Nominal and Pronominal Address in Jamaica and Trinidad

Variation and patterns

image of Nominal and Pronominal Address in Jamaica and Trinidad

This book examines the various patterns of nominal and pronominal address used in Jamaica and Trinidad, the two most populous islands of the English-speaking Caribbean. Given that the Anglo-Caribbean context has so far been largely neglected in address research, this study aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the linguistic means Jamaicans and Trinidadians have at their disposal and make use of to address each other. A particular focus will be on variation in the speakers’ address behaviour with regard to their sex, age, social class, ethnicity, and regional background. The study draws both on data from a self-compiled corpus of postcolonial Jamaican and Trinidadian literary works, and on questionnaire and interview data collected during fieldwork. This book contributes to the ever-growing body of research in the field of nominal and pronominal address, and will be relevant to researchers interested in the fields of sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and World Englishes.


  1. Adisa, Opal Palmer
    1989a [1986] Me man angel. In Opal Palmer Adisa , Bake-face and other guava stories, 57–90. London: Flamingo.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 1989b [1986] Widows’ walk. In Opal Palmer Adisa , Bake-face and other guava stories, 91–117. London: Flamingo.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anthony, Michael
    1973 Drunkard of the river. In Andrew Salkey (ed.), West Indian stories, 193–198. London: Faber & Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Campbell, Hazel D.
    1978 A district called fellowship. In Hazel D. Campbell , The rag doll and other stories, 30–56. Mona: Savacou.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, Willi
    1990 [1989] The stickfighter. In Stewart Brown (ed.), Caribbean new wave: Contemporary short stories, 52–61. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 1998 Moro. In Edward A. Markham (ed.), The Penguin book of Caribbean short stories, 274–284. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 1999 [1988] Trotters. In Stewart Brown & John Wickham (eds.), The Oxford book of Caribbean short stories, 288–291. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goodison, Lorna
    1990 Follow your mind. In Lorna Goodison , Baby mother and the king of swords, 21–28. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hodge, Merle
    1973 [1970]Crick crack, monkey. London: Deutsch.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 1990 Inez. In Mervyn Morris (ed.), The Faber book of contemporary Caribbean short stories, 81–85. London: Faber & Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hosein, Clyde
    1990a I’m a Presbyterian, Mr Kramer. In Mervyn Morris (ed.), The Faber book of contemporary Caribbean short stories, 94–104. London: Faber & Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 1990b The man at the gate of the house of refuge. In Stewart Brown (ed.), Caribbean new wave: Contemporary short stories, 87–105. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 1998 Crow. In Edward A. Markham (ed.), The Penguin book of Caribbean short stories, 245–251. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Howland, Cicely
    1966Return to paradise: A play in one act. Port of Spain: University of the West Indies Extra-Mural Department.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 1967Uncle Robert: Family poem. A full-length play in 3 acts. Port of Spain: University of the West Indies Extra-Mural Department.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Johnson, Amryl
    1990 Yardstick. In Stewart Brown (ed.), Caribbean new wave: Contemporary short stories, 105–110. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Khan, Ismith
    1987The crucifixion. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 1999 [1990] Shadows move in the Britannia bar. In Stewart Brown & John Wickham (eds.), The Oxford book of Caribbean short stories, 110–118. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lovelace, Earl
    1984a [1976] My name is Village. In Earl Lovelace , Jestina’s calypso and other plays, 89–118. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 1984b [1980] The new hardware store. In Earl Lovelace , Jestina’s calypso and other plays, 43–88. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 1988a A brief conversion. In Earl Lovelace , A brief conversion and other stories, 1–31. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 1988b Call me ‘Miss Ross’ for now. In Earl Lovelace , A brief conversion and other stories, 59–80. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 1988c The midnight robber. In Earl Lovelace , A brief conversion and other stories, 104–110. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1988d Shoemaker Arnold. In Earl Lovelace , A brief conversion and other stories, 125–132. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 1988e Victory and the blight. In Earl Lovelace , A brief conversion and other stories, 133–141. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Matura, Mustapha
    1991The coup: A play of revolutionary dreams. London: Methuen Drama.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1992 [1979] Independence. In Mustapha Matura , Six plays: As time goes by, Nice, Play mas, Independence, Welcome home Jacko, Meetings, 171–236. London: Methuen Drama.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McKenzie, Alecia
    1999 Private school. In Stewart Brown & John Wickham (eds.), The Oxford book of Caribbean short stories, 442–446. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1992a Natasha. In Alecia McKenzie , Satellite city, 31–49. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1992b Jakes makes. In Alecia McKenzie , Satellite city, 54–78. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McKenzie, Earl
    1990 Fear of the sea. In Stewart Brown (ed.), Caribbean new wave: Contemporary short stories, 135–141. Oxford: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1992a Two roads to Mount Joyful. In Earl McKenzie , Two roads to Mount Joyful, 1–15. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 1992b I never wanted to be a shopkeeper. In Earl McKenzie , Two roads to Mount Joyful, 35–45. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 1992c The man and the four-eyed dog. In Earl McKenzie , Two roads to Mount Joyful, 78–86. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Naipaul, Shiva
    1995a [1984] The beauty contest. In Shiva Naipaul , A man of mystery and other stories, 1–11. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 1995b [1984] The political education of Clarissa Forbes. In Shiva Naipaul , A man of mystery and other stories, 24–49. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 1995c [1984] Mr Sookhoo and the carol singers. In Shiva Naipaul , A man of mystery and other stories, 81–91. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 1995d [1984] The father, the son and the holy ghost. In Shiva Naipaul , A man of mystery and other stories, 92–116. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Patterson, Orlando
    1972 [1965] One for a penny. In Andrew Salkey (ed.), Stories from the Caribbean: An anthology, 114–120. London: Elek.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1982 [1964]The children of Sisyphus. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Philp, Geoffrey
    1997a All God’s children. In Geoffrey Philp , Uncle Obadiah and the alien, 51–64. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1997b The river. In Geoffrey Philp , Uncle Obadiah and the alien, 127–154. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2003Benjamin, my son. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Reckord, Michael
    1990 Dog food. In Mervyn Morris (ed.), The Faber book of contemporary Caribbean short stories, 175–180. London: Faber & Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rhone, Trevor D.
    1981a [1971] Smile orange. In Trevor D. Rhone , Old story time and other plays, 159–225. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1981b [1974] School’s out. In Trevor D. Rhone , Old story time and other plays, 89–157. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1981c [1979] Old story time. In Trevor D. Rhone , Old story time and other plays, 1–87. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Scott, Lawrence
    1998 [1986] The house of funerals. In Edward A. Markham (ed.), The Penguin book of Caribbean short stories, 323–340. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Selvon, Samuel
    1972 [1965] When Greek meets Greek. In Andrew Salkey (ed.), Stories from the Caribbean: An anthology, 50–52. London: Elek.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2008 [1970] Home sweet India. In Samuel Selvon , Highway in the sun and other plays, 101–134. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Senior, Olive
    1986a Country of the one eye God. In Olive Senior , Summer lightning and other stories, 16–25. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 1986b Ascot. In Olive Senior , Summer lightning and other stories, 26–35. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 1999 [1986] Do angels wear brassieres?In Stewart Brown & John Wickham (eds.), The Oxford book of Caribbean short stories, 304–313. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith)
    Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith) 2005a [1986] The emancipation of a household slave. In Sistren Theatre Collective , Lionheart gal: Life stories of Jamaican women, 89–108. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith)
    Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith) 2005b [1986] Criss miss. In Sistren Theatre Collective , Lionheart gal: Life stories of Jamaican women, 109–125. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith)
    Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith) 2005c [1986] Veteran by veteran. In Sistren Theatre Collective , Lionheart gal: Life stories of Jamaican women, 155–173. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith)
    Sistren Theatre Collective (with Honor Ford-Smith) 2005d [1986] Grandma’s estate. In Sistren Theatre Collective , Lionheart gal: Life stories of Jamaican women, 175–197. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Stewart, John
    1990 Early morning. In Mervyn Morris (ed.), The Faber book of contemporary Caribbean short stories, 233–245. London: Faber & Faber.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Abrahams, Roger D. & Richard Bauman
    1971 Sense and non-sense in St. Vincent: Speech behavior and decorum in a Caribbean community. American Anthropologist73(3). 762–772. 10.1525/aa.1971.73.3.02a00160
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1971.73.3.02a00160 [Google Scholar]
  60. Aceto, Michael
    2002 Ethnic personal names and multiple identities in anglophone Caribbean speech communities in Latin America. Language in Society31(4). 577–608. 10.1017/S0047404502314040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404502314040 [Google Scholar]
  61. 2008 Eastern Caribbean-English derived language varieties: Morphology and syntax. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, vol.2, 645–660. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Aldrin, Emilia
    2016 Names and identity. In Carole Hough (ed.), The Oxford handbook of names and naming, 382–394. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Alford, Richard D.
