1887

History, Discourse, and Policy in Modern Turkey

image of History, Discourse, and Policy in Modern Turkey

Through critical discourse analysis (CDA) and the discourse-historical approach (DHA), this book probes into political discourse imbued with historical legacies, with particular focus on explicating the structure and function of AKP stories and its relationship with Turkish politics. It offers an alternative way of reading the transformation in such politics via the pattern of deconstruction, reconstruction, and policymaking. It systematically delineates how President R. Tayyip Erdoğan’s political discourse evokes dialog that embodies the grand legacy of history, deconstructs the mentality of the opposition, reconstructs an alternative dialog, and converts discourse into policy. The book breaks a new ground by introducing a theoretical framework on the relationship between political discourse and policy. It traces how political stories sourced largely by appropriated historical themes and figures enable rhetoricians to weave simple yet good and influential stories to legitimize potential political action, by beguiling people’s hearts and minds.

References

  1. Aalberg , Toril , Frank Esser , Carsten Reinemann , Jesper Strömbäck , and Claes H. de Vreese
    2017Populist Political Communication in Europe. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abu-Nimer, Muhammed
    2000 “A Framework for Nonviolence and Peacebuilding in Islam.” Journal of Law and Religion15 (1/2), 217–265. 10.2307/1051519
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1051519 [Google Scholar]
  3. Akdoğan, Yalçın
    2004AK Parti ve Muhafazakâr Demokrasi, Vol. 13. İstanbul: Alfa
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Akgündüz , Ahmet , Said Öztürk and Yaşar Baş
    2006Ayasofya Mosque: From Church to Museum, İstanbul: Ottoman Research Foundation.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Aksakal, Hasan
    2017Türk Muhafazakârlığı: Terennüm, Tereddüt, Tahakküm. İstanbul: ALFA.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Aksan, H. Virginia
    2006 “Ottoman to Turk: Continuity and Change.” Sage Publications61 (1):19–38. 10.1177/002070200606100102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002070200606100102 [Google Scholar]
  7. Alonso, Ana Maria
    1988 “The Effects of Truth: Representations cf the Past and the Imagining of Community,” Journal of Historical Sociology1(1):33–57. 10.1111/j.1467‑6443.1988.tb00003.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6443.1988.tb00003.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Altunisik, Meliha
    2000 “The Turkish-Israeli rapprochement in the post-Cold War era.” Middle Eastern Studies, 36 (2):172–191. 10.1080/00263200008701313
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200008701313 [Google Scholar]
  9. Aras, Bülent
    2000 “Turkish Foreign Policy and Jerusalem: Toward a Societal Construction of Foreign Policy.” Arab Studies Quarterly22(4):31–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Archetti, Cristina
    2014Politicians, Personal Image and The Construction of Political Identity: A Comparative Study of the UK and Italy. Springer. 10.1057/9781137353429
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137353429 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ardıç, Nurullah
    2014 “Civilizational Discourse, the ‘Alliance of Civilizations’ and Turkish Foreign Policy.” Insight Turkey16(3):101–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Aras, Damla
    2011 “Turkey’s Ambassadors vs. Erdoğan.” Middle East Quarterly18.1.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ardıç, Engin
    . “Türkiye Osmanlı olduğunu hatırlıyor,” Sabah January 31, 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Armbruster , Heidi , and Ulrike H. Meinhof
    2005 “Storying East-German pasts: memory discourses and narratives of readjustment on the German/Polish and former German/German border”. In Thornborrow, Joanna and Coates, Jennifer (eds.) The Sociolinguistics of Narrative. (pp. 41–65). Amsterdam, Netherlands and Philadelphia, USA.John Benjamins Publishing Company, (Studies in Narrative) 10.1075/sin.6.03arm
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sin.6.03arm [Google Scholar]
  15. Atacan, Fulya
    2001 “A Kurdish Islamist Group in Modern Turkey: Shifting Identities.” Middle Eastern Studies, 37(3):111–44. 10.1080/714004407
    https://doi.org/10.1080/714004407 [Google Scholar]
  16. Atatürk, M. Kemal
    1952Atatürk’ün Söylev ve Demeçleri (Speeches and Statements of Atatürk) Ankara: Türk İnkilap Tarihi Enstitüsü.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Austin, John. L.
    1956 “A Plea for Excuses: The Presidential Address.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 57:1–30. New Series. 10.1093/aristotelian/57.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1093/aristotelian/57.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  18. Babinger, Franz
    1992Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. vol. 96. Princeton University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bayramoğlu, Ali
    . “Bir Başbakan, bir lider, bir duruş…,” Yeni Şafak January 31, 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Beekman, Martijn
    . “Israel’s Netanyahu apologizes to Turkey over deadly flotilla raid.” NBC News March 22, 2013 Available at: worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/03/22/17416275-israels-netanyahu-apologizes-to-turkey-over-deadly-flotilla-raid?lite [May 25, 2016].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ben-Amos, Dan
    1993 “Context in Context.” Western Folklore, 52:209–226. 10.2307/1500087
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1500087 [Google Scholar]
  22. Benhabib, Seyla
    1996Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bilgili, Alper
    2015 “An Ottoman Response to Darwinism: İsmail Fennî on Islam and Evolution.” The British Journal for the History of Science, 48(4):565–582., 10.1017/S0007087415000618.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007087415000618 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bilsel, Can S. M.
    2007 ““Our Anatolia”: Organicism And The Making Of Humanist Culture In Turkey”. InMuqarnas, Volume 24 History and Ideology: Architectural Heritage of the “Lands of Rum”, (Leiden, The Netherlands: BRILL, 2007) 10.1163/ej.9789004163201.i‑310.39
    https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004163201.i-310.39 [Google Scholar]
  25. Blommaert, Jan
    2004Workshopping: Professional Vision, Practices and Critique in Discourse Analysis. Amsterdam: Academia Press
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Blommaert , Jan , and Chris Bulcaen
    2000 “Critical Discourse Analysis.” Annual Review of Anthropology, 29(1):447–466. 10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.447
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.447 [Google Scholar]
  27. Bourdieu, Pierre
    1985Sozialer Raum und „Klassen. Leçon sur la leçon. Zwei Vorlesungen. Frankfurt/Main.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bowles, Edmund A.
