The Mysterious Address Term anata 'you' in Japanese

image of The Mysterious Address Term<i> anata</i> 'you' in Japanese

The use of the second person singular pronoun anata ‘you’ in modern Japanese has long been regarded as mysterious and problematic, generating contradictory nuances such as polite, impolite, intimate, and distancing. Treated as a troublesome pronoun, scholars have searched for a semantically loaded meaning in anata, under the assumption that all Japanese personal reference terms involve social indexicality. This book takes a new approach, revealing that anata is in fact semantically simple and its powerful expressivity is explained only in pragmatic terms. In doing so, the study brings to bear a thorough understanding of key issues in pragmatics, such as common ground, sociocultural norms, and shared understandings, in order to fully grasp the meaning and usage of this single linguistic item. This book will be of interest to scholars and students in a range of linguistic fields, such as semantics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, anthropological linguistics, linguistic typology, cultural linguistics, as well as applied linguistics.


  1. Aalberse, Suzanne & Wessel Stoop
    2015 The exceptional loss of the pronoun T. Journal of Pragmatics88. 190–201. 10.1016/j.pragma.2015.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  2. Agha, Asif
    2006Language and social relations. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618284
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618284 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anchimbe, Eric A.
    2011 On not calling people by their names: Pragmatic undertones of sociocultural relationships in a postcolony. Journal of Pragmatics43. 1472–1483. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.013 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anchimbe, Eric A. & Richard W. Janney
    2011 Postcolonial pragmatics: An introduction. Journal of Pragmatics43(6). 1451–1459. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.027
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.027 [Google Scholar]
  5. Araki, Hiroyuki
    1990Keigo no japanorojii: Keigo o kangaeru nihonjin o kangaeru [Japanology of honorifics: Thoughts about honorifics, thoughts about Japanese people]. Tokyo: Sotakusha Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Araki, Tatsuo
    2003 Nihongo ni okeru ninshoodaimeishi no yoohoo: Jibun no oya o anata to yobu koto wa dekiru no ka? [The usage of personal pronouns in the Japanese language: Is it possible to call one’s own parents anata ‘you’?]. Comparative Studies of Language and Culture, Shikoku Gakuin University1. 175–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Backhouse, Anthony E.
    1993The Japanese language: An introduction. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barke, Andrew & Satoshi Uehara
    2005 Japanese pronouns of address: Their behavior and maintenance over time. In Robin Lakoff & Sachiko Ide (eds.), Broadening the horizon of linguistic politeness, 301–313. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.139.25bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.139.25bar [Google Scholar]
  9. Berque, Augustin
    2006 From Watsuji’s concept of ‘human’ to beyond the limits of modern ontological topos. In Samantha Wauchope (ed.), Cultural diversity and transversal values: East-West dialogue on spiritual and secular dynamics, 138–144. Paris: UNESCO.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Biq, Yung-O.
    1991 The multiple uses of the second person singular pronoun ni in conversational Mandarin. Journal of Pragmatics16(4). 307–321. 10.1016/0378‑2166(91)90084‑B
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(91)90084-B [Google Scholar]
  11. Braun, Friederike
    1988Terms of address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110848113
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110848113 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown, James D.
    2001Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown, Penelope & Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brown, Roger W. & Albert Gilman
    1960 The pronouns of power and solidarity. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Style in language, 253–276. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bruner, Jerome
    1983Child’s talk: Learning to use language. New York/London: Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall
    2004 Language and identity. In Alessandro Duranti (ed.), A companion to linguistic anthropology, 369–394. Malden/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chao, Yuen Ren
    1968A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Clark, Herbert H.
    1996Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  19. Compton, Carol J.
    1994 Choosing Lao pronouns for conversational purposes: Negotiating and establishing relationships verbally. Second Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 135–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Condon, Jane
    1981 It’s prime time for Japan’s Barbara Walters, Tetsuko Kuroyanagi. People16(22). 83.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cong, Yang Hui & Ryozo Aoki
    2011 Keiei senryaku to riidaashippu sutairu to no kankei [The relationship between business strategy and leadership style]. Journal of the University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences: Distribution Sciences & Business Administration24(1). 93–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cooke, Joseph R.
    1968 Pronominal reference in Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese. Doctoral dissertation. Berkeley: University of California Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Coulmas, Florian
    1985 Direct and indirect speech: General problems and problems of Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics9(1). 41–63. 10.1016/0378‑2166(85)90047‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(85)90047-5 [Google Scholar]
  24. Culpeper, Jonathan
    1996 Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics25(3). 349–367. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00014‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00014-3 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2005 Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link. Journal of Politeness Research1(1). 35–72. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2008 Reflections on impoliteness, relational work and power. In Derek Bousfield & Miriam A. Locher (eds.), Impoliteness in language: Studies on its interplay with power in theory and practice, 17–44. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dahl, Östen
    2001 Inflationary effects in language and elsewhere. In Joan L. Bybee & Paul J. Hopper (eds.), Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure, 471–480. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.45.24dah
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.45.24dah [Google Scholar]
  28. Dale, Ian R. H.
    1978 Beyond intuition: The use of questionnaires in linguistic investigation. Anthropological Linguistics20(4). 158–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Diamond, Julie
    1996Status and power in verbal interaction: A study of discourse in a close-knit social network. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.40
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.40 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dickey, Eleanor
    1997 Forms of address and terms of reference. Journal of Linguistics33(2). 255–274. 10.1017/S0022226797006488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226797006488 [Google Scholar]
  31. Diessel, Holger
    2003 The relationship between demonstratives and interrogatives. Studies in Language27(3). 635–655. 10.1075/sl.27.3.06die
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.27.3.06die [Google Scholar]
  32. Diller, Anthony
    1994 Thai. In Cliff Goddard & Anna Wierzbicka (eds.), Semantic and lexical universals: Theory and empirical findings, 149–170. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.25.10dil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.25.10dil [Google Scholar]
  33. Doi, Takeo
    1971Amae no koozoo [The anatomy of dependence]. Tokyo: Kobundo.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Drew, Paul & John Heritage
    1992Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Duchan, Judith F. , Gail A. Bruder & Lynne E. Hewitt
    1995Deixis in narrative: A cognitive science perspective. Hillsdale/NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Durie, Mark
    1984 A grammar of Acehnese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Endo, Orie
    1992Josei no yobikata daikenkyuu [Studies of address terms for women]. Tokyo: Sanseido.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2006A cultural history of Japanese women’s language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Japanese Studies. 10.3998/mpub.9340262
    https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.9340262 [Google Scholar]