    1988Naming and identity: A cross-cultural study of personal naming practices. New Haven, CT: HRAF Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Allsopp, Richard
    (ed.) 1996Dictionary of Caribbean English usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Anchimbe, Eric A.
    2006aCameroon English: Authenticity, ecology and evolution. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 2006b World Englishes and the American tongue. English Today22(4). 3–9. 10.1017/S0266078406004020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078406004020 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2013Language policy and identity construction: The dynamics of Cameroon’s multilingualism (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 32). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.32
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.32 [Google Scholar]
  68. Anchimbe, Eric A. & Richard W. Janney
    2011 Postcolonial pragmatics: An introduction. Journal of Pragmatics43(6). 1451–1459. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.027
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.027 [Google Scholar]
  69. 2017 Postcolonial pragmatics. In Anne Barron , Yueguo Gu & Gerard Steen (eds.), The Routledge handbook of pragmatics, 105–120. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315668925‑11
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315668925-11 [Google Scholar]
  70. Anderson, Robert T.
    1963 Changing kinship in Europe. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers28. 1–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ash, Sharon
    2002 Social class. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 402–422. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Atkinson, Donna L.
    1987 Names and titles: Maiden name retention and the use of Ms. Journal of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistics Association9. 56–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Backhaus, Peter
    2008 Coming to terms with age: Some linguistic consequences of population ageing. In Florian Coulmas , Harald Conrad , Annette Schad-Seifert & Gabriele Vogt (eds.), The demographic challenge: A handbook about Japan, 455–472. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Bailey, Guy , Tom Wikle & Jan Tillery
    1997 The effects of methods on results in dialectology. English World-Wide18(1). 35–63. 10.1075/eww.18.1.03bai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.18.1.03bai [Google Scholar]
  75. Baker, Philip
    1999 Investigating the origin and diffusion of shared features among the Atlantic English Creoles. In Philip Baker & Adrienne Bruyn (eds.), St. Kitts and the Atlantic creoles: The texts of Samuel Augustus Mathews in perspective, 315–364. London: University of Westminster Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Baker, Philip & Magnus Huber
    2000 Constructing new pronominal systems from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Linguistics38(5). 833–866. 10.1515/ling.2000.013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2000.013 [Google Scholar]
  77. Balderston, Daniel & Mike Gonzalez
    (eds.) 2004Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean literature, 1900–2003. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203316115
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203316115 [Google Scholar]
  78. Ballweg, John A.
    1969 Extensions of meaning and use for kinship terms. American Anthropologist71(1). 84–87. 10.1525/aa.1969.71.1.02a00100
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1969.71.1.02a00100 [Google Scholar]
  79. Barber, Charles
    1981You and thou in Shakespeare’s Richard III . Leeds Studies in English, New Series12. 273–289.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Bargiela, Francesca , Corinne Boz , Lily Gokzadze , Abdurrahman Hamza , Sara Mills & Nino Rukhadze
    2002 Ethnocentrism, politeness and naming strategies. Working Papers on the Web3. extra.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness/bargiela.htm. (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Bates, Elizabeth & Laura Benigni
    1975 Rules of address in Italy: A sociological survey. Language in Society4(3). 271–288. 10.1017/S0047404500006679
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006679 [Google Scholar]
  82. Beckford Wassink, Alicia
    1999 Historic low prestige and seeds of change: Attitudes toward Jamaican Creole. Language in Society28(1). 57–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Beebe, Leslie M. & Martha Clark Cummings
    1996 Natural speech act data versus written questionnaire data: How data collection method affects speech act performance. In Susan M. Gass & Joyce Neu (eds.), Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communication in a second language, 65–86. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Benor, Sarah Bunin
    2010 Ethnolinguistic repertoire: Shifting the analytic focus in language and ethnicity. Journal of Sociolinguistics14(2). 159–183. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2010.00440.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2010.00440.x [Google Scholar]
  85. Benson, Eugene & L. W. Connolly
    (eds.) 2005Encyclopedia of post-colonial literatures in English, vols.1, 2 & 3, 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Bergien, Angelika
    2014 Vocatives as mitigators in face-threatening contexts. In Oliviu Felecan & Daiana Felecan (eds.), Unconventional anthroponyms: Formation patterns and discursive function, 2–14. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Bernstein, Cynthia Goldin
    (ed.) 1994The text and beyond: Essays in literary linguistics. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Besson, Jean
    2002Martha Brae’s two histories: European expansion and Caribbean culture-building in Jamaica. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Biber, Douglas , Stig Johansson , Geoffrey Leech , Susan Conrad & Edward Finegan
    1999Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Bickerton, Derek
    1973 The nature of a creole continuum. Language49(3). 640–669. 10.2307/412355
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412355 [Google Scholar]
  91. 1975Dynamics of a creole system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Billmyer, Kristine & Manka Varghese
    2000 Investigating instrument-based pragmatic variability: Effects of enhancing discourse completion tests. Applied Linguistics21(4). 517–552. 10.1093/applin/21.4.517
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/21.4.517 [Google Scholar]
