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Klapper, J.
    (2003) Taking communication to task? A critical review of recent trends in language teaching. The Language Learning Journal, 27, 33–42. 10.1080/09571730385200061
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730385200061 [Google Scholar]
  99. Korthagen, F.
    (2011) Making teacher education relevant for practice: The pedagogy of realistic teacher education. Orbis Scholae, 5(2), 31–50. doi:  10.14712/23363177.2018.99
    https://doi.org/10.14712/23363177.2018.99 [Google Scholar]
  100. (2017) Inconvenient truths about teacher learning: Towards professional development 3.0. Teachers and Teaching, 23(4), 387–405. doi:  10.1080/13540602.2016.1211523
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2016.1211523 [Google Scholar]
  101. Kubanyiova, M.
    (2012) Teacher development in action: Understanding language teachers’ conceptual change. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230348424
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230348424 [Google Scholar]
  102. Kubanyiova, M. , & Feryok, A.
    (2015) Language teacher cognition in applied linguistics research: Revisiting the territory, redrawing the boundaries, reclaiming the relevance. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 435–449. 10.1111/modl.12239
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12239 [Google Scholar]
  103. Kumaravadivelu, B.
    (2001) Towards a post-method pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 537–560. 10.2307/3588427
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588427 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lantolf, J.
    (2000) (Ed.). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lantolf, J. , & Beckett, T.
    (2009) Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition. Language Teaching, 42, 459–475. 10.1017/S0261444809990048
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444809990048 [Google Scholar]
  106. Legutke, M.
    (2012) Teaching teenagers. In A. Burns & J. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to pedagogy and practice in second language teaching (pp.112–119). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009024778.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024778.015 [Google Scholar]
  107. Lightbown, P. M.
    (2014) Making the minutes count in L2 teaching. Language Awareness, 23, 3–23. 10.1080/09658416.2013.863903
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2013.863903 [Google Scholar]
  108. Linsen, B.
    (1994) A trial-and-error process: The introduction of task-based language teaching. A practical description from primary education in Flanders. In S. Kroon & T. Vallen (Eds.), Nederlands als tweede taal in het onderwijs. Praktijkbeschrijvingen uit Nederland en Vlaanderen [Dutch as a second language in education: Practical descriptions from the Netherlands and Flanders] (pp.131–159). SDU Uitgeverij.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Littlewood, W.
    (2007) Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching, 40(3), 243–249. 10.1017/S0261444807004363
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444807004363 [Google Scholar]
  110. (2014) Communication-oriented teaching: Where are we now? Where do we go from here?Language Teaching, 47, 249–362. 10.1017/S0261444812000134
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444812000134 [Google Scholar]
  111. Liu, Y. , Mishan, F. , & Chambers, A.
    (2018) Investigating EFL teachers’ perceptions of task-based language teaching in higher education in China. The Language Learning Journal, 49(2), 131–146. doi:  10.1080/09571736.2018.1465110
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2018.1465110 [Google Scholar]
  112. Loewen, S.
    (2004) Uptake in incidental focus on form in meaning-focused ESL lessons. Language Learning, 54, 153–187. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2004.00251.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00251.x [Google Scholar]
  113. (2005) Incidental focus on form and second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 361–386. 10.1017/S0272263105050163
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050163 [Google Scholar]
  114. Loewen, S. , & Reinders, H.
    (2011) Key concepts in second language acquisition. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑0‑230‑34627‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-230-34627-7 [Google Scholar]
  115. Long, M. H.
    (1983) Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of research. TESOL Quarterly, 17(3), 359–382. 10.2307/3586253
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586253 [Google Scholar]
  116. (1985) A role for instruction in second language acquisition: Task-based language teaching. In K. Hyltenstam & M. Pienemann (Eds.), Modelling and assessing second language development (pp.77–99). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. (1988) Instructed interlanguage development. In L. Beebe (Ed.), Issues in second language acquisition: Multiple perspectives (pp.115–141). Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. (1991) Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. de Bot , R. Ginsberg , & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective (pp.39–52). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.2.07lon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.2.07lon [Google Scholar]
  119. (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. (2015) Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Long, M. H. , & Crookes, G.
    (1992) Three approaches to task-based language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 26(1), 27–56. 10.2307/3587368
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587368 [Google Scholar]
  122. Long, M. , Lee, J. , & Hillman, K. K.
    (2019) Task-based language learning. In J. Schwieter & A. Benati (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of language and learning (pp.500–526). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108333603.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.022 [Google Scholar]
  123. Loughran, J. J.
    (2002) Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53, 33–43. doi:  10.1177/0022487102053001004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487102053001004 [Google Scholar]
  124. (2010) What expert teachers do: Teachers’ professional knowledge of classroom practice. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Mackey, A. , & Goo, J.
    (2007) Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A series of empirical studies (pp.407–453). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. McDonough, K.