  39. Enfield, Nick J.
    2002 Combinatoric properties of natural semantic metalanguage expressions in Lao. In Cliff Goddard & Anna Wierzbicka (eds.), Meaning and universal grammar: Theory and empirical findings, 145–256. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.61.08enf
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.61.08enf [Google Scholar]
  40. 2004 Ethnosyntax: Introduction. In Nick J. Enfield (ed.), Ethnosyntax: Explorations in grammar and culture, 1–32. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266500.003.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266500.003.0001 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2007a Meaning of the unmarked: How ‘default’ person reference does more than just refer. In Nick J. Enfield & Tanya Stivers (eds.), Person reference in interaction: Linguistic, cultural, and social perspectives, 97–120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486746.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486746.006 [Google Scholar]
  42. 2007bA grammar of Lao. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110207538
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110207538 [Google Scholar]
  43. 2011 Sources of asymmetry in human interaction: Enchrony, status, knowledge and agency. In Tanya Stivers , Lorenza Mondada & Jakob Steensig (eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation, 285–312. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511921674.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.013 [Google Scholar]
  44. 2013Relationship thinking: Agency, enchrony, and human sociality. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338733.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338733.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  45. 2015The utility of meaning: What words mean and why. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Enfield, Nick J. & Bernard Comrie
    2015 Mainland Southeast Asian languages. In Nick J. Enfield & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia: The state of the art, 1–27. Berlin/München/Boston: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501501685‑001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501501685-001 [Google Scholar]
  47. Enfield, Nick J. & Tanya Stivers
    2007Person reference in interaction: Linguistic, cultural, and social perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486746
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486746 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ervin-Tripp, Susan
    1972 On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurrence. In John J. Gumperz & Dell Hymes (eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication, 213–250. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Evans, Nicholas
    1993 Code, inference, placedness and ellipsis. In William A. Foley (ed.), The role of theory in language description, 243–280. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110872835.243
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110872835.243 [Google Scholar]
  50. 2010Dying words: Endangered languages and what they have to tell us. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ewing, Michael & Dwi Noverini Djenar
    2019 Address, reference and sequentiality in Indonesian conversation. In Paul Bouissac (ed.), The social dynamics of pronominal systems: A comparative approach, 253–287. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.304.11ewi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.304.11ewi [Google Scholar]
  52. Fleming, Luke & James Slotta
    2018 The pragmatics of kin address: A sociolinguistic universal and its semantic affordances. Journal of Sociolinguistics22(4). 375–405. 10.1111/josl.12304
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12304 [Google Scholar]
  53. Foley, William A.
    1997Anthropological linguistics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Fujii, Yoko
    2011 Nihongo no shinzoku koshoo, ninshooshi ni miru jiko to tasha no ichizuke: Soogo kooi no ba ni okeru bunkateki jikokan no koosatsu [A study of how to situate the self and the other in the use of address terms in Japanese: An interpretation from the cultural perspective of ba in interaction]. Journal of Studies in Literature, Japan Women’s University60. 86–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 2012 Differences of situating self in the place/ba of interaction between the Japanese and American English speakers. Journal of Pragmatics44(5). 636–662. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.007 [Google Scholar]
  56. 2013 Social indexicality of the ‘zero’ form of address terms in Japanese: The interpretation from the amae concept on the basis of ‘inseparable self and the other’. Memoirs of the Japan Women’s University Faculty of Literature62. 23–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Fujiwara, Yoichi
    2000Nihongo hoogen bumpoo [Grammar of Japanese dialects]. Tokyo: Musashino Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Garde, Murray
    2013Culture, interaction and person reference in an Australian language: An ethnography of Bininj Gunwok communication. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clu.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clu.11 [Google Scholar]
  59. Geertz, Clifford
    1983Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretive anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gergely, György , Harold Bekkering & Ildikó Király
    2002 Developmental psychology: Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature415(6873). 755–756. 10.1038/415755a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/415755a [Google Scholar]
  61. Gergely, György & Gergely Csibra
    2006 Sylvia’s recipe: The role of imitation and pedagogy in the transmission of cultural knowledge. In Nick J. Enfield & Stephen C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of human sociality: Culture, cognition, and interaction, 229–255. Oxford: Berg.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Givón, Talmy
    1993English grammar vol. 1: A function-based introduction. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.engram1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.engram1 [Google Scholar]
  63. Goffman, Erving
    1955 On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. Psychiatry18(3). 213–231. 10.1080/00332747.1955.11023008
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1955.11023008 [Google Scholar]
  64. Green, Georgia M.
    1995 Ambiguity resolution and discourse interpretation. In Kees van Deemter & Stanley Peters (eds.), Semantic ambiguity and underspecification, 1–26. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Grice, Paul
    1975 Logic and conversation. In Peter Cole & Jerry L. Morgan (eds.), Speech acts, 41–58. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004368811_003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004368811_003 [Google Scholar]
  66. 1989Studies in the way of words. Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Gu, Yueguo
    1990 Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics14(2). 237–257. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90082‑O
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90082-O [Google Scholar]
  68. Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood & Ruqaiya Hasan
    1976Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hamaguchi, Eshun
    1998Nihonshakai towa nani ka: Fukuzatsukei no shiten kara [What is Japanese society?: Viewed as a complex system]. Tokyo: NHK Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Hanks, William F.
    2014 Introduction to emancipatory pragmatics, special issue part 3: From practice theory to ba theory. Journal of Pragmatics69. 1–3. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.06.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.06.004 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hashiguchi, Miki
    1998 Nininshoo daimeishi anata no rekishiteki hensen ni tsuite [On the history of the Japanese second person pronoun anata ]. Journal of Studies in Kashima Taiiku University19. 55–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hassall, Tim
    2013 Pragmatic development during short-term study abroad: The case of address terms in Indonesian. Journal of Pragmatics55. 1–17. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  73. Hatta, Yoko
    2003 The issues of making English an official language and English education in Japan. Bunkyo University Bungakubu Kiyo [Journal of Literature] 16(2). 107–136.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Haviland, John Beard
    1979 How to talk to your brother-in-law in Guugu Yimidhirr. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Languages and their speakers, 161–240. Cambridge (Mass.): Winthrop.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Heritage, John
    1984Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hill, Beverly , Sachiko Ide , Shoko Ikuta , Akiko Kawasaki & Tsunao Ogino
    1986 Universals of linguistic politeness: Quantitative evidence from Japanese and American English. Journal of Pragmatics10(3). 347–371. 10.1016/0378‑2166(86)90006‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(86)90006-8 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hinds, John
    1982Ellipsis in Japanese. Edmonton: Linguistic Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hock, Hans Henrich
    1986Principles of historical linguistics. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110871975
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110871975 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hoshina, Koichi
    1942Daitooa kyooeiken to kokugo seisaku [Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and national language policy]. Tokyo: Junseisha.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ide, Sachiko
    1982 Japanese sociolinguistics politeness and women’s language. Lingua57(2–4). 357–385. 10.1016/0024‑3841(82)90009‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(82)90009-2 [Google Scholar]
  81. 1989 Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness. Multilingua8(2/3). 223–248. 10.1515/mult.1989.8.2‑3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223 [Google Scholar]
  82. 1990a Person references of Japanese and American children. In Sachiko Ide & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin (eds.), Aspects of Japanese women’s language, 43–61. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 1990b How and why do women speak more politely in Japanese?In Sachiko Ide & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin (eds.), Aspects of Japanese women’s language, 63–79. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 1992a On the notion of wakimae: Toward an integrated framework of linguistic politeness. Mosaic of Language: Essays in Honour of Professor Natsuko Okuda, Mejiro Linguistic Society. 298–305.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 1992b Gender and function of language use: Quantitative and qualitative evidence from Japanese. Pragmatics and Language Learning3. 117–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 2006Wakimae no goyooron [Pragmatics of wakimae ]. Tokyo: Sanseido.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 2012 Roots of the wakimae aspect of linguistic politeness: Modal expressions and Japanese sense of self. In Michel Meeuwis & Jan-Ola Östman (eds.), Pragmaticizing understanding: Studies for Jef Verschueren, 121–138. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.170.08ide
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.170.08ide [Google Scholar]
  88. Ide, Sachiko & Chikako Sakurai
    1997 Shiten to modaritii no gengo koodoo [Speech act, viewpoint and modality]. In Yukinori Takubo (ed.), Shiten to gengo koodoo [Viewpoint and speech act], 119–153. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Ide, Sachiko & Kishiko Ueno
    2011 Honorifics and address terms. In Gisle Andersen & Karin Aijmer (eds.), Pragmatics of society, 439–470. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110214420.439
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110214420.439 [Google Scholar]
  90. Ilie, Cornelia
    2001 Unparliamentary language: Insults as cognitive forms of ideological confrontation. In René Dirven , Roslyn Frank & Cornelia Ilie (eds.), Language and ideology, 235–263. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.205.14ili
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.205.14ili [Google Scholar]
  91. 2010 Strategic uses of parliamentary forms of address: The case of the U.K. Parliament and the Swedish Riksdag. Journal of Pragmatics42(4). 885–911. 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.08.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.08.017 [Google Scholar]
  92. Inaba, Akihide
    1998 Jendaa to sutoresu [Gender and stress]. Kikan Kakei Keizai Kenkyuu [Quarterly Studies of Household Economy] 37(Winter). 32–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Inoue, Miyako
    2004 What does language remember?: Indexical inversion and the naturalized history of Japanese women. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology14(1). 39–56. 10.1525/jlin.2004.14.1.39
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.2004.14.1.39 [Google Scholar]
  94. 2006Vicarious language: Gender and linguistic modernity in Japan. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Irvine, Judith T.