  93. Blake, Norman F.
    1981Non-standard language in English literature. London: Deutsch.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana , Juliane House & Gabriele Kasper
    1989 Investigating cross-cultural pragmatics: An introductory overview. In Shoshana Blum-Kulka , Juliane House & Gabriele Kasper (eds.), Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies, 1–34. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Boberg, Charles
    2013 The use of written questionnaires in sociolinguistics. In Christine Mallinson , Becky Childs & Gerard Van Herk (eds.), Data collection in sociolinguistics: Methods and applications, 131–141. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Brathwaite, Edward Kamau
    1984History of the voice: The development of nation language in anglophone Caribbean poetry. London: New Beacon.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Braun, Friederike
    1988Terms of address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110848113
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110848113 [Google Scholar]
  98. Braun, Friederike , Armin Kohz & Klaus Schubert
    1986Anredeforschung: Kommentierte Bibliographie zur Soziolinguistik der Anrede. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Breuer, Horst
    1983 Titel und Anreden bei Shakespeare und in der Shakespearezeit. Anglia101. 49–77. 10.1515/angl.1983.1983.101.49
    https://doi.org/10.1515/angl.1983.1983.101.49 [Google Scholar]
  100. Brown, Penelope & Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some universals in language use, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  101. Brown, Roger
    1965Social psychology. New York, NY: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 1996 The language of social relationship. In Dan Isaac Slobin , Julie Gerhardt , Amy Kyratzis & Jiansheng Guo (eds.), Social interaction, Social context, and language: Essays in honor of Susan Ervin-Tripp, 39–52. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Brown, Roger & Marguerite Ford
    1961 Address in American English. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology62. 375–385. 10.1037/h0042862
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0042862 [Google Scholar]
  104. Brown, Roger & Albert Gilman
    1960 The pronouns of power and solidarity. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Style in language, 253–276. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 1989 Politeness theory and Shakespeare’s four major tragedies. Language in Society18(2). 159–212. 10.1017/S0047404500013464
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500013464 [Google Scholar]
  106. Bruti, Silvia
    2000 Address pronouns in Shakespeare’s English: A reappraisal in terms of markedness. In Dieter Kastovsky & Arthur Mettinger (eds.), The history of English in a social context: A contribution to historical sociolinguistics, 25–51. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110810301.25
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110810301.25 [Google Scholar]
  107. Bucholtz, Mary
    1995 From Mulatta to Mestiza: Language and the reshaping of ethnic identity. In Kira Hall & Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self, 351–373. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 2002 From ‘sex differences’ to gender variation in sociolinguistics. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics8(3). 33–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 2003 Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics7(3). 398–416. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00232
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00232 [Google Scholar]
  110. Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall
    2005 Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies7(4/5). 585–614. 10.1177/1461445605054407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407 [Google Scholar]
  111. Buchstaller, Isabelle & Ghada Khattab
    2013 Population samples. In Robert J. Podesva & Devyani Sharma (eds.), Research methods in linguistics, 74–95. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Burke, Michael
    2015 Literary linguistics. In Natalie Braber , Louise Cummings & Liz Morrish (eds.), Exploring language and linguistics, 431–460. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139548922.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139548922.018 [Google Scholar]
  113. Burton, Richard D. E.
    1999 Names and naming in Afro-Caribbean cultures. New West Indian Guide73(1/2). 35–58. 10.1163/13822373‑90002584
    https://doi.org/10.1163/13822373-90002584 [Google Scholar]
  114. Busse, Beatrix
    2006Vocative constructions in the language of Shakespeare (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 150). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.150
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.150 [Google Scholar]
  115. Busse, Ulrich
    2002Linguistic variation in the Shakespeare corpus: Morpho-syntactic variability of second-person pronouns (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 106). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.106
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.106 [Google Scholar]
  116. 2003 The co-occurrence of nominal and pronominal address forms in the Shakespeare corpus: Who says thou or you to whom?In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107), 193–222. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.10bus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.10bus [Google Scholar]
  117. Butters, Ronald R. & Stuart Campbell Aycock
    1987 More on singular y’all . American Speech62(2). 191–192. 10.2307/455295
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455295 [Google Scholar]
  118. Calvo, Clara
    1992 Pronouns of address and social negotiation in As you like it . Language and Literature1(1). 5–27. 10.1177/096394709200100102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/096394709200100102 [Google Scholar]
  119. Cameron, Deborah
    1999 Performing gender identity: Young men’s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In Adam Jaworski & Nikolas Coupland (eds.), The discourse reader, 442–458. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Cao, Xianghong
    2007 The effect of age and gender on the choice of address forms in Chinese personal letters. Journal of Sociolinguistics11(3). 392–407. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2007.00329.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2007.00329.x [Google Scholar]
  121. Cassidy, Frederic G. & Robert B. Le Page
    (eds.) 1980Dictionary of Jamaican English, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Casson, Ronald W.
    1975 The semantics of kin term usage. American Ethnologist2(2). 229–238. 10.1525/ae.1975.2.2.02a00020
    https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1975.2.2.02a00020 [Google Scholar]
  123. Central Intelligence Agency
    Central Intelligence Agency 2016The CIA world factbook 2017. New York, NY: Skyhorse.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Chambers, Jack K.
    1995Sociolinguistic theory: Linguistic variation and its social significance. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 2002 Patterns of variation including change. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 349–372. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Chambers, Jack K. & Peter Trudgill
    1998Dialectology, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511805103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805103 [Google Scholar]
  127. Cheshire, Jenny
    2002 Sex and gender in variationist research. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 423–443. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Christie, Pauline
    2003Language in Jamaica. Kingston: Arawak.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Clayman, Steven E.
    2010 Address terms in the service of other actions: The case of news interview talk. Discourse & Communication4(2). 161–183. 10.1177/1750481310364330
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481310364330 [Google Scholar]
  130. 2012 Address terms in the organization of turns at talk: The case of pivotal turn extensions. Journal of Pragmatics44(13). 1853–1867. 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  131. Clyne, Michael
    2009 Address in intercultural communication across languages. Intercultural Pragmatics6(3). 395–409. 10.1515/IPRG.2009.020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IPRG.2009.020 [Google Scholar]
  132. Clyne, Michael , Catrin Norrby & Jane Warren
    2009Language and human relations: Styles of address in contemporary language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576690
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576690 [Google Scholar]
  133. Coupland, Nikolas
    2007Style: Language variation and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511755064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511755064 [Google Scholar]
  134. Crawford, Mary , Amy C. Stark & Catherine Hackett Renner
    1998 The meaning of Ms.: Social assimilation of a gender concept. Psychology of Women Quarterly22(2). 197–208. 10.1111/j.1471‑6402.1998.tb00150.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00150.x [Google Scholar]
  135. Crowley, Daniel J.
    1956 Naming customs in St. Lucia. Social and Economic Studies5(1). 87–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Dalzell, Tom
    (ed.) 2009The Routledge dictionary of American slang and unconventional English. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Dalzell, Tom & Terry Victor
    2015The concise new Partridge dictionary of slang and unconventional English, 2nd edn. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315672229
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315672229 [Google Scholar]
  138. DeCamp, David
    1967 African day-names in Jamaica. Language43(1). 139–149. 10.2307/411389
    https://doi.org/10.2307/411389 [Google Scholar]
  139. 1971 Toward a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Dell Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and creolization of languages: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of the West Indies Mona, Jamaica, April 1968, 349–370. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Deuber, Dagmar
    2009a Standard English in the secondary school in Trinidad: Problems – properties – prospects. In Thomas Hoffmann & Lucia Siebers (eds.), World Englishes: Problems, properties and prospects (Varieties of English Around the World G40), 83–106. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g40.08deu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g40.08deu [Google Scholar]
  141. 2009b ‘The English we speaking’: Morphological and syntactic variation in educated Jamaican speech. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages24(1). 1–52. 10.1075/jpcl.24.1.02deu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.24.1.02deu [Google Scholar]
  142. 2010a Standard English and situational variation: Sociolinguistic considerations in the compilation of ICE-Trinidad and Tobago. ICAME Journal34. 24–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 2010b Modal verb usage at the interface of English and a related Creole: A corpus-based study of can/could and will/would in Trinidadian English. Journal of English Linguistics38(2). 105–142. 10.1177/0075424209348151
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424209348151 [Google Scholar]
  144. 2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, style and standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139226400
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139226400 [Google Scholar]
  145. Deuber, Dagmar & Glenda Alicia Leung
    2013 Investigating attitudes towards an emerging standard of English: Evaluations of newscasters’ accents in Trinidad. Multilingua32(3). 289–319. 10.1515/multi‑2013‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2013-0014 [Google Scholar]
  146. Deumert, Ana
    2004 Ethnicity. In Ulrich Ammon , Norbert Dittmar , Klaus J. Mattheier & Peter Trudgill (eds.), Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, vol.1, 2nd edn., 355–360. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110141894.1.3.355
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110141894.1.3.355 [Google Scholar]
  147. Devonish, Hubert
    2006 The anglophone Caribbean. In Ulrich Ammon , Norbert Dittmar , Klaus J. Mattheier & Peter Trudgill (eds.), Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, vol.3, 2nd edn., 2083–2095. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Devonish, Hubert & Ewart A. C. Thomas
    2012 Standards of English in the Caribbean. In Raymond Hickey (ed.), Standards of English: Codified varieties of English around the world, 179–197. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139023832.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139023832.010 [Google Scholar]
  149. Dickey, Eleanor
    1997 Forms of address and terms of reference. Journal of Linguistics33(2). 255–274. 10.1017/S0022226797006488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226797006488 [Google Scholar]
  150. 2002Latin forms of address: From Plautus to Apuleius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Diekmann, Andreas
    2007Empirische Sozialforschung: Grundlagen, Methoden, Anwendungen, 17th edn. Reinbek: Rowohlt.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Dion, Kenneth L.