    (2015) Perceived benefits and challenges with the use of collaborative tasks in EFL contexts. In M. Bygate (Ed.), Domains and directions in the development of TBLT (pp.225–245). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.8.08mcd
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.8.08mcd [Google Scholar]
  127. McDonough, K. , & Chaikitmongkol, W.
    (2007) Teachers’ and learners’ reactions to a task-based EFL course in Thailand. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 107–132. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2007.tb00042.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2007.tb00042.x [Google Scholar]
  128. McNiff, J.
    (2016) You and your action research project (4th ed.). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315693620
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315693620 [Google Scholar]
  129. Miles, M. B. , & Huberman, A. H.
    (1994) Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods. Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2007a) The generic framework for teaching and learning languages in English-medium schools. Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2007b) The New Zealand curriculum. Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2012) Pedagogy for learning languages. Retrieved on4 August 2021fromhttps://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/Learning-languages/Pedagogy
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2017) What’s new or different. Retrieved on4 August 2021fromseniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/Learning-languages/What-s-new-or-different
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2020) Teaching as inquiry. Retrieved on4 August 2021https://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Teaching-as-inquiry
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Muijs, D. , Kyriakides, L. , van der Werf, G. , Creemers, B. , Timperley, H. , & Earl, L.
    (2014) State of the art – teacher effectiveness and professional learning. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 25(2), 231–256. 10.1080/09243453.2014.885451
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2014.885451 [Google Scholar]
  136. Müller-Hartmann, A. , & Schocker-von Ditfurth, M.
    (2011) Teaching English: Task-supported language learning. Ferdinand Schöningh. 10.36198/9783838533360
    https://doi.org/10.36198/9783838533360 [Google Scholar]
  137. (2018) The challenges of integrating focus on form within tasks: Findings from a classroom research project in secondary EFL classrooms. In V. Samuda , K. Van den Branden , & M. Bygate (Eds.), TBLT as a researched pedagogy (pp.97–129). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12.05har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12.05har [Google Scholar]
  138. Nation, I. S. P. , & Macalister, J.
    (2010) Language curriculum design. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Newman, F. , & Holzman, L.
    (1997) The end of knowing: A new developmental way of learning. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Newton, J. , Yates, E. , Shearn, S. , & Nowitzki, W.
    (2010) Intercultural communicative language teaching: Implications for effective teaching and learning – A literature review and an evidence-based framework for effective teaching. Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Norris, J.
    (2009) Task-based language teaching and testing. In M. Long & C. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp.578–594). Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444315783.ch30
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444315783.ch30 [Google Scholar]
  142. Nunan, D.
    (1989) Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. (2004) Task-based language teaching. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667336
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667336 [Google Scholar]
  144. Ogilvie, G. , & Dunn, W.
    (2010) Taking teacher education to task: Exploring the role of teacher education in promoting the utilization of task-based language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 161–181. 10.1177/1362168809353875
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168809353875 [Google Scholar]
  145. Oh, S.
    (2001) Two types of input modification and EFL reading comprehension: Simplification versus elaboration. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 69–96. 10.2307/3587860
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587860 [Google Scholar]
  146. Oliver, R. , & Bogachenko, T.
    (2018) Teacher perceptions and use of tasks in school ESL classrooms. In V. Samuda , K. Van den Branden , & M. Bygate (Eds.), TBLT as a researched pedagogy (pp.71–95). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12.04oli
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12.04oli [Google Scholar]
  147. Ortega, L.
    (2007) Meaningful L2 practice in foreign language classrooms: A cognitive-interactionist SLA perspective. In R. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp.180–207). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.011 [Google Scholar]
  148. (2015) Researching CLIL and TBLT interfaces. System, 54, 103–109. 10.1016/j.system.2015.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  149. Pham, N. T. , & Nguyen, H. B.
    (2018) Teachers’ perceptions about task-based language teaching and its implementation. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3(2). Retrieved on4 August 2021fromhttps://oapub.org/edu/index.php/ejfl/article/view/1619
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Philp, J. , Adams, R. , & Iwashita, N.
    (2014) Peer interaction and second language learning. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Pica, T. , Kanagy, R. , & Falodun, J.
    (1993) Choosing and using communication tasks for second language research and instruction. In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning. Integrating theory and practice. (pp.9–34). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Prabhu, N. S.
    (1987) Second language pedagogy. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Richards, K.
    (2003) Qualitative inquiry in TESOL. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230505056
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230505056 [Google Scholar]
  154. Richards, J. C. , & Rodgers, T.
    (2014) Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Robinson, P.
    (Ed.) (2001) Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524780
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780 [Google Scholar]
  156. (2011) Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61, Supp.1, 1–36. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00641.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00641.x [Google Scholar]
  157. Samuda, V.
    (2001) Guiding relationships between form and meaning during task performance: The role of the teacher. In M. Bygate , P. Skehan , & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing. Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Samuda, V. , & Bygate, M.
