1887

oa Chapter 10. Semantic role labeling

image of Chapter 10. Semantic role labeling

We investigate the feasibility of automatic semantic role labeling (SRL) using Swedish FrameNet (SweFN). In the first part of the chapter, we describe a baseline system using a traditional division into segmentation and labeling steps. These subsystems are implemented as separate machine learning models, and we explore a wide range of syntactic and lexical features for these models. In the second part, we turn to the question of how the frame-to-frame relations defined in FrameNet allow us to use the annotated examples more effectively. The cross-frame generalization methods reduce the number of errors made by the labeling classifier by 27%. For previously unseen frames, the reduction is even more significant: 50%.

  • Affiliations: 1: University of Gothenburg; 2: Independent researcher

References

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    1998 The Berkeley FrameNet project. InProceedings of Coling 1998, 86–90. Montréal: ACL.
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    2010 The past meets the present in Swedish FrameNet++. InProceedings of EURALEX 2010, 269–281. Ljouwert/ Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Borin, Lars , Markus Forsberg & Lennart Lönngren
    2013 SALDO: A touch of yin to WordNet’s yang. Language Resources and Evaluation47(4): 1191–1211. doi:  10.1007/s10579‑013‑9233‑4
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    1992 Class-based n-gram models of natural language. Computational Linguistics18(4): 467–479.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Collobert, Ronan & Jason Weston
    2007 Fast semantic extraction using a novel neural network architecture. InProceedings of ACL 2007, 560–567. Prague: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Crammer, Koby , Ofer Dekel , Joseph Keshet , Shai Shalev-Schwartz & Yoram Singer
    2006 Online passive-aggressive algorithms. Journal of Machine Learning Research7: 551–585.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Das, Dipanjan , Nathan Schneider , Desai Chen & Noah A. Smith
    2010 Probabilistic frame-semantic parsing. InProceedings of NAACL/HLT 2010, 948–956. Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dowty, David R.
    1991 Thematic proto-roles and argument selections. Language67(3): 574–619. 10.1353/lan.1991.0021
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1991.0021 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ejerhed, Eva , Gunnel Källgren , Ola Wennstedt & Magnus Åström
    1992The linguistic annotation system of the Stockholm–Umeå corpus project – description and guidelines. Research report. Umeå: Umeå University, Dept. of Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fan, Rong-En , Kai-Wei Chang , Cho-Jui Hsieh , Xiang-Rui Wang & Chih-Jen Lin
    2008 Liblinear: A library for large linear classification. Journal of Machine Learning Research9: 1871–1874.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fillmore, Charles J. & Collin Baker
    2009 A frames approach to semantic analysis. In Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic analysis, 313–339. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Friberg Heppin, Karin & Maria Toporowska Gronostaj
    2012 The rocky road towards a Swedish FrameNet – creating SweFN. InProceedings of LREC 2012, 256–261. Istanbul: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fürstenau, Hagen & Mirella Lapata
    2009 Semi-supervised semantic role labeling. InProceedings of EACL 2009, 220–228. Athens. 10.3115/1609067.1609091
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1609067.1609091 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gildea, Daniel & Daniel Jurafsky
    2002 Automatic labeling of semantic roles. Computational Linguistics28(3): 245–288. doi:  10.1162/089120102760275983
    https://doi.org/10.1162/089120102760275983 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gildea, Daniel & Martha Palmer
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    [Google Scholar]
  16. Halácsy, Péter , András Kornai & Csaba Oravecz
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    [Google Scholar]
  20. Johansson, Richard , Karin Friberg Heppin & Dimitrios Kokkinakis
    2012 Semantic role labeling with the Swedish FrameNet. InProceedings of LREC 2012, 3697–3700. Istanbul: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Johansson, Richard & Pierre Nugues
    2006 A FrameNet-based semantic role labeler for Swedish. InProceedings of Coling/ACL 2006, 436–443. Sydney: ACL. 10.3115/1273073.1273130
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  22. 2007a LTH: Semantic structure extraction using nonprojective dependency trees. InProceedings of SemEval 2007, 227–230. Prague: ACL. 10.3115/1621474.1621522
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  23. 2007b Using WordNet to extend FrameNet coverage. InProceedings of the Nodalida workshop FRAME 2007: Building frame semantics resources for Scandinavian and Baltic languages, 27–30. Lund: Lund University.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2008a Dependency-based syntactic–semantic analysis with PropBank and NomBank. InProceedings of the CoNLL 2008 shared task, 183–187. Manchester: ACL. 10.3115/1596324.1596355
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1596324.1596355 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2008b The effect of syntactic representation on semantic role labeling. InProceedings of Coling 2008, 393–400. Manchester: ACL. 10.3115/1599081.1599131
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1599081.1599131 [Google Scholar]
  26. Koo, Terry , Xavier Carreras & Michael Collins
    2008 Simple semi-supervised dependency parsing. InProceedings of ACL/HLT 2008, 595–603. Columbus: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Màrquez, Lluís , Xavier Carreras , Ken Litkowski & Suzanne Stevenson
    2008 Semantic role labeling: An introduction to the special issue. Computational Linguistics34(2): 145–159. 10.1162/coli.2008.34.2.145
    https://doi.org/10.1162/coli.2008.34.2.145 [Google Scholar]
  28. Matsubayashi, Yuichiroh , Naoaki Okazaki & Jun’ichi Tsujii
    2009 A comparative study on generalization of semantic roles in framenet. InProceedings of ACL/IJCNLP 2009, 19–27. Singapore: ACL. 10.3115/1687878.1687883
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1687878.1687883 [Google Scholar]
  29. Moschitti, Alessandro , Qi Ju & Richard Johansson
    2012 Modeling topic dependencies in hierarchical text categorization. InProceedings of ACL 2012, 759–767. Jeju: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nilsson, Jens , Johan Hall & Joakim Nivre
    2006 MAMBA meets TIGER: Reconstructing a Swedish treebank from antiquity. InTreebanking for discourse and speech: Proceedings of the NODALIDA 2005 special session on treebanks for spoken language and discourse, 119–132. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nivre, Joakim , Johan Hall , Jens Nilsson , Atanas Chanev , Gülşen Eryığıt , Sandra Kübler , Svetoslav Marinov & Erwin Marsi
    2007 MaltParser: A languageindependent system for data-driven dependency parsing. Natural Language Engineering13(2): 95–135. 10.1017/S1351324906004505
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1351324906004505 [Google Scholar]
  32. Palmer, Martha , Dan Gildea & Paul Kingsbury
    2005 The proposition bank: An annotated corpus of semantic roles. Computational Linguistics31(1): 71–105. 10.1162/0891201053630264
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0891201053630264 [Google Scholar]
  33. Palmer, Martha , Daniel Gildea & Nianwen Xue
    2010 Semantic role labeling. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies3(1): 1–103. 10.2200/S00239ED1V01Y200912HLT006
    https://doi.org/10.2200/S00239ED1V01Y200912HLT006 [Google Scholar]
  34. Roth, Dan & Yuancheng Tu
    2009 Aspect guided text categorization with unobserved labels. InProceedings of ICDM 2009, 962–967. Miami Beach: IEEE. doi:  10.1109/ICDM.2009.129
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDM.2009.129 [Google Scholar]
  35. Xue, Nianwen & Martha Palmer
    2004 Calibrating features for semantic role labeling. InProceedings of EMNLP 2004, 88–94. Barcelona: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]