    1987 What’s in a title? The Ms. stereotype and images of women’s titles of address. Psychology of Women Quarterly11(1). 21–36. 10.1111/j.1471‑6402.1987.tb00771.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1987.tb00771.x [Google Scholar]
  153. Dollinger, Stefan
    2012 The written questionnaire as a sociolinguistic data gathering tool: Testing its validity. Journal of English Linguistics40(1). 74–110. 10.1177/0075424211414808
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424211414808 [Google Scholar]
  154. 2015The written questionnaire in social dialectology: History, theory, practice (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 40). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.40
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.40 [Google Scholar]
  155. Doyle, Bertram W.
    1968The etiquette of race relations in the south: A study in social control. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Drummond, Rob & Erik Schleef
    2016 Identity in variationist sociolinguistics. In Siân Preece (ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and identity, 50–65. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Dunkling, Leslie
    1990A dictionary of epithets and terms of address. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Eckert, Penelope
    1989 The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change1(3). 245–267. 10.1017/S095439450000017X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000017X [Google Scholar]
  159. 2005 Variation, convention, and social meaning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America , Oakland, CA, 7 January 2005: 1–33. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  160. 2012 Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology41. 87–100. 10.1146/annurev‑anthro‑092611‑145828
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145828 [Google Scholar]
  161. Eckert, Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet
    2013Language and gender, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139245883
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139245883 [Google Scholar]
  162. Eelen, Gino
    2001A critique of politeness theories. Manchester: St Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Eggins, Suzanne
    2000 Researching everyday talk. In Len Unsworth (ed.), Researching language in schools and communities: Functional linguistic perspectives, 130–151. London: Cassell.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Ellis, Michael
    1994 Literary dialect as linguistic evidence: Subject-verb concord in nineteenth-century southern literature. American Speech69(2). 128–144. 10.2307/455697
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455697 [Google Scholar]
  165. Ervin-Tripp, Susan M.
    1972 On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurrence. In John J. Gumperz & Dell Hymes (eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication, 213–250. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Fabb, Nigel
    2001 Linguistics and literature. In Mark Aronoff & Janie Rees-Miller (eds.), The handbook of linguistics, 446–465. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Fairclough, Norman
    1992Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Farquharson, Joseph T.
    2013 Jamaican. In Susanne Maria Michaelis , Philippe Maurer , Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The survey of pidgin and creole languages: English-based and Dutch-based languages, vol.1, 81–91. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Farquharson, Joseph T. & Byron Jones
    2014 Jamaican slang. In Julie Coleman (ed.), Global English slang: Methodologies and perspectives, 116–125. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Fasold, Ralph W.
    1990The sociolinguistics of language. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Feagin, Crawford
    2002 Entering the community: Fieldwork. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 20–39. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Figueredo, Danilo H.
    (ed.) 2006Encyclopedia of Caribbean literature, vols.1 & 2. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Finkenstaedt, Thomas
    1963You and thou: Studie zur Anrede im Englischen (mit einem Exkurs über die Anrede im Deutschen). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110822588
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110822588 [Google Scholar]
  174. Firth, Raymond , Jane Hubert & Anthony Forge
    1969Families and their relatives: Kinship in a middle-class sector of London. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Fischer, Andreas
    2002 Notes on kinship terminology in the history of English. In Katja Lenz & Ruth Möhlig (eds.), Of dyuersitie & chaunge of language: Essays presented to Manfred Görlach on the occasion of his 65th birthday, 115–128. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Fishman, Joshua A.
    1997 Language and ethnicity: The view from within. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics, 327–343. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Fitch, Kristine L.
    1991 The interplay of linguistic universals and cultural knowledge in personal address: Colombian ‘madre’ terms. Communication Monographs58. 254–272. 10.1080/03637759109376229
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759109376229 [Google Scholar]
  178. Formentelli, Maicol
    2007 The vocative mate in contemporary English: A corpus-based study. In Andrea Sansò (ed.), Language resources and linguistic theory, 180–199. Milan: Franco Angeli.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. 2009 Address strategies in a British academic setting. Pragmatics19(2). 179–196. 10.1075/prag.19.2.02for
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.19.2.02for [Google Scholar]
  180. 2014 Vocatives galore in audiovisual dialogue: Evidence from a corpus of American and British films. English Text Construction7(1). 53–83. 10.1075/etc.7.1.03for
    https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.7.1.03for [Google Scholar]
  181. Formentelli, Maicol & John Hajek
    2013 Italian L2 address strategies in an Australian university setting: A comparison with L1 Italian and L1 English practice. In Bert Peeters , Kerry Mullan & Christine Béal (eds.), Cross-culturally speaking, speaking cross-culturally, 77–106. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Fought, Carmen
    2002 Ethnicity. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 444–472. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Frey, William H. & Zachary Zimmer
    2001 Defining the city. In Ronan Paddison (ed.), Handbook of urban studies, 14–35. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781848608375.n2
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608375.n2 [Google Scholar]
  184. Fuller, Janet M.
    2005 The uses and meanings of the female title Ms. American Speech80(2). 180–206. 10.1215/00031283‑80‑2‑180
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-80-2-180 [Google Scholar]
  185. Geertz, Clifford
    1973 Person, time and conduct in Bali. In Clifford Geertz (ed.), The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays, 360–411. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Goffman, Erving
    1959The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. 1967Interaction ritual: Essays in face-to-face behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Golato, Andrea
    2003 Studying compliment responses: A comparison of DCTs and recordings of naturally occurring talk. Applied Linguistics24(1). 90–121. 10.1093/applin/24.1.90
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.1.90 [Google Scholar]
  189. Goody, Jack
    1983The development of the family and marriage in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607752
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607752 [Google Scholar]
  190. Gordon, Derek
    1987Class, status and social mobility in Jamaica. Kingston: Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Gordon, Shirley C.
    1963A century of West Indian education: A source book. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Gorman, Kyle & Daniel Ezra Johnson
    2013 Quantitative analysis. In Robert Bayley , Richard Cameron & Ceil Lucas (eds.), The Oxford handbook of sociolinguistics, 214–240. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Gramley, Stephan & Kurt-Michael Pätzold
    2004A survey of Modern English, 2nd edn. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203425978
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203425978 [Google Scholar]
  194. Grieve, Jack
    2013 Sociolinguistics: Quantitative methods. In Carol A. Chapelle (ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics, vol.9, 5286–5293. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Gumperz, John J.