    1974 Strategies of status manipulation in the Wolof greeting. In Richard Bauman & Joel Scherzer (eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 167–191. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Ishii, Kazumi & Nerida Jarkey
    2002 The housewife is born: The establishment of the notion and identity of the shufu in modern Japan. Japanese Studies22(1). 35–47. 10.1080/103713902201436732
    https://doi.org/10.1080/103713902201436732 [Google Scholar]
  97. Ishikawa, Matsutaro
    1973Nihon kyookasho taikei 15 kan: Joshi yoo [Japanese textbook system vol. 15: For women]. Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Ishiyama, Osamu
    2008 Diachronic perspective on personal pronouns in Japanese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. New York: State University of New York at Buffalo.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 2012 The diachronic relationship between demonstratives and first/second person pronouns. Journal of Historical Pragmatics13(1). 50–71. 10.1075/jhp.13.1.03ish
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.13.1.03ish [Google Scholar]
  100. 2019Diachrony of personal pronouns in Japanese: A functional and cross-linguistic perspective. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.344
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.344 [Google Scholar]
  101. Jakobson, Roman
    1971 [1957] Shifters, verbal categories and the Russian verb. In Roman Jakobson (ed.), Selected writings, 130–147. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Janney, Richard W. & Horst Arndt
    1993 Universality and relativity in cross-cultural politeness research: A historical perspective. Multilingua12(1). 13–50. 10.1515/mult.1993.12.1.13
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1993.12.1.13 [Google Scholar]
  103. Jarkey, Nerida
    2015 The housewife’s companion: Identity construction in a Japanese women’s magazine. In Dwi Noverini Djenar , Ahmar Mahboob & Ken Cruickshank (eds.), Language and identity across modes of communication, 179–201. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614513599.179
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513599.179 [Google Scholar]
  104. Jenson, Kenneth
    1988 Forms of address in Indonesian. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics81. 113–138. 10.1075/itl.81‑82.05jen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.81-82.05jen [Google Scholar]
  105. Jespersen, Otto
    1929The philosophy of grammar. London: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Jinnouchi, Masataka
    1998Nihongo no ima [Japanese today]. Tokyo: Arc.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Jung, Hyeseon
    1999 Nihongo ninshooshi no shakaigengogakuteki koosatsu [Sociolinguistic study of Japanese personal reference terms]. Unpublished master’s thesis. Osaka: Osaka State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 2003 Nihongo ninshooshi no shakaigengogakuteki kenkyuu [Sociolinguistic study of Japanese personal reference terms]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Osaka: Osaka State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Kadoya, Takateru
    2009 Kyuushuu hoogen ni okeru ninshoo daimeishi yurai no bunmatsushi [Considerations about sentence final particles derived from personal pronouns in the Kyushu Area]. Nagoya Hoogen Kenkyuukai Kaihoo [Journal of Nagoya Dialect Society] 25. 133–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Kagetsu, Mayumi
    2008 Kokkai kaigiroku ni okeru kizukanai hoogen [Unrealised dialect in the minutes of the Japanese Diet]. In Kenjiro Matsuda (ed.), Kokkai kaigiroku o tsukatta nihongo kenkyuu [Studies of Japanese language using the minutes of the Japanese Diet], 207–233. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Kajiwara, Makiko
    2004 Nihongo ni okeru taishooshi anata no shiyooryooiki ni tsuite [The usage of anata: The second person pronouns in Japanese]. Journal of International Student Centre, Shinshu University5. 47–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Kamada, Osamu
    2000Nihongo no inyoo [Reported speech in Japanese]. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Kameyama, Megumi
    1985Zero anaphora: The case of Japanese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stanford: Stanford University.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Kanai, Hayato
    2002 Shitsureisa toiu kanten kara mita nininshoo shiji no taikei [Second person reference system from the perspective of impoliteness]. Journal of the Faculty of Literature Study, Graduate School of Waseda University3(48). 83–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 2003a Futsuu meishi ni yoru nininshoo shiji: Kansetsuka toiu sutorategii [Second person reference with proper nouns: Strategy of indirectness]. Kokugogaku Kenkyuu to Shiryoo [Studies in Japanese Linguistics and Materials] 26. 13–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 2003b Nininshoo shiji ni okeru shijishi sochira ni tsuite no koosatsu: Nininshoo meishi anata tono taishoo o tooshite [Study of sochira as a second person reference: Through the comparative study of anata ]. Journal of Centre for International Students, Hitotsubashi University6. 53–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 2012 About the idea of second person pronoun by Ortega. Journal for International Education & Research: Centre for International Exchange, Saitama University6. 24–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Kanamaru, Fumi
    1997 Ninshoo daimeishi, koshoo [Person pronouns and address terms]. In Sachiko Ide (ed.), Joseigo no sekai [The world of women’s language], 15–32. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Kanokporn, Kaenjak
    1990 Koshoo no taishoo kenkyuu: Tai go [Contrastive study of address terms: Thai]. Nihongogaku9. 59–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Kanzaki, Takaaki
    1994Nichi-eigo daimeishi no kenkyuu [A study of pronouns in English and Japanese]. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Karim, Nik Safiah
    1995 Personal pronouns and forms of address in Malay. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication6(3). 183–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Katagiri, Yasuhiro
    2007 Dialogue functions of Japanese sentence-final particles yo and ne . Journal of Pragmatics39(7). 1313–1323. 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.02.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.02.013 [Google Scholar]
  123. Kawai, Hayao
    1976Bosei shakai nihon no byoori [The pathology of Japan as a maternal society]. Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Kim, Angela A-Jeoung
    2012 Power and solidarity as observed in forms of address/reference in Japanese political discourse: Focusing on selected samples from the minutes of the Japanese Diet (2001–2005) in BCCWJ. Journal of Japanese and Japanese Language Education, Keio University40. 19–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Kindaichi, Kyosuke
    1959Nihon no keigo [Japanese honorifics]. Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Kitagawa, Chisako & Adrienne Lehrer
    1990 Impersonal uses of personal pronouns. Journal of Pragmatics14(5). 739–759. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90004‑W
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90004-W [Google Scholar]
  127. Kluge, Bettina
    2016 Generic uses of the second person singular – how speakers deal with referential ambiguity and misunderstandings. Pragmatics26(3). 501–522. 10.1075/prag.26.3.07klu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.26.3.07klu [Google Scholar]
  128. Kobayashi, Emiko
    1992 Suki dakara omae nante: Paatonaa no yobikata [Using omae because of love?: How to address one’s partner]. In Orie Endo (ed.), Josei no yobikata daikenkyuu [Studies of address terms for women], 11–53. Tokyo: Sanseido.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Kojima, Toshio
    1974Kooki edo kotoba no keigo taikei [The honorific system in the late Edo period]. Tokyo: Kazama Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Kori, Chizuko
    2003 Ichininshoo daimeishi no shiyoo jittai to shiyoo ishiki ni tsuite: Hirosaki shi no seijin danjo no baai [Situations and perceptions when using the first person pronoun: Focusing on adults in Hirosaki]. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University90. 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Koyama, Wataru
    2004 The linguistic ideologies of modern Japanese honorifics and the historic reality of modernity. Language & Communication24(4). 413–435. 10.1016/j.langcom.2004.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2004.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  132. Koyano, Tetsuo
    1996 Terebi to wakamono kotoba [Television and youth language]. Nihongogaku [Journal of Japanese Linguistics] 15(9). 36–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Kuno, Susumu
    1973The structure of the Japanese language. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Kuroda, Shigeyuki