    (2008) Tasks in second language learning. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230596429
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230596429 [Google Scholar]
  159. Samuda, V. , Van den Branden, K. , & Bygate, M.
    (Eds.) (2018) TBLT as a researched pedagogy. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12 [Google Scholar]
  160. Scarino, A.
    (2014) Learning as reciprocal, interpretive meaning-making: A view from collaborative research into the professional learning of teachers of languages. The Modern Language Journal, 98(1), 386–401. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2014.12068.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2014.12068.x [Google Scholar]
  161. Schmidt, R.
    (1995) Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. University of Hawai’i.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Schön, D.
    (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner: Towards a new design of teaching and learning in the professions. Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Shintani, N.
    (2016) Input-based tasks in foreign language instruction for young learners. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.9 [Google Scholar]
  165. Shulman, L. S.
    (1986) Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14. 10.3102/0013189X015002004
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004 [Google Scholar]
  166. Skehan, P.
    (1996) Second language acquisition research and task-based language instruction. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp.17–30). Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. (1998) Task-based instruction. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 268–286. 10.1017/S0267190500003585
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500003585 [Google Scholar]
  168. Skehan, P. , Xiaoyue, B. , Qian, L. , & Wang, Z.
    (2012) The task is not enough: Processing approaches to task-based performance. Language Teaching Research, 16(2), 170–187. 10.1177/1362168811428414
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168811428414 [Google Scholar]
  169. Stenhouse, L.
    (1975) An introduction to curriculum research and development. Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Swain, M.
    (2005) The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.471–483). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (1998) Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. The Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 320–337. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01209.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01209.x [Google Scholar]
  172. Swan, M.
    (2005) Legislation by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 376–401. 10.1093/applin/ami013
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ami013 [Google Scholar]
  173. Timperley, H.
    (2011) Realizing the power of professional learning. Open University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Tolosa, C.
    (2007) Beliefs and the teaching of Spanish: Native and non-native teachers’ views. New Zealand Language Teacher, 33, 33–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Van den Branden, K.
    (2006) Training teachers: Task-based as well?In K. Van den Branden (Ed.), Task-based language education: From theory to practice (pp.217–248). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667282.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667282.011 [Google Scholar]
  176. (2009) Mediating between predetermined order and chaos: The role of the teacher in task-based language education. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 264–285. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2009.00241.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2009.00241.x [Google Scholar]
  177. (2016) The role of teachers in task-based language education. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 164–181. doi:  10.1017/S0267190515000070
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190515000070 [Google Scholar]
  178. Van den Branden, K. , Bygate, M. , & Norris, J. M.
    (2009) Task-based language teaching: A reader. In K. Van den Branden , M. Bygate , & J. M. Norris (Eds.). Task-based language teaching: A reader (pp.1–13). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.1.02van
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.1.02van [Google Scholar]
  179. Vandommele, G. , Van den Branden, K. , & Van Gorp, K.
    (2018) Task-based language teaching: How task-based is it really?In V. Samuda , K. Van den Branden , & M. Bygate (Eds.), TBLT as a researched pedagogy (pp.165–197). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.12.07van
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.12.07van [Google Scholar]
  180. Vygotsky, L.
    (1978) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Waite, J.
    (1992) Aoteareo: Speaking for ourselves, a discussion on the development of a New Zealand languages policy. Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Wedell, M.
    (2009) Planning for educational change: Putting people and their contexts first. Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. White, L.
    (1991) Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom. Second Language Research, 7 (2), 133–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Widdowson, H. G.
    (1998) The theory and practice of critical discourse analysis. Applied Linguistics, 19, 136–151. 10.1093/applin/19.1.136
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/19.1.136 [Google Scholar]
  185. Willis, D. , & Willis, J.
    (2007) Doing task-based teaching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Willis, J.
    (1996) A framework for task-based learning. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. (2004) Perspectives on task-based instruction. In B. L. Leaver & J. Willis , Task- based instruction in foreign language education: Practices and programs (pp.3–44). Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Wyatt, M. , & Borg, S.
    (2011) Development in the practical knowledge of language teachers: A comparative study of three teachers designing and using communicative tasks on an in-service BA TESOL programme in the Middle East. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5, 233–252. 10.1080/17501229.2010.537340
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2010.537340 [Google Scholar]
  189. Yim, S.
    (2009) South Korean teachers’ perceptions of TBLT. TESOL Review, 1(1), 29–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Yoon, K. S. , Duncan, T. , Lee, S. W. Y. , Scarloss, B. , & Shapley, K.
    (2007) Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007 No. 033). US. Department of Education, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Zheng, X. , & Borg, S.
    (2014) Task-based language teaching in China: Secondary school teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 18(2), 205–221. 10.1177/1362168813505941
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168813505941 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/books/9789027258168
Loading
/content/books/9789027258168
dcterms_subject,pub_keyword
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
10
5
Chapter
content/books/9789027258168
Book
false
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error