    1982Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  196. Gumperz, John J. & Dell Hymes
    (eds.) 1972Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Hackert, Stephanie
    2004Urban Bahamian Creole: System and variation (Varieties of English Around the World G32). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g32
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g32 [Google Scholar]
  198. 2016 Standards of English in the Caribbean: History, attitudes, functions, features. In Elena Seoane & Cristina Suárez-Gómez (eds.), World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations (Varieties of English Around the World G57), 85–112. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g57.05hac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g57.05hac [Google Scholar]
  199. Hackert, Stephanie & Dagmar Deuber
    2015 American influence on written Caribbean English: A diachronic analysis of newspaper reportage in the Bahamas and in Trinidad and Tobago. In Peter Collins (ed.), Grammatical change in English world-wide (Studies in Corpus Linguistics 67), 389–410. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.67.16hac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.67.16hac [Google Scholar]
  200. Hänsel, Eva Canan & Dagmar Deuber
    2013 Globalization, postcolonial Englishes, and the English language press in Kenya, Singapore, and Trinidad and Tobago. World Englishes32(3). 338–357. 10.1111/weng.12035
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12035 [Google Scholar]
  201. Hair, Joseph F. , William C. Black , Barry J. Babin & Rolph E. Anderson
    2010Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, 7th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Harris, John
    1986 Expanding the superstrate: Habitual markers in Atlantic Englishes. English World-Wide7(2). 171–199. 10.1075/eww.7.2.02har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.7.2.02har [Google Scholar]
  203. Hentschel, Elke
    2012 All men become brothers: The use of kinship terms for non-related persons as a sign of respect or disrespect. Linguistik Online51(1). 29–42. 10.13092/lo.51.303
    https://doi.org/10.13092/lo.51.303 [Google Scholar]
  204. Hickey, Raymond
    2003 Rectifying a standard deficiency: Pronominal distinctions in varieties of English. In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107), 345–374. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.14hic
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.14hic [Google Scholar]
  205. 2004 English dialect input to the Caribbean. In Raymond Hickey (ed.), Legacies of colonial English: Studies in transported dialects, 326–359. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  206. (ed.) 2010Varieties of English in writing: The written word as linguistic evidence (Varieties of English Around the World G41). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g41
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g41 [Google Scholar]
  207. Hollington, Andrea
    2015Traveling conceptualizations: A cognitive and anthropological linguistic study of Jamaican (Culture and Language Use 14). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clu.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clu.14 [Google Scholar]
  208. Holm, John
    1994 English in the Caribbean. In Robert Burchfield (ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language: English in Britain and overseas: Origins and development, vol.5, 328–381. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CHOL9780521264785.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264785.008 [Google Scholar]
  209. Holmes, Janet
    2008An introduction to sociolinguistics, 3rd edn. Harlow: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Holton, Sylvia W.
    1984Down home and uptown: The representation of black speech in American fiction. Rutherford, NY: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Hook, Donald D.
    1984 First names and titles as solidarity and power semantics in English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching22(3). 183–189. 10.1515/iral.1984.22.3.183
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1984.22.3.183 [Google Scholar]
  212. Hope, Jonathan
    1993 Second person singular pronouns in records of Early Modern ‘spoken’ English. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen94(1). 83–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  213. 1994 The use of thou and you in Early Modern spoken English: Evidence from depositions, in the Durham ecclesiastical court records. In Dieter Kastovsky (ed.), Studies in Early Modern English, 141–151. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110879599.141
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879599.141 [Google Scholar]
  214. Horn, Laurence R.
    1984 Toward a new taxonomy for pragmatic inference: Q-based and R-based implicature. In Deborah Schiffrin (ed.), Meaning, form and use in context: Linguistic applications (Georgetown University round table on languages and linguistics 1984), 11–42. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Hughson, Jo-anne
    2009Diversity and changing values in address: Spanish address pronoun usage in an intercultural immigrant context. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Hymes, Dell
    1974Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Ide, Sachiko
    1989 Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness. Multilingua8(2/3). 223–248. 10.1515/mult.1989.8.2‑3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223 [Google Scholar]
  218. International Standard Classification of Occupations
    International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08. (31March 2021.)
  219. Irvine, Alison
    2004 A good command of the English language: Phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages19(1). 41–76. 10.1075/jpcl.19.1.03irv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.19.1.03irv [Google Scholar]
  220. Irvine, Judith T.
    2009 Honorifics. In Gunter Senft , Jan-Ola Östman & Jef Verschueren (eds.), Culture and language use (Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights 2), 156–172. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hoph.2.15irv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hoph.2.15irv [Google Scholar]
  221. Ives, Sumner
    1971 A theory of literary dialect. In Juanita V. Williamson & Virginia M. Burke (eds.), A various language: Perspectives on American dialects, 145–177. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Jacquemet, Marco
    1994 T-offenses and metapragmatic attacks: Strategies of interactional dominance. Discourse and Society5(3). 297–319. 10.1177/0957926594005003003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926594005003003 [Google Scholar]
  223. Jamaica Standard Occupational Classification
    Jamaica Standard Occupational Classification 201565.183.5.244:8091. (31March 2021.)
  224. James, Deborah
    1998 Gender-linked derogatory terms and their use by women and men. American Speech73(4). 399–420. 10.2307/455584
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455584 [Google Scholar]
  225. James, Winford & Valerie Youssef
    2008 The creoles of Trinidad and Tobago: Morphology and syntax. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, vol.2, 661–692. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Jantos, Susanne
    2010 Agreement in educated Jamaican English: A corpus-based study of spoken usage in ICE-Jamaica. In Anja Wanner & Heidrun Dorgeloh (eds.), Approaches to syntactic variation and genre, 305–331. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226485.2.305
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226485.2.305 [Google Scholar]
  227. Jaworski, Adam & Dariusz Galasiński
    2000 Vocative address forms and ideological legitimization in political debates. Discourse Studies2(1). 35–53. 10.1177/1461445600002001002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445600002001002 [Google Scholar]
  228. John, Catherine
    2003 Neo-coloniality, literary representation and the problem of disciplinary solutions. In Carole Boyce Davies , Meredith Gadsby , Charles Peterson & Henrietta Williams (eds.), Decolonizing the academy: African diaspora studies, 235–256. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Johnstone, Barbara
    2011 Language and place. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics, 203–217. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511997068.017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997068.017 [Google Scholar]
  230. Joseph, John E.
    1987 Subject relevance and deferential address in Indo-European languages. Lingua73. 259–277. 10.1016/0024‑3841(87)90021‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(87)90021-0 [Google Scholar]
  231. 2004Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230503427
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230503427 [Google Scholar]
  232. Jucker, Andreas H.
    2000Thou in the history of English: A case for historical semantics or pragmatics?In Christiane Dalton-Puffer & Nikolaus Ritt (eds.), Words: Structure, meaning, function. A Festschrift for Dieter Kastovsky, 153–163. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809169.153
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809169.153 [Google Scholar]
  233. 2006 Thou art so loothly and so oold also: The use of ye and thou in Chaucer’s Canterbury tales . Anglistik17(2). 57–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Jucker, Andreas H. & Irma Taavitsainen
    2003 Diachronic perspectives on address term systems: Introduction. In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107), 1–25. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.02juc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.02juc [Google Scholar]
  235. Kachru, Braj B.
    1985 Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In Randolph Quirk & Henry G. Widdowson (eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures, 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  236. 1992 World Englishes: Approaches, issues and resources. Language Teaching25(1). 1–14. 10.1017/S0261444800006583
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800006583 [Google Scholar]
  237. Kasper, Gabriele
    1990 Linguistic politeness: Current research issues. Journal of Pragmatics14(2). 193–218. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90080‑W
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90080-W [Google Scholar]
  238. Kennedy, Robert
    2015 Nicknames. In John R. Taylor (ed.), The Oxford handbook of the word, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 650–668.