    2006 “The Impact of Turkish Military Bands on European Court Festivals in the 17th and 18th Centuries.” Early Music34 (4):533–559., www.jstor.org/stable/4137306. 10.1093/em/cal103
    https://doi.org/10.1093/em/cal103 [Google Scholar]
  29. Brewer, Marilynn B.
    1991 “The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17(5):475–482. 10.1177/0146167291175001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167291175001 [Google Scholar]
  30. Britain, Great
    1922 “Turkey No. 1 (1923).” Lausanne Conference on Near Eastern Affairs. vol. 1923.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Brown, Marshall. P.
    1924 “From Sevres to Lausanne.” The American Journal of International Law18(1):113–116. www.jstor.org/stable/2189228. 10.2307/2189228
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2189228 [Google Scholar]
  32. Buhârî
    Buhârî. Salât, 88; Müslim, Birr ve Sıla, 65
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Burke, Michael
    2014The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Carr, Edward Hallett
    2016The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: Reissued with a new preface from Michael Cox. Springer. 10.1057/978‑1‑349‑95076‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95076-8 [Google Scholar]
  35. Carr, Edward Hallett and Richard J. Evans
    2001What is History?. Houndmills: Palgrave.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cassirer, Ernst
    1955The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. vol. 2, Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Castoriadis, Cornelius
    1997The Imaginary Institution of Society. Mit Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Calhoun, Craig
    1991 “Morality, Identity, and Historical Explanation: Charles Taylor on the Sources of the Self. Sociological Theory,” 9(2), 232. 10.2307/202087
    https://doi.org/10.2307/202087 [Google Scholar]
  39. Çandar, Candar . and Michel Nawfal
    2013 “Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu,”University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi
    Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP Tarihi, January 30, 2015, Available at: https://www.chp.org.tr/Haberler/0/chp_tarihi-54.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Çavdar, Gamze
    2006 “Islamist “New Thinking” in Turkey: A Model for Political Learning?.” Political Science Quarterly121(3):477–497. 10.1002/j.1538‑165X.2006.tb00579.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-165X.2006.tb00579.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Çinar, Alev
    2001 “National History as a Contested Site: The Conquest of Istanbul and Islamist Negotiations of the Nation.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 43(2):364–91. 10.1017/S0010417501003528
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417501003528 [Google Scholar]
  43. Çığ, Muazzez İlmiye
    2007Atatürk Düşünüyor, İstanbul: Kaynak Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Carr, David
    1986 “Narrative and the Real World: An Argument for Continuity.” History and Theory25(2):117–131. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2505301. 10.2307/2505301
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2505301 [Google Scholar]
  45. Connolly, William E.
    2002Identity, Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox. U of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1974The Terms of Political Discourse (3rd ed). Princeton: Princeton University Press, N.J.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Constitutional Court Decision. E. 2007/45, K.2007/54
    Constitutional Court Decision. E. 2007/45, K.2007/54, 1 May 2007, Resmi Gazete (Official Gazette), 27 June 2007, no. 26565. Available at: www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/06/20070627–17.html,
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Cooper, Malcolm
    2002 “The Legacy of Atatürk: Turkish Political Structures and Policy- Making.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944 -) 78(1):115–128. 10.1111/1468‑2346.00241
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.00241 [Google Scholar]
  49. Davidson, Helen & McKernan, Bethan
    . “Pressure on Turkey to protect Uighurs as China ratifies extradition treaty,” The Guardian, December 29, 2020, Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/29/pressure-on-turkey-to-protect-uighurs-as-china-ratifies-extradition-treatyAccessed March 20, 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Davis, Elizabeth van Wie
    2008 “Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China.” Asian Affairs35(1):15–29. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27821503. 10.3200/AAFS.35.1.15‑30
    https://doi.org/10.3200/AAFS.35.1.15-30 [Google Scholar]
  51. Davutoğlu, Ahmet
    . “Büyükelçiler Konferansı Açış Konuşması, December 23, 2011, Available at: www.mfa.gov.tr/disisleri-bakani-sn_-ahmet-davutoglu_nun-iv_-buyukelciler-konferansi-acis-konusmasi_-23-aralik- 2011.tr.mfa
    [Google Scholar]
  52. . “Saraybosna’yı Şam’a Bağlayacağız”, Anadolu Ajansı, May 3 2013 Available at: www.aa.com.tr/tr/politika/139145--kimsenin-topraginda-gozumuz-yok
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Çolak, Yilmaz
    2006 “Ottomanism vs Kemalism: Collective Memory and Cultural Pluralism in 1990s Turkey,”Taylor & Francis42(4):587–602. 10.1080/00263200600642274
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200600642274 [Google Scholar]
  54. de Vreese, C. H. , Esser, F. , Aalberg, T. , Reinemann, C. , and Stanyer, J.
    2018 Populism as an Expression of Political Communication Content and Style: A New Perspective. The International Journal of Press/Politics23(4):423–438. 10.1177/1940161218790035
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161218790035 [Google Scholar]
  55. D’Amato, Anthony A.
    1967 “Psychological constructs in foreign policy prediction.” Journal of Conflict Resolution11(3):294–311. 10.1177/002200276701100304
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002200276701100304 [Google Scholar]
  56. Delanty , Gerard , and Chris Rumford
    2005Rethinking Europe: Social Theory and The Implications of Europeanization. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203640050
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203640050 [Google Scholar]
  57. Diehl, Jackson
    . “Turkey’s Vision of an Ottoman Commonwealth,” Atlantic Council, December 6 2010 Available at: www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/natosource/turkeys-vision-of-an-ottoman-commonwealth
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Doty, Roxanne Lynn
    1996 “Immigration and National Identity: Constructing the Nation.” Review of International Studies 22(3):235–255. 10.1017/S0260210500118534
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118534 [Google Scholar]
  59. Editorial, “Excerpts of Turkish Army Statement
    Editorial, “Excerpts of Turkish Army Statement” BBC NEWS, April 28, 2007 Available at: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6602775.stm
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Edwards, Mark W.