    1965 Generative grammatical studies in the Japanese language. Doctoral dissertation. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Kurokawa, Shozo
    1972 Japanese terms of address: Some usages of the first and second person pronouns. Papers in Japanese Linguistics1(2). 228–238. 10.1515/jjl‑1972‑0205
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jjl-1972-0205 [Google Scholar]
  136. Kyukakai
    Kyukakai 1941Kaisetsu reihoo yookoo: Mombushoo seitei [Explanation of handbook of manners: Enacted by The Ministry of Education]. Tokyo: Bunenkaku.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Labov, William
    1978Sociolinguistic patterns. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Lakoff, Robin
    1973a The logic of politeness: Minding your p’s and q’s. Chicago Linguistics Society (CLS), 292–395.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 1973b Language and woman’s place. Language in Society2(1). 45–79. 10.1017/S0047404500000051
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000051 [Google Scholar]
  140. 1977 What you can do with words: Politeness, pragmatics and performatives. Texas Conference on Performatives, Presuppositions and Implicatures, 79–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 1979 Stylistic strategies within a grammar of style. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences327(1). 53–78. 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.1979.tb17753.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1979.tb17753.x [Google Scholar]
  142. Lee, Benjamin
    1997Talking heads: Language, metalanguage, and the semiotics of subjectivity. Durham: Duke University Press. 10.1215/9780822382461
    https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822382461 [Google Scholar]
  143. Lee, Duck-Young
    2002 The function of the zero particle with special reference to spoken Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics34(6). 645–682. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00042‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00042-5 [Google Scholar]
  144. 2007 Involvement and the Japanese interactive particles ne and yo . Journal of Pragmatics39(2). 363–388. 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.06.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.06.004 [Google Scholar]
  145. Lee, Duck-Young & Yoko Yonezawa
    2008 The role of the overt expression of first and second person subject in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics40(4). 733–767. 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.06.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.06.004 [Google Scholar]
  146. Lee, Narah
    2014 A reconsideration of the omission of first and second person subjects in modern spoken Korean: Focusing on the pragmatic meanings of the overt subject expressions. Discourse and Cognition21(3). 145–164. 10.15718/discog.2014.21.3.145
    https://doi.org/10.15718/discog.2014.21.3.145 [Google Scholar]
  147. 2019 A pragmatic and sociocultural perspective to subject expression in spoken Korean: With focus on first and second person. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Leech, Geoffrey
    1983Principles of pragmatics. London/New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Leith, Dick
    1997A social history of English. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Levinson, Stephen C.
    1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813313
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813313 [Google Scholar]
  151. 2004 Deixis. In Laurence R. Horn & Gregory L. Ward (eds.), Handbook of pragmatics, 97–121. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Locher, Miriam A.
    2004Power and politeness in action: Disagreements in oral communication. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110926552
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110926552 [Google Scholar]
  153. Locher, Miriam A. & Holger Limberg
    2012 Introduction to advice in discourse. In Holger Limberg & Miriam A. Locher (eds.), Advice in discourse, 1–27. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.221.02int
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.221.02int [Google Scholar]
  154. Luong, Hy V.
    1990Discursive practices and linguistic meanings: The Vietnamese system of person reference. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.11 [Google Scholar]
  155. Mao, LuMing Robert
    1994 Beyond politeness theory: ‘Face’ revisited and renewed. Journal of Pragmatics21(5). 451–486. 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)90025‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)90025-6 [Google Scholar]
  156. Martin, Samuel
    1975A reference grammar of Japanese. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Matsuda, Kenjiro
    2004 The on-line full-text database of the minutes of the Diet: Its potentials and limitations. Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at Kobe Shoin7. 55–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. 2008Kokkai kaigiroku o tsukatta nihongo kenkyuu [Studies of Japanese language using the minutes of the Japanese Diet]. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Matsumoto, Yoshiko
    1988 Reexamination of the universality of face: Politeness phenomena in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics12(4). 403–426. 10.1016/0378‑2166(88)90003‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(88)90003-3 [Google Scholar]
  160. Maynard, Senko K.
    1993Discourse modality: Subjectivity, emotion and voice in the Japanese language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.24 [Google Scholar]
  161. 1996 Multivoicedness in speech and thought representation: The case of self-quotation in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics25. 207–226. 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00097‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)00097-2 [Google Scholar]
  162. 1997Japanese communication: Language and thought in context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 10.1515/9780824863074
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824863074 [Google Scholar]
  163. 2000Jooi no gengogaku: Basho kooshooron to nihongo hyoogen no patosu [Linguistic emotivity: Place and negotiation theory and pathos of Japanese expressions]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. 2001a Expressivity in discourse: Vocatives and themes in Japanese. Language Sciences23(6). 679–705. 10.1016/S0388‑0001(00)00024‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(00)00024-3 [Google Scholar]
  165. 2001b Falling in love with style: Expressive functions of stylistic shifts in a Japanese television drama series. Functions of Language8(1). 1–39. 10.1075/fol.8.1.02may
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.8.1.02may [Google Scholar]
  166. 2001cKoisuru futari no kanjoo kotoba: Dorama hyoogen no bunseki to nihongoron [Emotive language between lovers: Drama analysis and a study of Japanese]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. 2016Fluid orality in the discourse of Japanese popular culture. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.263
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.263 [Google Scholar]
  168. McGloin, Naomi Hanaoka
    1990 Sex difference and sentence-final particles. In Sachiko Ide & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin (eds.), Aspects of Japanese women’s language, 23–41. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Minagawa, Harumi
    2009 The specificity and the constraints on NP-external placement of quantity expressions in Japanese. Journal of Japanese Linguistics25(1). 39–58. 10.1515/jjl‑2009‑0104
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jjl-2009-0104 [Google Scholar]
  170. Miwa, Masashi
    2000Ninshooshi to keigo [Person reference terms and honorifics]. Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. 2005Ichininshoo nininshoo to taiwa [First/second person reference terms and dialogue]. Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. 2010Nihongo ninshooshi no fushigi: Mono, koto, hito, kimi, kami [The mystery of Japanese person reference terms: Things, people, Emperor, and God]. Tokyo: Horitsu Bunkasha.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Mizuochi, Masaaki
    2006 Kakei no jikan haibun koodoo to chichioya no ikuji sanka [Distribution of household time and the fathers’ participation in child raising]. Kikan Shakai Hoshoo Kenkyuu [Quarterly Journal of Social Security Research] 42(2). 149–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Mogi, Toshinobu
    2008 Kokkai kaigiroku ni okeru gyoosei bunya no gairaigo [Loan words in government administration observed in the minutes of the Japanese Diet]. In Kenjiro Matsuda (ed.), Kokkai kaigiroku o tsukatta nihongo kenkyuu [Studies of Japanese language using the minutes of the Japanese Diet], 85–110. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Mombusho
    Mombusho 1937Kokutai no hongi [Underlying principle of national polity]. Tokyo: The Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Moody, Stephen J.