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Khan, Aisha
    1997 Rurality and ‘racial’ landscapes in Trinidad. In Barbara Ching & Gerald W. Creed (eds.), Knowing your place: Rural identity and cultural hierarchy, 39–70. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Kiełkiewicz-Janowiak, Agnieszka
    1992A socio-historical study in address: Polish and English. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Klerk, Vivian de & Barbara Bosch
    1999 Nicknames as evidence of verbal playfulness. Multilingua18(1). 1–16. 10.1515/mult.1999.18.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1999.18.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  242. Kluge, Bettina
    2005Identitätskonstitution im Gespräch: Südchilenische Migrantinnen in Santiago de Chile. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert. 10.31819/9783865278951
    https://doi.org/10.31819/9783865278951 [Google Scholar]
  243. Knappe, Gabriele & Michael Schümann
    2006Thou and ye: A collocational-phraseological approach to pronoun change in Chaucer’s Canterbury tales . Studia Anglica Posnaniensia42. 213–238.
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Koch, Peter & Wulf Oesterreicher
    1985 Sprache der Nähe – Sprache der Distanz: Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit im Spannungsfeld von Sprachtheorie und Sprachgeschichte. Romanistisches Jahrbuch36. 15–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Kouwenberg, Silvia & John Victor Singler
    (eds.) 2008The handbook of pidgin and creole studies. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444305982
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444305982 [Google Scholar]
  246. 2011 Pidgins and creoles. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics, 283–300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511997068.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997068.022 [Google Scholar]
  247. Kramer, Cheris
    1975 Sex-related differences in address systems. Anthropological Linguistics17. 198–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Krug, Manfred , Julia Schlüter & Anette Rosenbach
    2013 Introduction: Investigating language variation and change. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.), Research methods in language variation and change, 1–13. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511792519.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511792519.002 [Google Scholar]
  249. Labben, Afef
    2016 Reconsidering the development of the discourse completion test in interlanguage pragmatics. Pragmatics26(1). 69–91. 10.1075/prag.26.1.04lab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.26.1.04lab [Google Scholar]
  250. Labov, William
    1963 The social motivation of a sound change. Word19. 273–309. 10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799 [Google Scholar]
  251. 1966The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  252. 1972aSociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  253. 1972bLanguage in the inner city. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. 1990 The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change2(2). 205–254. 10.1017/S0954394500000338
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000338 [Google Scholar]
  255. Lakoff, Robin
    1975Language and woman’s place. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Lalla, Barbara
    2005 Creole and respec’ in the development of Jamaican literary discourse. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages20(1). 53–84. 10.1075/jpcl.20.1.05lal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.20.1.05lal [Google Scholar]
  257. Lalla, Barbara & Jean D’Costa
    1990Language in exile: Three hundred years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Lalla, Barbara , Jean D’Costa & Velma Pollard
    2014Caribbean literary discourse: Voice and cultural identity in the anglophone Caribbean. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Lambert, Wallace E. & G. Richard Tucker
    1976Tu, vous, usted: A social-psychological study of address patterns. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Leech, Geoffrey
    1999 The distribution and function of vocatives in American and British English conversation. In Hilde Hasselgård & Signe Oksefjell (eds.), Out of corpora: Studies in honour of Stig Johansson, 107–118. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  261. 2007 Politeness: Is there an East-West divide?Journal of Politeness Research3(2). 167–206. 10.1515/PR.2007.009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/PR.2007.009 [Google Scholar]
  262. 2014The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  263. Leech, Geoffrey , Marianne Hundt , Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith
    2009Change in contemporary language: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511642210
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511642210 [Google Scholar]
  264. Le Page, Robert B. & Andrée Tabouret-Keller
    1985Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  265. Lerner, Gene H.
    2003 Selecting next speaker: The context-sensitive operation of a context-free organization. Language in Society32(2). 177–201. 10.1017/S004740450332202X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450332202X [Google Scholar]
  266. Lieberson, Stanley & Cathy Kenny
    2007 The changing role of nicknames: A study of politicians. Names55(4). 317–325. 10.1179/nam.2007.55.4.317
    https://doi.org/10.1179/nam.2007.55.4.317 [Google Scholar]
  267. Lillian, Donna L.
    1993 Ms. revisited: She’s still a bitch, only now she’s older!Papers of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association19. 149–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Locher, Miriam A. & Richard J. Watts
    2005 Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research1(1). 9–33. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9 [Google Scholar]
  269. Luckmann de Lopez, Kathrin
    2013 Clause-final man in Tyneside English. In Gisle Andersen & Kristin Bech (eds.), English corpus linguistics: Variation in time, space and genre (selected papers from ICAME 32), 139–162. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Luong, Hy V.
    1990Discursive practices and linguistic meanings: The Vietnamese system of person reference (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 11). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.11
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.11 [Google Scholar]
  271. Macaulay, Ronald K. S.
    2009Quantitative methods in sociolinguistics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑02050‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-02050-5 [Google Scholar]
  272. Mair, Christian
    2002 Creolisms in an emerging standard: Written English in Jamaica. English World-Wide23(1). 31–58. 10.1075/eww.23.1.03mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.23.1.03mai [Google Scholar]
  273. 2007 English in North America and the Caribbean. In Christopher F. Laferl & Bernhard Pöll (eds.), Amerika und die Norm: Literatursprache als Modell?, 3–23. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110978759.3
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110978759.3 [Google Scholar]
  274. 2009 Corpus linguistics meets sociolinguistics: Studying educated spoken usage in Jamaica on the basis of the International Corpus of English. In Thomas Hoffmann & Lucia Siebers (eds.), World Englishes: Problems, properties and prospects (Varieties of English Around the World G40), 39–60. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g40.06mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g40.06mai [Google Scholar]
  275. Mair, Christian & Andrea Sand
    1998 Caribbean English: Structure and status of an emerging variety. In Raimund Borgmeier , Herbert Grabes & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Anglistentag 1997 Giessen: Proceedings, 187–198. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Malcomson, Kelly A. & Lisa Sinclair
    2007 The Ms. stereotype revisited: Implicit and explicit facets. Psychology of Women Quarterly31(3). 305–310. 10.1111/j.1471‑6402.2007.00373.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00373.x [Google Scholar]
  277. Maynor, Natalie
    1996 The pronoun y’all: Questions and some tentative answers. Journal of English Linguistics24(4). 288–294. 10.1177/007542429602400404
    https://doi.org/10.1177/007542429602400404 [Google Scholar]
  278. Mazzon, Gabriella
    2000 Social relations and forms of address in the Canterbury tales . In Dieter Kastovsky & Arthur Mettinger (eds.), The history of English in a social context: A contribution to historical sociolinguistics, 135–168. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110810301.135
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110810301.135 [Google Scholar]
  279. McArthur, Tom
    1998Concise Oxford companion to the English language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  280. McCarthy, Michael J. & Anne O’Keeffe
    2003 ‘What’s in a name?’: Vocatives in casual conversations and radio phone-in calls. In Pepi Leistyna & Charles F. Meyer (eds.), Corpus analysis: Language structure and language use, 153–185. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789004334410_010
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334410_010 [Google Scholar]
  281. McConnell-Ginet, Sally
    2003 ‘What’s in a name?’: Social labeling and gender practices. In Janet Holmes & Miriam Meyerhoff (eds.), The handbook of language and gender, 69–97. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756942.ch3