    1975 “Type-Scenes and Homeric Hospitality.” Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974-)105:51–72. 10.2307/283933
    https://doi.org/10.2307/283933 [Google Scholar]
  61. Erdoğan, R. Tayyip
    . “Rise of the Turkish Crescent,” Aljazeera and Agencies October 27, 2009, Available at: www.aljazeera.com/focus/2009/03/200934165449939647.html
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip
    . “Erdoğan accuses France for committing ‘genocide’ in Algeria,” Hurriyet Daily News December 23, 2011, Available at: www.hurriyetdailynews.com/Erdoğan-accuses-france-of-committing-genocide-inalgeria.aspx?pageID=238&nID=9852&NewsCatID=338
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Erdoğan, R. Tayyip
    . “Erdoğan defies unrest, vows to rebuild Ottoman barracks,” English Al Arabiya June 1, 2013 Available at: english.alarabiya.net/en/News/world/2013/06/01/Dozens-injured-after-violent-protests-at-Istanbul-s-Taksim-Square.html
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip
    . “Recep Tayyip Erdoğan dismisses Turkey protestors as vandals”. The Guardian June 9, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/09/recep-tayyip-Erdoğan-turkey-protesters-looters-vandals
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Erdoğan, R. Tayyip
    . “The Speech at the Ceremony of Remembrance for the 76th Anniversary of Atatürk’s Passing Held at Atatürk Supreme Council for Culture, Language and History” Ankara, November 10, 2014 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/3280/our-aspirations-for-a-new-turkey-arises-from-the-spirit-of-april-23-1920-just-like-mustafa-kemal-intended.html[14 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. . “Muslims discovered America, says Turkish President,” The Guardian, November 16 2014 Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/16/muslims-discovered-america-Erdoğan-christopher-columbus
    [Google Scholar]
  67. . “The Speech at the Joint Press Conference He Held with Chairman Ivanic of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo”, Sarajevo May 20, 2015 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/32184/mursiye-verilen-idam-kararinin-uluslararasi-arenada-takipcisi-olacagiz.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. . “The Speech at Meeting with foreign ambassadors, serving in Ankara, at an iftar (fast breaking) table”, Ankara, July 09 2015 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/32895/cumhurbaskani-Erdoğan-buyukelcilerle-iftar-yapti.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. . “Cumhuriyetin sahibi milletimizin kendisidir, sembolü de cumhurbaşkanlığı külliyesidir,” Ankara, October 28 2015, Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/35788/cumhuriyetin-sahibi-milletimizin-kendisidir-sembolu-de-cumhurbaskanligi-kulliyesidir.html
    [Google Scholar]
  70. . “TÜGİK Genel Kurulu’nda Yaptıkları Konuşma”, Ankara, February 11 2016 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/38794/tugik-genel-kurulunda-yaptiklari-konusma.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. . “The Speech at the 3rd Phoenix Award Ceremony, held by Yeşilay (the Turkish Green Crescent Society)”, İstanbul, March 04 2016 Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/40048/zihinlerini-yabanci-baskentlerin-emrine-verenler-oz-guven-sahibi-dis-politika-iddiasindan-rahatsiz-oluyor.html [13 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. . “Turkey is the hope of Islamic world,” Istanbul, April 28 2016 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/43790/turkey-is-the-hope-of-the-islamic-world.html
    [Google Scholar]
  73. . “Speech at a Commemoration Ceremony Held on the Occasion of the Centenary of Kut Al Amara Victory”, Ankara, April 29 2016 Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/43805/milletimizin-binlerce-yillik-tarihini-neredeyse-1919-yilindan-baslatan-tarih-anlayisini-reddediyorum.html [12 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. . “The speech at a mass opening ceremony of new facilities in Eyüp district of Istanbul”, İstanbul, May 06 2016 Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/43887/presidential-system-is-not-new-to-us.html [29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. . “Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Condemns Execution of Bangladesh Jamaat-E-Islami Leader Motiur Rahman Nizami,” NDTV, May 12 2016 Available at: www.ndtv.com/world-news/turkeys-Erdoğan-condemns-execution-of-bangladesh-jamaat-e-islami-leader-motiur-rahman-nizami-1405524
    [Google Scholar]
  76. . “The Speech at 9th International Student Meeting”, İstanbul, May 15 2016 Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/43945/we-have-stood-with-our-syrian-brothers-since-the-first-day.html [14 June 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. . “The Speech at the Opening Session of the World Humanitarian Summit”, İstanbul, May 23 2016 Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/44026/kuresel-yardim-sistemini-yeniden-ele-almamiz-gerekiyor.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. . “The Speech at an Event Held to Celebrate the 563rd Anniversary of the Conquest of Istanbul”, İstanbul, May 29 2016 Available at: www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/44175/conquest-of-istanbul-is-one-of-the-most-magnificent-victories-of-history.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  79. . “The Speech at a graduation ceremony at Sebahattin Zaim University”, İstanbul, June 05 2016 Available at: “https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/44286/our-history-is-a-history-of-mercy-and-compassion.html
    [Google Scholar]
  80. . “Speech at the publicity meeting of a 10-volume work entitled ‘The Great Istanbul History from Antiquity to the 21st Century’”, İstanbul, June 18 2016 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/44441/history-is-a-compass-that-shapes-our-future.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. . “Addressing citizens in the Harran district of Şanlıurfa following a fast-breaking dinner (iftar)”, Şanlıurfa, June 23 2016 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/77680/suriyedeki-gelismeler-bir-tehdit-olusturursa-firat-kalkaninda-ne-yaptiysak-aynisini-yapariz.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. . “The Speech at the 27th Mukhtars Meeting at the Presidential Complex”, Ankara, September 29 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/52444/27th-mukhtars-meeting-at-the-presidential-complex.html[10 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. . “The Speech at International Conference on Science and Technology”, Ankara, October 3 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/52484/burden-of-the-refugee-crisis-has-been-laid-on-a-few-countries.html[29 November 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  84. . “The Speech at the Opening Ceremony of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University 2014/15 Academic Year”, Rize, October 11 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/3334/we-have-to-build-yesterday-today-and-tomorrow-in-unison-in-our-universities.html[12 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. . “The Speech at the International Istanbul Law Congress”, İstanbul, October 17 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/53664/turkey-will-take-part-in-the-mosul-operation-and-hold-a-seat-at-the-table.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  86. . “The Speech at a Ceremony Held at the Beştepe Culture and Congress Center”, Ankara, October 18 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/55683/misak-i-millyi-kavrarsak-suriye-ve-iraktaki-sorumlulugumuzun-ne-oldugunu-anlariz.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  87. . “The speech at the 29th Mukhtars Meeting at the Presidential Complex”, Ankara, October 26 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/55785/turkiye-irak-ve-suriyede-yasanan-her-gelismenin-icinde-mutlaka-yer-alacaktir.