References

  1. Baker, Collin F. , Charles J. Fillmore & John B. Lowe
    1998 The Berkeley FrameNet project. InProceedings of Coling 1998, 86–90. Montréal: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Borin, Lars , Dana Dannélls , Markus Forsberg , Maria Toporowska Gronostaj & Dimitrios Kokkinakis
    2010 The past meets the present in Swedish FrameNet++. InProceedings of EURALEX 2010, 269–281. Ljouwert/ Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Borin, Lars , Markus Forsberg & Lennart Lönngren
    2013 SALDO: A touch of yin to WordNet’s yang. Language Resources and Evaluation47(4): 1191–1211. doi:  10.1007/s10579‑013‑9233‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-013-9233-4 [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, Peter F. , Peter V. deSouza , Robert L. Mercer , Vincent J. Della Pietra & Jenifer C. Lai
    1992 Class-based n-gram models of natural language. Computational Linguistics18(4): 467–479.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Collobert, Ronan & Jason Weston
    2007 Fast semantic extraction using a novel neural network architecture. InProceedings of ACL 2007, 560–567. Prague: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Crammer, Koby , Ofer Dekel , Joseph Keshet , Shai Shalev-Schwartz & Yoram Singer
    2006 Online passive-aggressive algorithms. Journal of Machine Learning Research7: 551–585.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Das, Dipanjan , Nathan Schneider , Desai Chen & Noah A. Smith
    2010 Probabilistic frame-semantic parsing. InProceedings of NAACL/HLT 2010, 948–956. Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dowty, David R.
    1991 Thematic proto-roles and argument selections. Language67(3): 574–619. 10.1353/lan.1991.0021
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1991.0021 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ejerhed, Eva , Gunnel Källgren , Ola Wennstedt & Magnus Åström
    1992The linguistic annotation system of the Stockholm–Umeå corpus project – description and guidelines. Research report. Umeå: Umeå University, Dept. of Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fan, Rong-En , Kai-Wei Chang , Cho-Jui Hsieh , Xiang-Rui Wang & Chih-Jen Lin
    2008 Liblinear: A library for large linear classification. Journal of Machine Learning Research9: 1871–1874.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fillmore, Charles J. & Collin Baker
    2009 A frames approach to semantic analysis. In Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic analysis, 313–339. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Friberg Heppin, Karin & Maria Toporowska Gronostaj
    2012 The rocky road towards a Swedish FrameNet – creating SweFN. InProceedings of LREC 2012, 256–261. Istanbul: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fürstenau, Hagen & Mirella Lapata
    2009 Semi-supervised semantic role labeling. InProceedings of EACL 2009, 220–228. Athens. 10.3115/1609067.1609091
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1609067.1609091 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gildea, Daniel & Daniel Jurafsky
    2002 Automatic labeling of semantic roles. Computational Linguistics28(3): 245–288. doi:  10.1162/089120102760275983
    https://doi.org/10.1162/089120102760275983 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gildea, Daniel & Martha Palmer
    2002 The necessity of syntactic parsing for predicate argument recognition. InProceedings of ACL 2002, 239–246. Philadelphia: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Halácsy, Péter , András Kornai & Csaba Oravecz
    2007 HunPos – an open source trigram tagger. InProceedings of ACL 2007: Demo and poster sessions, 209–212. Prague: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Johansson, Richard
    2008 Dependency-based semantic analysis of natural-language text. Lund University. (PhD thesis).
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2009 Statistical bistratal dependency parsing. InProceedings of EMNLP 2009, 561–569. Singapore: ACL. 10.3115/1699571.1699586
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1699571.1699586 [Google Scholar]
  19. 2012 Non-atomic classification to improve a semantic role labeler for a low-resource language. InProceedings of *SEM 2012, 95–99. Montréal: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Johansson, Richard , Karin Friberg Heppin & Dimitrios Kokkinakis