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756942.ch3 [Google Scholar]
  282. Meyerhoff, Miriam , Chie Adachi , Golnaz Nanbakhsh & Anna Strycharz
    2012 Sociolinguistic fieldwork. In Nicholas Thieberger (ed.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic fieldwork, 121–146. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Migge, Bettina
    2001 Communicating gender in the Eastern Maroon Creole of Suriname. In Marlis Hellinger & Hadumod Bußmann (eds.), Gender across languages: The linguistic representation of women and men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 9), vol.1, 85–104. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.9.08mig
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.9.08mig [Google Scholar]
  284. Mille, Katherine Wyly
    1997 Ambrose Gonzales’s Gullah: What it may tell us about variation. In Cynthia Bernstein , Thomas Nunnally & Robin Sabino (eds.), Language variety in the south revisited, 98–112. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Mills, Sara
    2003Gender and politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615238
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615238 [Google Scholar]
  286. 2011 Discursive approaches to politeness and impoliteness. InLinguistic Politeness Research Group (eds.), Discursive approaches to politeness, 19–56. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110238679.19
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110238679.19 [Google Scholar]
  287. Milroy, Lesley & Matthew Gordon
    2003Sociolinguistics: Method and interpretation. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470758359
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470758359 [Google Scholar]
  288. Mintz, Sidney W. & Richard Price
    1976The birth of African-American culture: An anthropological perspective. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Morgan, Marcyliena
    1993 The Africanness of counterlanguage among Afro-Americans. In Salikoko S. Mufwene (ed.), Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties, 423–435. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Mühleisen, Susanne
    2001 Is ‘bad English’ dying out? A diachronic comparative study of attitudes towards Creole vs. Standard English in Trinidad. Philologie im Netz15. 43–78. web.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin15/p15t3.htm. (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  291. 2002Creole discourse: Exploring prestige-formation and change across Caribbean English-lexicon creoles (Creole Language Library 24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.24 [Google Scholar]
  292. 2005 Forms of address in English-lexicon creoles: The presentation of selves and others in the Caribbean context. In Susanne Mühleisen & Bettina Migge (eds.), Politeness and face in Caribbean creoles (Varieties of English Around the World G34), 195–223. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g34.12muh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g34.12muh [Google Scholar]
  293. 2010 Variation and change in creole pronominal systems: What does allyuh mean?In Markus Bieswanger , Heiko Motschenbacher & Susanne Mühleisen (eds.), Language in its socio-cultural context: New explorations in gendered, global and media uses, 237–253. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  294. 2011 Forms of address and ambiguity in Caribbean creoles: Strategic interactions in a postcolonial language situation. Journal of Pragmatics43(6). 1460–1471. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.017 [Google Scholar]
  295. 2013 Trinidad English Creole. In Susanne Maria Michaelis , Philippe Maurer , Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The survey of pidgin and creole languages: English-based and Dutch-based languages, vol.1, 61–69. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Mühleisen, Susanne & Don E. Walicek
    2009 Language and gender in the Caribbean: An overview. Sargasso: Journal of Caribbean Literature, Language and Culture 2008–2009 15–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Mühlhäusler, Peter
    1997Pidgin and creole linguistics, 2nd edn. London: Battlebridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    1988 The pragmatics of kinship terms in Kituba. Multilingua7(4). 441–453. 10.1515/mult.1988.7.4.441
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1988.7.4.441 [Google Scholar]
  299. Murphy, Bróna & Fiona Farr
    2012 ‘I’m fine girl, and how are you?’: The use of vocatives in spoken Irish English. In Bettina Migge & Máire Ní Chiosáin (eds.), New perspectives on Irish English (Varieties of English Around the World G44), 203–224. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g44.10mur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g44.10mur [Google Scholar]
  300. Murphy, Gregory L.
    1988 Personal reference in English. Language in Society17(3). 317–349. 10.1017/S0047404500012938
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500012938 [Google Scholar]
  301. Murray, Thomas E.
    1997 Perceptions of Ms.-titled women: Evidence from the American Midwest. Onomastica Canadiana79. 73–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  302. 2002a A new look at address in American English: The rules have changed. Names50(1). 43–61. 10.1179/nam.2002.50.1.43
    https://doi.org/10.1179/nam.2002.50.1.43 [Google Scholar]
  303. 2002b A further note on the ‘title + first name’ form of address. Names50(4). 263–273. 10.1179/nam.2002.50.4.263
    https://doi.org/10.1179/nam.2002.50.4.263 [Google Scholar]
  304. Myers, Raymond H.
    1990Classical and modern regression with applications, 2nd edn. Boston, MA: Duxbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  305. National Occupational Classification of Trinidad & Tobago
    National Occupational Classification of Trinidad & Tobago 2013https://cso.gov.tt/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/National_Occupational_Classification_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago_2013.pdf. (31March 2021.)
  306. Nettleford, Rex
    1984 Foreword. In Michael G. Smith (ed.), Culture, race and class in the Commonwealth Caribbean, ix–xii. Kingston: Department of Extra-Mural Studies, University of the West Indies.
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Nevala, Minna
    2002Youre moder send a letter to the: Pronouns of address in private correspondence from Late Middle to Late Modern English. In Helena Raumolin-Brunberg , Minna Nevala , Arja Nurmi & Matti Rissanen (eds.), Variation past and present. VARIENG studies on English for Terttu Nevalainen, 135–159. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  308. 2003 Family first: Address and subscription formulae in English family correspondence from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century. In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107), 147–176. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.08nev
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.08nev [Google Scholar]
  309. 2004 Accessing politeness axes: Forms of address and terms of reference in early English correspondence. Journal of Pragmatics36(12). 2125–2160. 10.1016/j.pragma.2004.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2004.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  310. Nkwain, Joseph
    2014 Address strategies in Cameroon Pidgin English: A sociopragmatic perspective. In Eric A. Anchimbe (ed.), Structural and sociolinguistic perspectives on indigenisation: On multilingualism and language evolution, 189–206. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7881‑8_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7881-8_10 [Google Scholar]
  311. Nørgaard, Nina
    2004 Challenging the boundaries: Exploring the interface of linguistics and literature. In Hans Lauge Hansen (ed.), Disciplines and interdisciplinarity in foreign language studies, 169–182. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Norrby, Catrin & Camilla Wide
    2015 Introduction: Address as social action across cultures and contexts. In Catrin Norrby & Camilla Wide (eds.), Address practice as social action: European perspectives, 1–12. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137529923_1
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137529923_1 [Google Scholar]
  313. Norrick, Neal R. & Claudia Bubel
    2009 Direct address as a resource for humor. In Neal R. Norrick & Delia Chiaro (eds.), Humor in interaction (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 182), 29–48. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.182.02nor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.182.02nor [Google Scholar]
  314. O’Keeffe, Anne , Brian Clancy & Svenja Adolphs
    2011Introducing pragmatics in use. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203830949
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203830949 [Google Scholar]
  315. Oxford English Dictionary [OED]
    Oxford English Dictionary [OED] 2000– 3rd edn.OED online. Oxford: Clarendon Press. https://www.oed.com. (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Oyetade, Solomon Oluwole
    1995 A sociolinguistic analysis of address forms in Yoruba. Language in Society24(4). 515–535. 10.1017/S004740450001900X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001900X [Google Scholar]
  317. Pakkala-Weckström, Mari
    2003 Genre, gender and power: A study of address forms in seven Canterbury tales . In Karin Aijmer & Britta Olinder (eds.), Proceedings from the 8th Nordic conference on English studies, 121–136. Goteborg: Goteborgs Universitet Acta Univ.
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Patrick, Peter L.