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. . “The Speech at the 16th EXPO and 20th International Business Forum held by the Independent Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association (MÜSİAD)” İstanbul, November 09 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/58926/batinin-doguya-bakisini-hl-oryantalizm-anlayisi-belirliyor.html[29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  89. . “Speech at a Ceremony Held to Commemorate the 78th Anniversary of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Passing to Eternity”, Ankara, November 10 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/58944/yuce-milletimizle-birlikte-engelleri-asacak-ve-muasir-medeniyetler-seviyesinin-ustune-cikacagiz.html[12 June 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  90. . “The Speech at Mass Inauguration Ceremony of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs”, Ankara, December 22 2016 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/68472/turkey-is-putting-up-its-biggest-struggle-since-the-war-of-independence.html[12 June 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  91. . “The Speech at 35th Mukhtars Meeting at the Presidential Complex”, Ankara, January 19 2017 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70772/kendimiz-ve-gonlunu-bize-cevirmis-kardeslerimiz-icin-guclu-kalmak-zorundayiz.html[21 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  92. . “The Speech at Turkey-Tanzania Business Forum”, Tanzania, January 23 2017 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70805/turkiye-afrikanin-sesi-olmaya-devam-edecek.html[29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  93. . “The Speech at the Turkey-Mozambique Business Forum”, Mozambique, January 24 2017. Available at: http://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70820/turkiye-son-donemde-ekonomi-alaninda-bir-basari-hikyesi-yazdi.html
    [Google Scholar]
  94. . “The Speech at a joint press conference with President Rajaonarimampianina of Madagascar”, Antananarivo, January 25 2017 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70829/we-act-in-an-understanding-of-win-win-not-colonialism.html
    [Google Scholar]
  95. . “The speech at a mass-inauguration ceremony in Aksaray”, Aksaray, February 10 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70981/hizli-karar-almak-icin-yonetim-sistemimizi-degistirmekten-baska-caremiz-yok.html[29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  96. . “The speech at a symposium on Presidential System, held by the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA) at Haliç Congress Center”, İstanbul, February 11 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/70984/tek-millet-tek-bayrak-tek-vatan-tek-devlet-icin-evet.html[29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  97. . “Erdoğan: Turkish Army Will Press on to ISIL-Held Raqqa.” Turkey News | Al Jazeera, February 12 2017 Available at: www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/02/Erdoğan-turkish-troops-isil-bastion-al-bab-170212115151375.html
    [Google Scholar]
  98. . “The Speech at a Mass Opening Ceremony in Malatya”, Malatya, February 18 2017 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/71075/cumhurbaskanligi-sisteminin-arkasinda-yuzlerce-yillik-birikim-var.html [12 June 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  99. . “The Speech at the 3rd National Cultural Council”, İstanbul, March 03 2017 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/72201/we-should-set-new-cultural-goals-for-ourselves-in-accordance-with-the-2023- vision.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  100. . “Europe will drown in its own fears: President Erdoğan,” Hurriyet Daily News, March 15 2017, Available at: www.hurriyetdailynews.com/europe-will-drown-in-its-own-fears-president-Erdoğan-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=110856&NewsCatID=510
    [Google Scholar]
  101. . “Address to a large crowd of citizens in Erzurum”, Erzurum, April 12 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/74743/you-cannot-be-at-the-table-unless-you-are-in-the-field.html [29 April 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  102. . “The message President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan issued on the occasion of the 94th anniversary of the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty”, July 24 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/speeches-statements/558/80026/lozan-baris-antlasmasinin-94-yil-donumu.html [29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  103. . “The speech at a ceremony marking the 16th anniversary of the foundation of the Justice and Development Party (AK Party)”, Ankara, August 14 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/80175/adalet-ve-kalkinma-kavramlari-birer-deniz-feneri-gibi-bugun-de-yolumuzu-aydinlatiyor.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  104. . “The speech at AK Party’s Çatalca district branch”, İstanbul, 04 September 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/83338/humanity-remains-silent-to-the-massacre-in-myanmar.html
    [Google Scholar]
  105. . “A press conference at Istanbul Atatürk Airport before leaving for Russia”, İstanbul, November 13 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87315/turkey-has-always-stood-by-its-brothers-and-sisters-in-the-region-in-difficult-times.html [4 January 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  106. . “The Speech at a press conference in Sochi, Russia, following the Trilateral Summit on Syria”, Sochi, November 22 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87440/exclusion-of-terrorist-elements-from-the-process-in-syria-is-our-priority.html [4 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  107. . “Speech at the AK Party’s Parliamentary Group Meeting”, Ankara, December 05 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87594/al-quds-is-muslims-red-line.html [4 January 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  108. . “Speech at a joint press conference with King Abdullah II of Jordan”, Ankara, December 06 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87617/al-quds-is-the-apple-of-all-muslims-eyes.html [4 January 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  109. . “Speech at at the closing ceremony of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Week”, Ankara, December 09 2017https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87661/amerikanin-kudusle-ilgili-kararinin-bizim-nazarimizda-hicbir-hukmu-yoktur.html [29 March 2017]
    [Google Scholar]
  110. . “Speech at a mass opening ceremony in Sivas”, Ankara, December 10 2017 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/87674/kuduse-sirtimizi-donmemiz-kendimizi-inkr-etmemiz-demektir.html [4 January 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  111. . “The Speech at the AK Party Tokat Provincial Congress”, Tokat, January 14 2018 Available at:https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/89078/guney-sinirimizi-terorden-arindirma-operasyonunu-afrinle-devam-ettirecegiz.html [29 March 2018]
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Erimtan, Can
    2008 “Hittites, Ottomans and Turks: Ağaoğlu Ahmed Bey and the Kemalist construction of Turkish nationhood in Anatolia.” Anatolian Studies 58:141–171. 10.1017/S0066154600008711
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0066154600008711 [Google Scholar]
  113. Ersanlı, Büşra
    2002 “History Textbooks as Reflections of the Political Self: Turkey (1930s and 1990s) and Uzbekistan (1990s).” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.(2):337–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Fairclough, Norman
    1989Language and Power. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 1995Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 2003Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203697078
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203697078 [Google Scholar]
  117. Evren, Kenan
    1981 “Speech Delivered By His Excellency The Head of State General Kenan Evren in The Turkish Grand Natıonal Assembly On The Occasion of “Atatürk Year””, Ankara, Available at: dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/11/574/7191.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Fairclough, Isabela , and Norman Fairclough
    2013Political Discourse Analysis: A Method for Advanced Students. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203137888
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203137888 [Google Scholar]