    2018 Terms of address and identity in American-Japanese workplace interaction. In Haruko Minegishi Cook & Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith (eds.), Japanese at work: Politeness, power, and personae in Japanese workplace discourse, 205–234. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑63549‑1_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63549-1_9 [Google Scholar]
  177. Morford, Janet
    1997 Social indexicality in French pronominal address. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology7(1). 3–37. 10.1525/jlin.1997.7.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.1997.7.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  178. Mori, Arimasa
    1979Mori Arimasa zenshuu 12 kan [Collected works of Arimasa Mori vol. 12]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Morita, Emi
    2003 Children’s use of address and reference terms: Language socialization in a Japanese-English bilingual environment. Multilingua22(4). 367–395. 10.1515/mult.2003.019
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.2003.019 [Google Scholar]
  180. Morita, Yoshiyuki
    1987Nihongo o migaku shoojiten: Meishi hen [Dictionary for polishing Japanese: Nouns]. Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. 1989Kiso nihongo jiten [Dictionary of basic Japanese]. Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Morrow, Phillip R.
    2012 Online advice in Japanese: Giving advice in an internet discussion forum. In Holger Limberg & Miriam A. Locher (eds.), Advice in discourse, 255–280. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.221.16mor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.221.16mor [Google Scholar]
  183. Muramatsu, Keiko & Min Hua Xie
    2015 Nihongo no anata no honshitsu to nihongo no shokyuu kyooiku ni okeru anata no hitsuyoosei [The sense of anata ‘you’ in Japanese and the need for teaching it to Japanese language beginners]. Meijo Ronso [Meijo Treatise Collection] 15. 115–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Nakamura, Momoko
    2005 Gengo ideorogii to shite no onna kotoba [Women’s language as an ideology]. Goyooron Kenkyuu [Studies of Pragmatics] 7. 109–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. 2006 Gengo ideorogii toshite no onna kotoba: Meijiki jogakuseikotoba no seiritsu [Women’s language as a linguistic ideology: The formation of ‘schoolgirls’ language’ in the Meiji era]. InNihongo Jendaa Gakkai (ed.), Nihongo to jendaa [Japanese and gender], 121–138. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Nakane, Chie
    1967Tateshakai no ningen kankei [Personal relations in a vertical society]. Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. 1972Human relations in Japan: Summary translation of tateshakai no ningen kankei [Personal relations in a vertical society]. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Nariyama, Shigeko
    2003Ellipsis and reference tracking in Japanese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.66
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.66 [Google Scholar]
  189. Nihon Joshi Kasei Gakuin
    Nihon Joshi Kasei Gakuin 1915Katei no shiori [Handbook for the household]. Tokyo: Nihon Joshi Kasei Gakuin.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Niwa, Tetsuya
    1989 Mu-joshi no kinoo: Shudai to kaku to gojun [The function of the zero particle: Topic, case and word order]. Kokugo Kokubun [Japanese Language and Literature] 58(10). 38–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Noguchi, Tohru
    1997 Two types of pronouns and variable binding. Language73(4). 770–797. 10.1353/lan.1997.0021
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1997.0021 [Google Scholar]
  192. Nwoye, Onuigbo G.
    1992 Linguistic politeness and sociocultural variations of the notion of face. Journal of Pragmatics18(4). 309–328. 10.1016/0378‑2166(92)90092‑P
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(92)90092-P [Google Scholar]
  193. Ogi, Naomi
    2014 Language and an expression of identities: Japanese sentence-final particles ne and na . Journal of Pragmatics64. 72–84. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  194. Okamoto, Shigeko
    1985 Ellipsis in Japanese discourse. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. 1997 Social context, linguistic ideology, and indexical expressions in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics28(6). 795–817. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(97)81491‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(97)81491-9 [Google Scholar]
  196. 2010 Politeness in East Asia. In Miriam A. Locher & Sage L. Graham (eds.), Interpersonal pragmatics, 71–100. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110214338.1.71
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110214338.1.71 [Google Scholar]
  197. Okamoto, Shigeko & Janet S. Shibamoto-Smith
    2016The social life of the Japanese language: Cultural discourse and situated practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139680400
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139680400 [Google Scholar]
  198. Okazaki, Shoko
    1994 Ellipsis in Japanese conversational discourse. Doctoral dissertation. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University.
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Onishi, Masayuki
    1994 Semantic primitives in Japanese. In Cliff Goddard & Anna Wierzbicka (eds.), Semantic and lexical universals: Theory and empirical findings, 361–385. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.25.18oni
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.25.18oni [Google Scholar]
  200. Onishi, Tomoyuki
    1992 Nihongo no ninshooshi to ninshoo daimeishi: Suzuki setsu saikoo [Personal reference terms in Japanese: A reconsideration of Suzuki’s view]. Journal of Liberal Arts, Tezukayama Gakuin University30. 26–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Otaka, Hiromi
    1999 Nihongo ni okeru taishoo shiji goi sentaku no sutoratejii [Strategies for the choice of terms of address/reference in Japanese]. Language and Culture, Kwansei Gakuin University Language Centre2. 29–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Otani, Hiromi
    1995Wa to ga to Ø: Wa mo ga mo tsukaenai bun [ Wa, ga and Ø: A sentence in which wa or ga cannot be used]. In Tatsuo Miyajima & Yoshio Nitta (eds.), Nihongo ruigi hyoogen no bumpoo: Tambunhen [Japanese grammar of similar expressions: The simple sentence], 287–295. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Partee, Barbara Hall
    1973 The semantics of belief-sentences. In Jaakko Hintikka , Julius Moravcsik & Patrick Suppes (eds.), Approaches to natural language, 309–336. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑2506‑5_18
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2506-5_18 [Google Scholar]
  204. Peng, Fred F. C.
    1982 Koshoo no shakaigaku: Nichi-bei no hikaku [Sociolinguistics for personal reference terms: Contrastive study of Japanese and English]. In Tetsuya Kunihiro (ed.), Nichi-eigo hikaku kooza: Bunka to shakai [Contrastive studies of Japanese and English: Culture and society], 61–82. Tokyo: Taishukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Piazza, Roberta , Monika Bednarek & Fabio Rossi
    2011Telecinematic discourse: Approaches to the language of films and television series. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.211
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.211 [Google Scholar]
  206. Putnam, Hilary
    1975Mind, language, and reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511625251
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625251 [Google Scholar]
  207. Read, K. E.
    1955 Morality and the concept of the person among the Gahuku-Gama. Oceania25(4). 233–282. 10.1002/j.1834‑4461.1955.tb00651.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4461.1955.tb00651.x [Google Scholar]
  208. Reynolds, Katsue Akiba
    1990 Female speakers of Japanese in transition. In Sachiko Ide & Naomi Hanaoka McGloin (eds.), Aspects of Japanese women’s language, 129–146. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. 1997 Gengo to seisa no kenkyuu: Genzai to syoorai [A study of language and gender: Present and future]. In Sachiko Ide (ed.), Joseigo no sekai [The world of women’s language], 199–216. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Ri, Choha
    2002Nihongo shijitaikei no rekishi [A history of the demonstrative system in Japanese]. Kyoto: Kyoto Daigaku Gakujutsu Shuppankai.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Rumsey, Alan
    1981 Kinship and context among the Ngarinyin. Oceania51(3). 181–192. 10.1002/j.1834‑4461.1981.tb01448.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4461.1981.tb01448.x [Google Scholar]
  212. 1990 Wording, meaning and linguistic ideology. American Anthropologist92(2). 346–361. 10.1525/aa.1990.92.2.02a00060
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1990.92.2.02a00060 [Google Scholar]
  213. Sacks, Harvey & Emanuel A. Schegloff
    2007 Two preferences in the organization of reference to persons in conversation and their interaction. In Nick J. Enfield & Tanya Stivers (eds.), Person reference in interaction: Linguistic, cultural and social perspectives, 23–28. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486746.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486746.003 [Google Scholar]
  214. Saito, Kiyoko
    1999 Nininshoo daimeishi to keii hyoogen: Nichi-eigo taishoo kenkyuu [Politeness and the second person pronoun: A contrastive study of English and Japanese]. Journal of the Faculty of Literature, Baika Women’s University33(3). 1–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Sakuma, Kanae
    1959Nihongo no gengo riron [Linguistic theories of the Japanese language]. Tokyo: Koseisha Koseikaku.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Sanada, Ryoko
    1997 Hito o arawasu kotoba: Nihongo ni okeru nininshoo no kenkyuu [A study of second person reference terms in Japanese]. Journal of Mejirogakuin Junior College34. 85–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Sano, Shinichiro
    2008 Kokkai kaigiroku ni yoru sa ire kotoba no bunseki [An analysis of sa insertion using the minutes of the Japanese diet]. In Kenjiro Matsuda (ed.), Kokkai kaigiroku o tsukatta nihongo kenkyuu [Studies of Japanese language using minutes of the Japanese Diet], 159–184. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Schegloff, Emanuel A.