    2012 Semantic role labeling with the Swedish FrameNet. InProceedings of LREC 2012, 3697–3700. Istanbul: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Johansson, Richard & Pierre Nugues
    2006 A FrameNet-based semantic role labeler for Swedish. InProceedings of Coling/ACL 2006, 436–443. Sydney: ACL. 10.3115/1273073.1273130
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1273073.1273130 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2007a LTH: Semantic structure extraction using nonprojective dependency trees. InProceedings of SemEval 2007, 227–230. Prague: ACL. 10.3115/1621474.1621522
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1621474.1621522 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2007b Using WordNet to extend FrameNet coverage. InProceedings of the Nodalida workshop FRAME 2007: Building frame semantics resources for Scandinavian and Baltic languages, 27–30. Lund: Lund University.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2008a Dependency-based syntactic–semantic analysis with PropBank and NomBank. InProceedings of the CoNLL 2008 shared task, 183–187. Manchester: ACL. 10.3115/1596324.1596355
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1596324.1596355 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2008b The effect of syntactic representation on semantic role labeling. InProceedings of Coling 2008, 393–400. Manchester: ACL. 10.3115/1599081.1599131
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1599081.1599131 [Google Scholar]
  26. Koo, Terry , Xavier Carreras & Michael Collins
    2008 Simple semi-supervised dependency parsing. InProceedings of ACL/HLT 2008, 595–603. Columbus: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Màrquez, Lluís , Xavier Carreras , Ken Litkowski & Suzanne Stevenson
    2008 Semantic role labeling: An introduction to the special issue. Computational Linguistics34(2): 145–159. 10.1162/coli.2008.34.2.145
    https://doi.org/10.1162/coli.2008.34.2.145 [Google Scholar]
  28. Matsubayashi, Yuichiroh , Naoaki Okazaki & Jun’ichi Tsujii
    2009 A comparative study on generalization of semantic roles in framenet. InProceedings of ACL/IJCNLP 2009, 19–27. Singapore: ACL. 10.3115/1687878.1687883
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1687878.1687883 [Google Scholar]
  29. Moschitti, Alessandro , Qi Ju & Richard Johansson
    2012 Modeling topic dependencies in hierarchical text categorization. InProceedings of ACL 2012, 759–767. Jeju: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nilsson, Jens , Johan Hall & Joakim Nivre
    2006 MAMBA meets TIGER: Reconstructing a Swedish treebank from antiquity. InTreebanking for discourse and speech: Proceedings of the NODALIDA 2005 special session on treebanks for spoken language and discourse, 119–132. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Nivre, Joakim , Johan Hall , Jens Nilsson , Atanas Chanev , Gülşen Eryığıt , Sandra Kübler , Svetoslav Marinov & Erwin Marsi
    2007 MaltParser: A languageindependent system for data-driven dependency parsing. Natural Language Engineering13(2): 95–135. 10.1017/S1351324906004505
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1351324906004505 [Google Scholar]
  32. Palmer, Martha , Dan Gildea & Paul Kingsbury
    2005 The proposition bank: An annotated corpus of semantic roles. Computational Linguistics31(1): 71–105. 10.1162/0891201053630264
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0891201053630264 [Google Scholar]
  33. Palmer, Martha , Daniel Gildea & Nianwen Xue
    2010 Semantic role labeling. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies3(1): 1–103. 10.2200/S00239ED1V01Y200912HLT006
    https://doi.org/10.2200/S00239ED1V01Y200912HLT006 [Google Scholar]
  34. Roth, Dan & Yuancheng Tu
    2009 Aspect guided text categorization with unobserved labels. InProceedings of ICDM 2009, 962–967. Miami Beach: IEEE. doi:  10.1109/ICDM.2009.129
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDM.2009.129 [Google Scholar]
  35. Xue, Nianwen & Martha Palmer
    2004 Calibrating features for semantic role labeling. InProceedings of EMNLP 2004, 88–94. Barcelona: ACL.
    [Google Scholar]
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