  119. Funk, N. C. , and Abdul Aziz S.
    2004 “Islam and the West: Narratives of Conflict and Conflict Transformation.” International Journal of Peace Studies9 (1):1–28. www.jstor.org/stable/41852908
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Friedman, Jonathan
    1992 “Myth, History, and Political Identity.” Cultural Anthropology7 (2):194–210. www.jstor.org/stable/656282. 10.1525/can.1992.7.2.02a00030
    https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1992.7.2.02a00030 [Google Scholar]
  121. Flood, Christopher
    2001Political Myth: A Theoretical Introduction. Vol 1433 London: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Fuller, Grahamuller E.
    2004 “Turkey’s strategic model: Myths and realities.” Washington Quarterly 27.(3):51–64. 10.1162/016366004323090250
    https://doi.org/10.1162/016366004323090250 [Google Scholar]
  123. Farhi, David
    1971 “The Şeriat as a Political Slogan: Or the ‘Incident of the 31st Mart’.” Middle Eastern Studies7.(3):275–99. 10.1080/00263207108700182
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263207108700182 [Google Scholar]
  124. Guida, Michelangelo
    2008 “The Sèvres syndrome and “Komplo” theories in the Islamist and Secular Press.” Turkish Studies 9.(1):37–52. 10.1080/14683840701813994
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14683840701813994 [Google Scholar]
  125. Feyerabend, Paul
    1963 “Materialism and the Mind-Body Problem.” The Review of Metaphysics17(1):49–66., www.jstor.org/stable/20123984.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Göktepe, Cihat
    2000 “1960 ‘revolution’in Turkey and the British policy towards Turkey.” Turkish Yearbook of International Relations 30:139–189.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Grigoriadis, Ioannis
    2007 “Türk or Türkiyeli? The Reform of Turkey’s Minority Legislation and the Rediscovery of Ottomanism,”Middle Eastern Studies43(3):423–438. 10.1080/00263200701246116
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200701246116 [Google Scholar]
  128. Girnth, Heiko
    1996 “Texte im politischen Diskurs. Ein Vorschlag zur diskursorientierten Beschreibung von Textsorten.” Muttersprache 106:66–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Goodman, Lenn E.
    1988 “Context.” Philosophy East and West 38.(3):307–23. . 10.2307/1398869
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1398869 [Google Scholar]
  130. Harris, S. George
    1965 “The Role of the Military in Turkish Politics,”The Middle East Journal, 19, (1):54–66. www.jstor.org/stable/4323815.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Herz, John H.
    1959 “Political Ideas and Political Reality.” The Western Political Quarterly, 3(2): 161–178. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/443481. 10.1177/106591295000300202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/106591295000300202 [Google Scholar]
  132. Hałas, Elżbieta
    2010 “Symbolic Construction of ‘Solidarity’: the Conflict of Interpretations and the Politics of Memory.” Polish Sociological Review, 170:219–232.  JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/41275150
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Hobsbawm, Eric , and Terence Ranger
    eds. 1983The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Haarmann, Ulrich W.
    1988 “Ideology and History, Identity and Alterity: The Arab image of the Turk from the Abbasids to Modern Egypt,”International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies20:175–96. 10.1017/S0020743800033924
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800033924 [Google Scholar]
  135. Han, Ahmet K.
    2004 “The World of Business Now Spearheads Foreign Policy”, an interview with Ahmet Davutoğlu, Turkish Times, April-May.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Hay, Colin
    2006 “Constructivist Institutionalism,” inOxford Handbook of Political Institutions, eds. R. A. W. Rhodes , Sarah A. Binder and Bert A. Rockman , Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Hale , William , and Ergun Ozbudun
    2009Islamism, Democracy and Liberalism in Turkey: The Case of the AKP. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203873359
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203873359 [Google Scholar]
  138. Hale, William
    1992 “Turkey, the Middle East and the Gulf crisis.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 68(4):679–692. 10.2307/2622709
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2622709 [Google Scholar]
  139. Hourani, Albert
    1991 “How Should We Write the History of the Middle East?.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 23(2):125–136. 10.1017/S0020743800056002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800056002 [Google Scholar]
  140. Huang, Cary
    . “Erdogan abandoned the Uygurs to court China. Will he do the same to the US?” South China Morning Post, July 14, 2019, Available at: https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/opinion/article/3018420/erdogan-abandoned-uygurs-court-china-will-he-do-same-usAccessed August 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Lincoln, Bruce
    2014Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199372362.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199372362.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  142. İnat, Kemal
    2017 “Anti-Turkey Sentiment in Europe during the Referendum Process.” Insight Turkey 19(2):43–61. 10.25253/99.2017192.03
    https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2017192.03 [Google Scholar]
  143. lndia Office Political and Secret Home Correspondence
    lndia Office Political and Secret Home Correspondence. L/P&S/3/239, vol.52, Acting Consul Moncrieff to Lord Granville.
  144. International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty: Responsibility to Protect Report
    International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty: Responsibility to Protect Report 2011CFR.org. Council on Foreign Relations, Available at: www.cfr.org/humanitarian-intervention/international-commission-intervention-state-sovereignty-responsibility-protect-report/p24228
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Kalın, İbrahim
    2010 “US-Turkish Relations Under Obama: Promise, Challenge and Opportunity in the 21st Century”, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies12(1):93–108. 10.1080/19448950903507529
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19448950903507529 [Google Scholar]
  146. Kane, Anne
    2011Constructing Irish National Identity: Discourse and Ritual During the Land War, 1879–1882. Springer, 2011. 10.1057/9781137001160
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137001160 [Google Scholar]
  147. Katrin, Bennhold
    2009 “Leaders of Turkey and Israel Clash at Davos Panel,” The New York Times, January 29. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2009/01/30/world/europe/30clash.html?_r=1
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Kadıoğlu, Ayşe . Kerem Öktem and Mehmet Karlı
    (eds.) 2012Another Empire? A Decade of Turkey’s Foreign Policy under the Justice and Development Party, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Kilic, Altemur
    1959Turkey and the World, Washington DC: Public Affairs Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Kariel, Henry S.