    1996a Confirming allusions: Toward an empirical account of action. American Journal of Sociology102(1). 161–216. 10.1086/230911
    https://doi.org/10.1086/230911 [Google Scholar]
  219. 1996b Some practices for referring to persons in talk-in-interaction: A partial sketch of a systematics. In Barbara Fox (ed.), Studies in anaphora, 437–485. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.33.14sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.33.14sch [Google Scholar]
  220. Schiffrin, Deborah
    1994Approaches to discourse. Massachusetts/Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Schiffrin, Deborah , Deborah Tannen & Heidi E. Hamilton
    2001The handbook of discourse analysis. Massachusetts/Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Searle, John R.
    1969Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438 [Google Scholar]
  223. Seki, Masaaki
    1997Nihongo kyooikushi kenkyuu josetsu [A study of the history of Japanese language education]. Tokyo: 3A Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Sepehri Badi, Azam
    2011 Gendai nihongo ni okeru kazoku kara yobareru toki no koshoo [A sociolinguistic study of kinship terms used between family members in the Japanese language]. Journal of Sociolinguistic Studies, Hitotsubashi University2. 57–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  225. 2012 Gendai nihongo ni okeru kazoku ni yobikakeru sai no koshoo hyoogen: Sedaisa to seisa o chuushin ni [Expressions used to address family members in modern Japanese: Generation differences and gender differences]. Journal of Japanese Language Studies, Hitotsubashi University1. 61–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  226. 2013 Nihongo to perushago no koshoo ni kansuru taishoo kenkyuu [A contrastive study of Japanese and Persian address terms]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tokyo: Hitotsubashi University.
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Sheffler, Harold W.
    1978Australian kin classification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511557590
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557590 [Google Scholar]
  228. Shibamoto-Smith, Janet S.
    2003 Gendered structures in Japanese. In Marlis Hellinger & Hadumod Bußmann (eds.), Gender across language: The linguistic representation of women and men, 201–225. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.11.12shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.11.12shi [Google Scholar]
  229. Shibatani, Masayoshi
    1990The language of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Shibatani, Masayoshi , Shigeru Miyagawa & Hisashi Noda
    2017Handbook of Japanese syntax. Boston: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614516613
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614516613 [Google Scholar]
  231. Shigematsu, Keiichi
    1956Sensei to iu nininshoo [A second person reference term sensei ]. Kyooiku Jijitsu [Educational Facts] 11(2). 108–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Shimizu, Hiroshi
    2000 Kyoosoo to basho [Co-creation and place]. In Hiroshi Shimizu , Tadashi Kume , Yoshiyuki Miwa & Yoshihito Miyake (eds.), Ba to kyoosoo [ Ba and co-creation], 23–117. Tokyo: NTT Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Shimotani, Maki
    2012 Shizen danwa ni okeru nininshoo daimeishi anata ni tsuite no ichi koosatsu: Ninshikiteki yuuisei (Epistemic Primacy) o fumaete [A study of the second person pronoun anata in natural discourse: With the notion of Epistemic Primacy]. Essay Collection in Japanese Education, Centre for International Students in Kansai University of Foreign Language22. 63–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Sidnell, Jack & Merav Shohet
    2013 The problem of peers in Vietnamese interaction. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute19(3). 618–638. 10.1111/1467‑9655.12053
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.12053 [Google Scholar]
  235. Siewierska, Anna
    2004Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511812729
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812729 [Google Scholar]
  236. Silverstein, Michael
    1979 Language structure and linguistic ideology. In Paul R. Clyne , William F. Hanks & Carol L. Hofbauer (eds.), The elements: A parasession on linguistic units and levels, 193–247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  237. 1985 Language and the culture of gender: At the intersection of structure, usage, and ideology. In Elizabeth Mertz & Richard J. Parmentier (eds.), Semiotic mediation: Sociocultural and psychological perspectives, 219–259. Orlando: Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑491280‑9.50016‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-491280-9.50016-9 [Google Scholar]
  238. Simon, Horst J.
    2003 From pragmatics to grammar: Tracing the development of respect in the history of the German pronouns of address. In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems, 85–123. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.06sim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.06sim [Google Scholar]
  239. Slembrouck, Stef
    1992 The parliamentary Hansard ‘verbatim’ report: The written construction of spoken discourse. Language and Literature1(2). 101–119. 10.1177/096394709200100202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/096394709200100202 [Google Scholar]
  240. Sneddon, James N. , K. Alexander Adelaar , Dwi Noverini Djenar & Michael C. Ewing
    2010Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Sperber, Dan & Deirdre Wilson
    1995Relevance: Communication and cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Stivers, Tanya
    2007 Alternative recognitionals in person reference. In Nick J. Enfield & Tanya Stivers (eds.), Person reference in interaction: Linguistic, cultural and social perspectives, 73–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486746.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486746.005 [Google Scholar]
  243. Stivers, Tanya , Nick J. Enfield & Stephen C. Levinson
    2007 Person reference in interaction. In Nick J. Enfield & Tanya Stivers (eds.), Person reference in interaction: Linguistic, cultural, and social perspectives, 1–20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486746.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486746.002 [Google Scholar]
  244. Stivers, Tanya , Lorenza Mondada & Jakob Steensig
    2011 Knowledge, morality and affiliation in social interaction. In Tanya Stivers , Lorenza Mondada & Jakob Steensig (eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation, 3–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511921674.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.002 [Google Scholar]
  245. SturtzSreetharan, Cindi L.
    2009Ore and omae: Japanese men’s uses of first-and second-person pronouns. Pragmatics19(2). 253–278. 10.1075/prag.19.2.06stu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.19.2.06stu [Google Scholar]
  246. Sugamoto, Nobuko
    1989 Pronominality: A noun-pronoun continuum. In Roberta Corrigan , Fred R. Eckman & Michael Noonan (eds.), Linguistic categorization, 267–291. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.61.17sug
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.61.17sug [Google Scholar]
  247. Suzuki, Mutsumi
    1993 Joseigo no honshitsu: Teineisa, hatsuwa kooi no shiten kara [The nature of women’s language: Looking at politeness and speech acts]. Nihongogaku [Japanese Linguistics] 12(6). 148–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  248. 2007 Kotoba no danjosa to nihongo kyooiku [Gender difference in language and Japanese language teaching]. Nihongo Kyooiku [Journal of Japanese Language Teaching] 134. 48–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  249. Suzuki, Takao
    1972 Nihonjin no gengoishiki to koodooyooshiki: Ningenkankei no haaku no yooshiki o chuushin toshite [Language awareness and behaviour in the Japanese: A special focus on human relationships]. In Shigeo Kawamoto , Tetsuya Kunihiro & Oki Hayashi (eds.), Nihon no gengogaku dai 5 kan: Imi, goi [Linguistics in Japanese vol. 5: Semantics and lexicology], 428–445. Tokyo: Taishukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  250. 1973Kotoba to bunka [Language and culture]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  251. 1978Japanese and the Japanese: Words in culture. New York: Kodansha International.
    [Google Scholar]
  252. 1982 Jishooshi to taishooshi no hikaku. In Tetsuya Kunihiro (ed.), Nichi-eigo hikaku kooza: Bunka to shakai [Contrastive studies of Japanese and English: Culture and society], 17–59. Tokyo: Taishukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  253. Takahara, Kumiko
    1992 Second person deixis in Japanese and power semantics. Intercultural Communication Studies2(1). 117–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Takasaki, Midori
    1992 Kekkonsuru to namae ga nakunaru nante [Losing a name upon marriage]. In Orie Endo (ed.), Josei no yobikata daikenkyuu [Studies of address terms toward women], 105–153. Tokyo: Sanseido.
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Takiura, Masato
    2005Nihon no keigoron: Poraitonesu riron kara no saikentoo [Keigo theory in Japan: A reexamination from the viewpoint of politeness theory]. Tokyo: Taishukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Takubo, Yukinori
    1997 Nihongo no ninshoo hyoogen [Person reference expressions in Japanese]. In Yukinori Takubo (ed.), Shiten to gengo koodoo [A viewpoint and speech act], 13–44. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Tanaka, Akio
    1991Hyoojungo [Standard language]. Tokyo: Seibundo Shinkosha.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. 1996 Tookyoogo to hyoojungo [Tokyo variety and standard Japanese]. In Kokugakuin Daigaku Nihonbunka Kenkyuujo (ed.), Tookyoogo no yukue [Whereabouts of Tokyo variety], 21–76. Tokyo: Tokyodo Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Tanaka, Katsuhiko
    1989Kokkago o koete [Beyond national language]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Tanaka, Yukari
    2010Shutoken ni okeru gengo dootai no kenkyuu [Language dynamics in the Tokyo metropolitan area]. Tokyo: Kazama Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Tani, Sumie
    1981 Gendaigo ni okeru anata [The use of anata ‘you’ in Modern Japanese]. Inter-University Center for Japanese Language Studies Administered by Stanford University4. 15–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Tannen, Deborah
    1989Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  263. 2007Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse (2nd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618987
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618987 [Google Scholar]
  264. Tomasello, Michael
    2008Origins of human communication. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  265. Travis, Catherine
    2002 La metalengua semantica natural: The natural semantic metalanguage of Spanish. In Anna Wierzbicka & Cliff Goddard (eds.), Meaning and universal grammar: Theory and empirical findings, 173–242. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.60.11tra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.60.11tra [Google Scholar]
  266. Tsujimura, Natsuko
    1996An introduction to Japanese linguistics. Cambridge (Mass.): Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Tsujimura, Toshiki
    1968Keigo no shiteki kenkyuu [Historical studies of honorifics]. Tokyo: Tokyodo Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Uesugi, Harunori
    1910Onna gojoo kun to gorin no kyoo [The teaching of the five human relations and the five eternal virtues for women]. Tokyo: Takanawa Saihoo Jogakkoo.
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Usui, Yoshiko
    2005 Kokkai ni okeru hantai iken hyoomei no koozoo: Kokkai kaigiroku kensaku shisutemu o shiyoo shite [Expressions of objection in the Japanese Diet: Using the Diet Conference Minutes Retrieval System]. Proceedings of 15th Conference of Sociolinguistics Society, 202–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Vandelanotte, Lieven
    2009Speech and thought representation in English: A cognitive-functional approach. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110215373
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110215373 [Google Scholar]
  271. Wales, Kathleen M.
    1983Thou and you in Early Modern English: Brown and Gilman re-appraised. Studia Linguistica37(2). 107–125. 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.1983.tb00316.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.1983.tb00316.x [Google Scholar]
  272. Watsuji, Tetsuro
    2007 [1937]Rinrigaku [Ethics]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Watts, Richard J. , Sachiko Ide & Konrad Ehlich
    1992Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110886542
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110886542 [Google Scholar]
  274. Whitman, John
    1979 Scrambled, over easy, or sunny side up?Chicago Linguistic Society15. 342–352.
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Wierzbicka, Anna
    1992Semantics, culture, and cognition: Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  276. 1997Understanding cultures through their key words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  277. 2012 ‘Advice’ in English and in Russian: A contrastive and cross-cultural perspective. In Holger Limberg & Miriam A. Locher (eds.), Advice in discourse, 309–332. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.221.19wie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.221.19wie [Google Scholar]
  278. Williams-van Klinken, Catharina & John Hajek
    2006 Patterns of address in Dili Tetum, East Timor. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics29(2). 21.21–21.18. 10.2104/aral0621
    https://doi.org/10.2104/aral0621 [Google Scholar]
  279. Wilson, John
    1990Politically speaking: The pragmatic analysis of political language. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Wittgenstein, Ludwig
    1953Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Wolfson, Nessa
    1976 Speech events and natural speech: Some implications for sociolinguistic methodology. Language in Society5(2). 189–209. 10.1017/S0047404500007028
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500007028 [Google Scholar]
  282. Woolard, Kathryn A. & Bambi B. Schieffelin
    1994 Language ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology23. 55–82. 10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415 [Google Scholar]
  283. Yamamoto, Kazuhide
    1971Gembun itchi no rekishi ronkoo [A historical study of colloquial style]. Tokyo: Ofusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Yamamoto, Kazuhide & Yasuaki Adachi
    2005 Informative spoken language summarization of the minutes of the Japanese Diet. Shizen Gengo Shori [Natrual Language Processing] 12(1). 3–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Yamamoto, Seisaku & Robert Edgar Carter
    1996Watsuji Tetsuro’s Rinrigaku: Ethics in Japan. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  286. Yanabu, Akira
    1998 Omote/ura no bunka koozoo [Obverse/reverse cultural structure]. In Eshun Hamaguchi (ed.), Nihon shakai towa nani ka [What is Japanese society?], 118–134. Tokyo: NHK Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Yasuda, Toshiaki
    1999Kokugo to hoogen no aida: Gengo koochiku no seijigaku [The national language and dialect: Language politics]. Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  288. 2006Kokugo no kindaishi [Modern history of national language in Japan]. Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. 2007Kokugo Shingikai: Meisoo no rokujuunen [The National Language Council of Japan: Sixty years of straying]. Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Yokotani, Kenji & Keizo Hasegawa
    2010a Discourse modalities of family nicknames: Comparison between unbound family nicknames and non-unbound family nicknames. Annual Report of Graduate School of Education in Tohoku University59(1). 275–292.
    [Google Scholar]
  291. 2010b Bubetsu shita koshoo wa haiguusha booryoku o shimesu [Insulting family nicknames reflect spousal violence against women]. Annual Report of Graduate School of Education in Tohoku University58(2). 229–238.