    1973 “Neither Sticks Nor Stones.” Politics & Society 3(2):179–199. 10.1177/003232927300300203
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003232927300300203 [Google Scholar]
  151. Jagers, Jan , and Stefaan Walgrave
    2007 “Populism as Political Communication Style: An Empirical Study of Political Parties’ Discourse in Belgium.” European Journal of Political Research46(3):319–45. 10.1111/j.1475‑6765.2006.00690.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00690.x [Google Scholar]
  152. Johnstone, Barbara
    2008Discourse Analysis. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Keyman, Fuat
    2017 “A New Turkish Foreign Policy: Towards Proactive” Moral Realism”.” Insight Turkey 19(1):55–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Karagül, İbrahim
    2013 “Forcing Israel to Apologize.. (Israil’e Özür Diletmek..)”, Yeni Şafak, 23 Mar. 2013: 8.Print.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Kılıçdaroğlu, Kemal
    . “CHP leader slams PM over Syria policy letter,” Hürriyet Daily News, August 30, 2012, Available at: www.hurriyetdailynews.com/Default.aspx?pageID=517&nid=28953
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Kalın, İbrahim
    2012 “Turkish Foreign Policy: Frameworks, Values, and Mechanisms,” Sage Publications, 67(1):7–21. 10.1177/002070201206700102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002070201206700102 [Google Scholar]
  157. Kienpointner, Manfred
    1992Alltagslogik: Struktur und Funktion von Argumentationsmustern, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommannholzboog.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. KONDA Araştırma ve Danışmanlık
    KONDA Araştırma ve Danışmanlık. “June 7 Election and Electorate Analysis”, June 18 2015, Available at: www.konda.com.tr/en/raporlar/KONDAJune7E lectionandElectorateAnalysis.pdf
  159. Küçükali, Can
    . Discursive Strategies and Political Hegemony: The Turkish Case. Vol.64. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/dapsac.64
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.64 [Google Scholar]
  160. Lemke, Jay
    1995Textual Politics: Discourse and Social Dynamics. London: Taylor and Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Laclau, Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe
    1985Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, trans. Winston Moore and Paul Cammack London: Verso
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Le Goff, Jacques
    1992History and Memory. New York: Columbia University.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Lewis, Bernard
    2014The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Mango, Andrew
    1968 “Turkey in the Middle East.” Journal of Contemporary History3(3):225–36. 10.1177/002200946800300313
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002200946800300313 [Google Scholar]
  165. Mardin, Şerif
    1973 “Center-Periphery Relations: A Key to Turkish Politics?”Daedalus102(1)169–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. McCauley, H.
    1970 “Education and Indoctrination.” The Irish Journal of Education / Iris Eireannach an Oideachais4(2):127–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Michelet, Jules
    1989Rönesans, İstanbul: Western Classics
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Türkiye-İsrail Siyasi İlişkileri (Turkey-Israel Relations)”. Available at: www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-israil-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa [May 25, 2016].
  169. Mole, Richard C. M.
    ed. 2007Discursive Constructions of Identity in European Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230591301
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230591301 [Google Scholar]
  170. Mudde, Cas
    2007Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe, Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511492037
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511492037 [Google Scholar]
  171. Mudde, Cas and Christobal Rovira Kaltwasser
    (editors) 2012Populism in Europe and the Americas, Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139152365
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139152365 [Google Scholar]
  172. Mueller, Claus
    2003 “Integrating Turkish Communities: A German Dilemma”, Population Research and Policy Review25(5):419–441., 10.1007/s11113‑007‑9024‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-007-9024-y [Google Scholar]
  173. Murinson, Alexander
    2006 “The Strategic Depth Doctrine of Turkish Foreign Policy,”Taylor&Francis, 42(6):945–964. 10.1080/00263200600923526
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200600923526 [Google Scholar]
  174. Navaro-Yashen, Yael
    2002Faces of the State – Secularism and Public Life in Turkey, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9780691214283
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691214283 [Google Scholar]
  175. Nazır, Bayram
    2008Ottoman hospitality and its impact on Europe. Istanbul Chamber of Commerce (ITO).
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Necipoğlu, Gülru
    1989 “Süleyman the magnificent and the representation of power in the context of Ottoman-Hapsburg-Papal rivalry.” The Art Bulletin71(3):401–427. 10.1080/00043079.1989.10788514
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1989.10788514 [Google Scholar]
  177. Norris, Pippa
    2005Radical right: Voters and parties in the electoral market. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615955
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615955 [Google Scholar]
  178. Norris , Pippa , and Ronald Inglehart
    2002 “Islamic Culture and Democracy: Testing the Clash of Civilizations’ Thesis.” Comparative Sociology1(3):235–263. 10.1163/156913302100418592
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156913302100418592 [Google Scholar]
  179. Northedge, Frederick Samuel
    ed. 1974The Use of Force in International Relations. Faber, 1974.