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Yonezawa, Yoko
    2014 Nininshoo daimeishi anata ni kansuru ichikoosatsu: Kokkaigijiroku no bunseki o tooshite [A study of the second person pronoun anata ‘you’ through an analysis of the minutes of the Japanese Diet]. Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Conference of the Japanese Studies Association of Australia. japaninstitute.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/u6/26_Yoko_Yonezawa-JSAA2013.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  293. 2016 Nininshoo daimeishi anata ni kansuru choosa hookoku [Native speakers’ perceptions of the second person pronoun anata ‘you’ in Japanese]. Nihongo Kyooiku [Journal of Japanese Language Teaching] 163(4). 64–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  294. 2019 Constructing fluid relationships through language: A study of address terms in a Japanese drama and its pedagogical implications. Journal of Japanese Linguistics35(2). 189–211. 10.1515/jjl‑2019‑2010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jjl-2019-2010 [Google Scholar]
  295. Yoshioka, Yoshimasa
    2014 Arimasa Mori’s essay on the formation of the personality. Journal of Toyo Eiwa University10. 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Yui, Megumi
    2007 Nihongo oyobi eigo ni okeru taishoo shiji no kinoo: Poraitonesu tono kanrensei [Functions of address terms in English and Japanese: With reference to politeness]. Surugadai University Studies33. 19–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Zhu, Li
    2008 Gendai nihongo no nininshoo daimeishi anata ni kansuru kenkyuu: Chuugoku de shuppan sareta kyookasho to nihon de shuppan sareta kyookasho no bunseki o chuushin ni [A study of anata ‘you’ in Modern Japanese: An analysis of textbooks published in Japan and China]. Journal of Studies of Education, Chugoku Shikoku Education Association54(2). 691–694.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Chuutoo-gakkoo Sahoo Yookoo Kaisetsu [Educational Guidelines for Secondary Schools] 1933 Tokyo: Teikoku Jikkoo Kyooikukai ‘The Japan Society for the Study of Education’.
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Reihoo Yookoo [Handbook of Manners] 1941 Tokyo: Mombusho ‘The Ministry of Education’.
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Reihoo Yookoo Kaisetsu [Commentary on the Handbook of Manners] 1942 Tokyo: Reihoo Kenkyukai ‘Workshop for Manners’.
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Shin Nippon Kensetsu ni Kansuru Shoosho [Imperial Rescript on the Construction of a New Japan] 1946 Tokyo. https://www.digital.archives.go.jp/das/image/F0000000000000043789
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Korekara no Keigo [Honorifics for the Future] 1952 Tokyo: Kokugo Shingikai ‘The National Language Council of Japan’. https://www.bunka.go.jp/kokugo_nihongo/sisaku/joho/joho/kakuki/01/tosin06/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  303. Ameba News
    Ameba News 2013, November16. Toshiue toiu dake de keii o harau? Wakamono no kotae wa oomune iesu [Do you give respect only because someone is older than you? The answer from young people is mostly ‘yes’]. Retrieved fromnews.ameba.jp/20131116-99/
  304. MyVoice
    MyVoice 2015, January15. Famirii resutoran, famiresu [Family restaurant]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.myvoice.co.jp/biz/surveys/20806/index.html
  305. NHK Kininaru Kotoba
    NHK Kininaru Kotoba 2012, October10. Anata to iwareru no wa fukai? [Are you unconformable with being referred to as anata?]. Retrieved fromwww.nhk.or.jp/kininaru-blog/
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Yomiuri Hatsugen Komachi
    Yomiuri Hatsugen Komachi 2012, April16. Anata to yobu hito fukai janai desu ka [Don’t you feel uncomfortable with people who use anata?]. Retrieved fromhttps://komachi.yomiuri.co.jp/t/2012/0415/499584.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Daijirin
    Daijirin 1995 Tokyo: Sanseido.
  308. Daijirin
    Daijirin 2006 Tokyo: Sanseido.
  309. Desukuban Koodansha Kokugo Jiten
    Desukuban Koodansha Kokugo Jiten 1992 Tokyo: Kodansha.
  310. Gakken Gendai Shin Kokugo Jiten
    Gakken Gendai Shin Kokugo Jiten 1994 Tokyo: Gakushu Kenkyusha.
  311. Gakken Kokugo Daijiten
    Gakken Kokugo Daijiten 1981 Tokyo: Gakushu Kenkyusha.
  312. Iwanami Kokugo Jiten
    Iwanami Kokugo Jiten 1994 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  313. Kadokawa Saishin Kokugo Jiten
    Kadokawa Saishin Kokugo Jiten 1993 Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten.
  314. Koojien
    Koojien , 1st edn. 1955 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  315. Koojien
    Koojien , 4th edn. 1991 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  316. Koojien
    Koojien , 5st edn. 1998 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  317. Koojien
    Koojien , 6st edn. 2008 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  318. Koojien
    Koojien , 7st edn. 2018 Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  319. Oobunsha Hyoojun Kokugo Jiten
    Oobunsha Hyoojun Kokugo Jiten 1992 Tokyo: Obunsha.
  320. Sanseidoo Reikai Shin Kokugo Jiten
    Sanseidoo Reikai Shin Kokugo Jiten 1995 Tokyo: Sanseido.
  321. Sanseidoo Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten
    Sanseidoo Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten 1992 Tokyo: Sanseido.
  322. Shoogakkan Gendai Kokugo Reikai Jiten
    Shoogakkan Gendai Kokugo Reikai Jiten 1997 Tokyo: Shogakkan.
  323. Shoogakkan Nihon Kokugo Daijiten
    Shoogakkan Nihon Kokugo Daijiten 2001 Tokyo: Shogakkan.
  324. Shuueisha Kokugo Jiten
    Shuueisha Kokugo Jiten 1993 Tokyo: Shueisha.
  325. Futabatei, Shimei
    1984 [1887] Ukigumo [Drifting clouds]. InFutabatei Shimei zenshuu [Collected works of Futabatei Shimei]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Natsume, Soseki
    1975 [1905] Wagahai wa neko dearu. InNatsume Soseki shu [Collection of Soseki Natsume]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  327. 1976 [1914] Kokoro [Heart]. InNatsume Soseki shu [Collection of Soseki Natsume]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Nitta, Jiro
    1969Kokoo no hito [Solitary person]. Tokyo: Shinchosha.
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Shinkawa, Kazue
    1997 [1966]Watashi o tabanenaide [Don’t bundle me up]. Tokyo: Dowasha.
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Usami, Mayumi
    2007 The Corpus of Japanese Spoken Language from ‘Basic Transcription System for Japanese’ ― Japanese Conversation 1: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  331. Kokkai Kaigiroku Kensaku Shisutemu [Minutes of the Japanese Diet Retrieval System]. Online atkokkai.ndl.go.jp/
    [Google Scholar]
  332. Kaneko, Shigeki , Tamio Hayashi , & Chiho Watanabe
    2005Kiken na Aneki [My Dangerous Older Sister]. Fuji Television Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  333. Kosawa, Ryota
    2012Riigaru Hai [Legal High]. Fuji Television Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Muto, Shogo
    2013Kazoku Geemu [Family Game]. Fuji Television Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Yukawa, Kazuhiko
    2011Kaseifu no Mita [Housekeeper Mita]. Nippon TV.
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Anata: Meue niwa tsukawanai [ Anata: Not to be used towards a superior] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, October15, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Anata: Sairyoo no nininshoo desu [ Anata: The best second person reference term] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, October15, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Anata: Depaato dewa kinku [ Anata: A taboo word in department stores] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, October19, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  339. Anata: Yawarakai hibiki seikoo [ Anata: Successfully sounding soft] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, October26, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  340. Anata: Watashi ni uttaeru [ Anata: Appealing to the individual self] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, October27, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Anata: no gerakushi [ Anata: The decline of anata ] 1976, Yomiuri Shimbun, November4, p.22.
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Anata: to yobarete oiya? [Don’t you like being addressed as anata?] 1983, Asahi Shimbun, September27, p15.
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Anata niwa teikoo kanjimasu [I feel reluctant to use anata ] 1983, Asahi Shimbun, October8, p.15.
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Makudonarudo, genten kaiki kazoku muke shoohin o kyooka [McDonald’s, back to the starting point, strengthening family friendly products] 2014, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, February6. Retrieved fromwww.nikkei.com/article/
    [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error