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Oğuzlu, Tarık
    2011 “Turkey and the West: The Rise of Turkey-Centric Westernism” Sage Publications66.(4):981–998. 10.1177/002070201106600422
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002070201106600422 [Google Scholar]
  181. Onar, Nora F.
    2009 “Echoes of a Universalism Lost: Rival Representations of the Ottomans in Today’s Turkey”, Middle Eastern Studies45(2):229–241. 10.1080/00263200802697290
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200802697290 [Google Scholar]
  182. 2009 “Neo-Ottomanism, historical legacies and Turkish foreign policy.” Centre for Economic and Fooreign Plicy Studies, Discussion Paper Series.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Ongur, O. Hakan
    2014 “Identifying Ottomanisms: The Discursive Evolution of Ottoman Pasts in the Turkish Presents”, Middle Eastern Studies51(3):416–432. 10.1080/00263206.2014.976622
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263206.2014.976622 [Google Scholar]
  184. Oran, Baskın
    2001Türk Dış Politikası Cilt II: 1980–2001. İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. 2012 “Preface: A Proactive Policy with many Hunches on the Back,” in Kadıoğlu,Ayşe. Kerem Öktem and Mehmet Karlı , (eds.) 2012 Another Empire ? A Decade of Turkey’s Foreign Policy under the Justice and Development Party, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Organization of Islamic Cooperation
    Organization of Islamic Cooperation. “Istanbul Declaration on “Freedom for Al Quds” Extraordinary Islamıc Summit Conference,”, December 13 2017 Available at:https://www.oic-oci.org/docdown/?docID=1698&refID=1073
  187. Özdal, Habibe , Osman Bahadır Dinçer , Mehmet Yegin
    (eds) 2009Mülakatlarla Türk Dış Politikası. vol. 1. USAK Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Özekmekçi, M. İnanç
    2012 “Türk Sağında Ayasofya İmgesi”, in; Kerestecioğlu, İnci Özkan, and Güven Gürkan Öztan. Türk Sağı: Mitler, Fetişler, Düşman İmgeleri. İletişim.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Plaut, Shayna
    2012 “Expelling the Victim by Demanding Voice: The Counterframing of Transnational Romani Activism.” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 37(1):52–65. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23210902. 10.1177/0304375412439676
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0304375412439676 [Google Scholar]
  190. Plett, Heinrich F.
    2001Einführung in die rhetorische Textanalyse. Buske Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Polletta, Francesca
    2011 “The Sociology of Storytelling.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 37:109–130. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41288601. 10.1146/annurev‑soc‑081309‑150106
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-081309-150106 [Google Scholar]
  192. Portales, Marco
    1987 “Writing History: Subjective Authoritativeness.” New Literary History 18.(2):461–66. 10.2307/468740
    https://doi.org/10.2307/468740 [Google Scholar]
  193. Presidency of Republic of Turkey
    Presidency of Republic of Turkey. “Filistin Devlet Başkanı Abbas Cumhurbaşkanlığı Sarayında,” January 12 2015 Available at:www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/170/91915/filistin-devlet-baskani-abbas-cumhurbaskanligi-sarayinda.html
  194. Reisigl, Martin
    2008 “Rhetoric of Political Speeches.” In R. Wodak & V. Koller (Eds.), Communication in the Public Sphere: Handbook of Applied Linguistics, vol. 4, 243–271. Berlin: De Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Reisigl, Martin and Wodak, Ruth
    2005Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203993712
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203993712 [Google Scholar]
  196. 2009 “The discourse-historical approach (DHA).” In Wodak, R. , & Meyer, M. (Eds.), Methods for Critical Discourse Analysis, 87–121. London: Sage (2nd revised edition).
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Renan, Ernest
    1997Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?. Fayard/Mille et une nuits.
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Reyes, Antonio
    2011 “Strategies of legitimization in political discourse: From words to actions.” Discourse and Society, 22(6), 781–806. 10.1177/0957926511419927
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926511419927 [Google Scholar]
  199. Riezler, Kurt
    1944 “The Social Psychology of Fear.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 49, no. 6, 1944, p. 489. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2771546. 10.1086/219471
    https://doi.org/10.1086/219471 [Google Scholar]
  200. Ross, Marc Howard
    2002 “The Political Psychology of Competing Narratives: September 1 1 and Beyond.” In Calhoun, Craig Paul Price , and Ashley Timmer , eds., Understanding September11.
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Russell, Bertrand
    1997Religion and Science. No. 165. Oxford University Press, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Sachar, L. Abram
    1967History of the Jews. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Sadoski, Mark
    1992 “Imagination, Cognition, and Persona.” Rhetoric Review10(2)266–278. 10.1080/07350199209388971
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07350199209388971 [Google Scholar]
  204. Sarıgil, Ziya
    2010 “Bargaining in institutional settings: The case of Turkish reforms.” European Journal of International Relations, 16(3), 463–483. 10.1177/1354066109344009
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066109344009 [Google Scholar]
  205. Sayarı, Sabri
    1997 “Turkey and the Middle East in the 1990s.” Journal of Palestine Studies 26.(3) 10.2307/2538156
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2538156 [Google Scholar]
  206. Schild, H. A.
    1992. “Beratungsrede.” Hist. Wörterbuch der Rhetorik. Bd
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Singer, Sean R.
    2013 “ERDOĞAN’S MUSE: The School of Necip Fazil Kisakurek.” World Affairs176(4):81–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Smith, Anthony D.
    1992 “National Identity and the Idea of European Unity.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 68(1)55–76., www.jstor.org/stable/2620461. 10.2307/2620461
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2620461 [Google Scholar]
  209. Stevenson, Charles L.
    1944Ethics and Language. Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Stevenson, Patrick
    2010Language and Social Change in Central Europe: Discourses on Policy, Identity and the German Language: Discourses on Policy, Identity and the German Language. Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Şengör A. M. Celal
    2014Bilgiyle Sohbet: Popüler Bilim Yazıları, İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2014, 3rd Edition.
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Sevilla-Sharon, Moshe
    1982Türkiye Yahudileri: Tarihsel Bakış. Hebrew University.
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Tajfel, Henri
    (ed.) 1978Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: European Association of Experimental Social Psychology.
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Tambar, Kabir
    2009 “Secular Populism and the Semiotics of the Crowd in Turkey.” Public Culture, 21(3), 517–537. 10.1215/08992363‑2009‑006
    https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-2009-006 [Google Scholar]
  215. Taşpınar, Ömer
    2007 “The Old Turks’ Revolt: When Radical Secularism Endangers Democracy”, Council on Foreign Relations, 86:114–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. TBMM Tutanak Portalı. 24. Dönem, 1. Yasama Yılı, 7. Birleşim, 11 Temmuz
    TBMM Tutanak Portalı. 24. Dönem, 1. Yasama Yılı, 7. Birleşim, 11 Temmuz 2011 Available at:https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/Tutanak_B_SD.birlesim_baslangic?P 4=20993&P5=H&page1=50&page2=50
  217. T.C. Başbakanlık AFAD
    T.C. Başbakanlık AFAD. Geçiçi Barınma Merkezleri, 22 November 2017 at:https://www.afad.gov.tr/upload/Node/2374/files/22_11_2017_Suriye_GBM_ Bilgi_Notu.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Tekin, Beyza Ç.
    2010Representations and Othering in Discourse: The Construction of Turkey in the EU Context. Vol.39. John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/dapsac.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.39 [Google Scholar]
  219. Teske, Nathan
    1997 “Beyond Altruism: Identity-Construction as Moral Motive in Political Explanation.” Political Psychology, 18(1):71–91. 10.1111/0162‑895X.00045
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00045 [Google Scholar]
  220. Turkstat
    Turkstat. Foreign Trade Statistics. Available at: www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1046, [11 June 2016]
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Tzuetan, Todorov
    1989 “Nous et les Autres la reflexión française sur la diversité humaine.” Paris. Edit. Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]
  222. TGNA. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Genel Kurul Tutanağı. 23. Dönem 4. Yasama Yılı 127. Birleşim 01/Temmuz/2010 Perşembe
    TGNA. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Genel Kurul Tutanağı. 23. Dönem 4. Yasama Yılı 127. Birleşim 01/Temmuz/2010 Perşembe 2010 Available at:https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/tutanak_g_sd.birlesim_baslangic?P4=20711&P5=H&page1=90&page2=90
  223. Tucker, Jr. Kenneth H.
    2005 “From the imaginary to subjectivation: Castoriadis and Touraine on the performative public sphere.” Thesis eleven 83(1):42–60. 10.1177/0725513605057136
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0725513605057136 [Google Scholar]
  224. United Nations Security Council Subsidiary Organs
    United Nations Security Council Subsidiary Organs. “SECURITY COUNCIL COMMITTEE PURSUANT TO RESOLUTIONS 1267 (1999) 1989 (2011) AND 2253 (2015) CONCERNING ISIL (DA’ESH) AL-QAIDA AND ASSOCIATED INDIVIDUALS GROUPS UNDERTAKINGS AND ENTITIES”. United Nations, Available at: www.un.org/sc/suborg/en/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/entity/ eastern-turkistan-islamic-movement
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Uzer, Umut
    2018 “Glorification of the Past as a Political Tool: Ottoman history in contemporary Turkish politics.” The Journal of the Middle East and Africa, 1–19 2018 10.1080/21520844.2018.1539063
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21520844.2018.1539063 [Google Scholar]
  226. Van Dijk, Teun A.
    1985Discourse and Communication: New Approaches to the Analysis of Mass Media Discourse and Communication. Vol. 10. Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110852141
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110852141 [Google Scholar]
  227. 1997 “What is political discourse analysis” Belgian Journal of Linguistics 11(1):11–52. 10.1075/bjl.11.03dij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bjl.11.03dij [Google Scholar]
  228. 1995 “Discourse analysis as ideology analysis.” Language and Peace 10.
    [Google Scholar]
  229. 1998 “Opinions and Ideologies in the Press. Approaches to Media Discourse”, ed. by Allen Bell and Peter Gerret , 21–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  230. 1990 “Social Cognition and Discourse.” Handbook of Language and Social Psychology163–183.
    [Google Scholar]
  231. 2002 “Political discourse and ideology.” Paper for Jornadas del.–1999.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. 2006 “Discourse and Manipulation.” Discourse & Society 17(3): 59–383. 10.1177/0957926506060250
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926506060250 [Google Scholar]
  233. Van Leeuwen, Theo
    2007 “Legitimation in Discourse and Communication.” Discourse & Communication, 1(1), 91–112. 10.1177/1750481307071986
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481307071986 [Google Scholar]
  234. Wakim, Jamal
    2014 “End of Al-Assad, or of Erdoğan? Turkey and the Syrian Uprising,” Pluto Journals:186–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Waltz, Kenneth N.
    1979Theory of International Politics, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Warner, M.
    2002 “Publics and Counterpublics.” Public Culture14, no. 1: 49–90. https://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed July 14, 2018). 10.1215/08992363‑14‑1‑49
    https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-14-1-49 [Google Scholar]
  237. Warren S Walker , and Ahmet E. Uysal
    1973 “An Ancient God in Modern Turkey: Some Aspects of the Cult of Hizir.” The Journal of American Folklore, 86(341):286–289. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/539158. 10.2307/539158
    https://doi.org/10.2307/539158 [Google Scholar]
  238. Weber, Max
    1978Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology. Vol. 1. Univ of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Wendt, Alexander
    1992 “Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics.” International organization46(2):391–425. 10.1017/S0020818300027764
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027764 [Google Scholar]
  240. Wodak, Ruth
    2009The Discourse of Politics in Action: Politics as Usual. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230233683.
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230233683 [Google Scholar]
  241. Wodak, Ruth and Meyer, Michael
    2001Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. 10.4135/9780857028020
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020 [Google Scholar]
  242. Wodak, Ruth , de Cillia, Rudolf , Reisigl, Martin and Liebhart, Karin
    2009bThe Discursive Construction of National Identity (Vol. 2). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Wodak, Ruth , Majid Khosravinik and Brigitte Mral
    (eds.) 2013Right-Wing Populism in Europe, Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Woodward, David R.
    2011 “The Middle East during World War One.” BBC History.
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Yalçıntaş, Nevzat
    . “One Minute Kurguydu,” Radikal 20 July 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Yılmaz, Coşkun
    2010II. Abdülhamid: Modernleşme Sürecinde İstanbul. İstanbul 2010 Avrupa Kültür Başkenti, 2010 Available at:www.bulentari.com.tr/indexTr/Upfiles/pdf/18_12_2011_15_50_37.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Yilmaz, Şuhnaz , and İpek K. Yosmaoğlu
    2008 “Fighting the Spectres of the Past: Dilemmas of Ottoman Legacy in the Balkans and the Middle East.” Middle Eastern Studies, 44(5):677–93. www.jstor.org.kuleuven.ezproxy.kuleuven.be/stable/40262610. 10.1080/00263200802285369
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200802285369 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/books/9789027258472
Loading
/content/books/9789027258472
dcterms_subject,pub_keyword
-contentType:Journal
10
5
Chapter
content/books/9789027258472
Book
false
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error