    1999Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the mesolect (Varieties of English Around the World G17). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g17
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g17 [Google Scholar]
  319. 2008a Pidgins, creoles, and variation. In Silvia Kouwenberg & John Victor Singler (eds.), The handbook of pidgin and creole studies, 461–488. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444305982.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444305982.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  320. 2008b Jamaican Creole: Morphology and syntax. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, vol.2, 609–644. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  321. Pauwels, Anne
    2001 Spreading the feminist word: The case of the new courtesy title Ms in Australian English. In Marlis Hellinger & Hadumod Bußmann (eds.), Gender across languages: The linguistic representation of women and men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 9), vol.1, 137–151. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.9.11pau
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.9.11pau [Google Scholar]
  322. Philipsen, Gerry & Michael Huspek
    1985 A bibliography of sociolinguistic studies of personal address. Anthropological Linguistics27(1). 94–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Population and Housing Census of Jamaica
    Population and Housing Census of Jamaica 2011statinja.gov.jm/Census/PopCensus/Popcensus2011Index.aspx. (31March 2021.)
  324. Price, Richard & Sally Price
    1972 Saramaka onomastics: An Afro-American naming system. Ethnology11(4). 341–367. 10.2307/3773067
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3773067 [Google Scholar]
  325. Quirk, Randolph , Sidney Greenbaum , Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik
    1985A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Raumolin-Brunberg, Helena
    1996 Forms of address in Early English correspondence. In Terttu Nevalainen & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg (eds.), Sociolinguistics and language history: Studies based on the corpus of Early English correspondence, 167–182. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  327. 2005 The diffusion of subject you: A case study in historical sociolinguistics. Language Variation and Change17(1). 55–73. 10.1017/S0954394505050039
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394505050039 [Google Scholar]
  328. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2016R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.r-project.org. (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Reisman, Karl
    1974 Cultural and linguistic ambiguity in a West Indian village. In Norman E. Whitten & John F. Szwed (eds.), Afro-American anthropology, 129–144. New York, NY: The Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Rendle-Short, Johanna
    2007 ‘Catherine, you’re wasting your time’: Address terms within the Australian political interview. Journal of Pragmatics39(9). 1503–1525. 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.02.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.02.006 [Google Scholar]
  331. Richardson, Gina
    1984 Can y’all function as a singular pronoun in southern dialect?American Speech59(1). 51–59. 10.2307/454993
    https://doi.org/10.2307/454993 [Google Scholar]
  332. Rickford, John R.
    1986 Social contact and linguistic diffusion: Hiberno-English and New World Black English. Language62(2). 245–289. 10.2307/414674
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414674 [Google Scholar]
  333. 1987Dimensions of a creole continuum: History, texts, and linguistic analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Rickford, John R. & John McWhorter
    1997 Language contact and language generation: Pidgins and creoles. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics, 238–256. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Rickford, John R. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    1985 Symbol of powerlessness and degeneracy, or symbol of solidarity and truth? Paradoxical attitudes toward pidgins and creoles. In Sidney Greenbaum (ed.), The English language today, 252–261. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Rocke, Judy
    2003 Rural poverty and development planning: A case study of Moruga and Cocal in South-East Trinidad, In David Barker & Duncan McGregor (eds.), Resources, planning, and environmental management in a changing Caribbean, 113–132. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Romaine, Suzanne
    1988Pidgin and creole languages. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  338. 2001 A corpus-based view of gender in British and American English. In Marlis Hellinger & Hadumod Bußmann (eds.), Gender across languages: The linguistic representation of women and men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society 9), vol.1, 153–175. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.9.12rom
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.9.12rom [Google Scholar]
  339. Rosenfelder, Ingrid
    2009 Rhoticity in educated Jamaican English: An analysis of the spoken component of ICE-Jamaica. In Thomas Hoffmann & Lucia Siebers (eds.), World Englishes: Problems, properties and prospects (Varieties of English Around the World G40), 61–82. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g40.07ros
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g40.07ros [Google Scholar]
  340. Rudanko, Juhani M.
    1993Pragmatic approaches to Shakespeare: Essays on Othello, Coriolanus and Timon of Athens. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Russell Webb, Eric
    2013 Pidgins and creoles. In Robert Bayley , Richard Cameron & Ceil Lucas (eds.), The Oxford handbook of sociolinguistics, 301–320. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Rymes, Betsy
    1999 Names. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology9(1/2). 163–166. 10.1525/jlin.1999.9.1‑2.163
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.1999.9.1-2.163 [Google Scholar]
  343. Salmon, Vivian
    1967 Elizabethan colloquial English in the Falstaff plays. Leeds Studies in English1. 37–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Sand, Andrea
    1999Linguistic variation in Jamaica: A corpus-based study of radio and newspaper usage. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  345. 2011 Language attitudes and linguistic awareness in Jamaican English. In Lars Hinrichs & Joseph T. Farquharson (eds.), Variation in the Caribbean: From creole continua to individual agency (Creole Language Library 37), 163–190. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.37.10san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.37.10san [Google Scholar]
  346. Sankoff, David
    1988 Problems of representativeness. In Ulrich Ammon , Norbert Dittmar & Klaus J. Mattheier (eds.), Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, 899–903. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  347. Schilling, Natalie
    2011 Language, gender, and sexuality. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics, 218–237. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511997068.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997068.018 [Google Scholar]
  348. 2013aSociolinguistic fieldwork. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511980541
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511980541 [Google Scholar]
  349. 2013b Surveys and interviews. In Robert J. Podesva & Devyani Sharma (eds.), Research methods in linguistics, 96–115. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  350. Schleef, Erik
    2013 Written surveys and questionnaires in sociolinguistics. In Janet Holmes & Kirk Hazen (eds.), Research methods in sociolinguistics: A practical guide, 42–57. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  351. Schmied, Josef
    2008 East African English (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania): Morphology and syntax. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Varieties of English 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, 451–471. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  352. Schneider, David M. & George C. Homans
    1955 Kinship terminology and the American kinship system. American Anthropologist57(6). 1194–1208. 10.1525/aa.1955.57.6.02a00100
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1955.57.6.02a00100 [Google Scholar]
  353. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2002 Investigating variation and change in written documents. In Jack K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 67–96. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  354. 2006 English in North America. In Braj B. Kachru , Yamuna Kachru & Cecil L. Nelson (eds.), The handbook of world Englishes, 58–73. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470757598.ch4
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757598.ch4 [Google Scholar]
  355. 2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  356. Schneider, Edgar W. & Christian Wagner
    2006 The variability of literary dialect in Jamaican Creole: Thelwell’s The harder they come . Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages21(1). 45–95. 10.1075/jpcl.21.1.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.21.1.02sch [Google Scholar]
  357. Schneider, Klaus P.
    2003Diminutives in English. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110929553
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110929553 [Google Scholar]
  358. Schneider, Klaus P. & Anne Barron
    2008 Where pragmatics and dialectology meet: Introducing variational pragmatics. In Klaus P. Schneider & Anne Barron (eds.), Variational pragmatics: A focus on regional varieties in pluricentric languages (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 178), 1–32. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.178.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.178.02sch [Google Scholar]
  359. Schulz, Muriel R.
    1975 The semantic derogation of women. In Barrie Thorne & Nancy Henley (eds.), Language and sex: Difference and dominance, 64–75. Rowley, MA: Newbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  360. Scotton, Carol Myers & Zhu Wanjin
    1983Tóngzhì in China: Language change and its conversational consequences. Language in Society12(4). 477–494. 10.1017/S0047404500010204
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500010204 [Google Scholar]
  361. Seoane, Elena
    2016 The perfect space in creole-related varieties of English: The case of Jamaican English. In Valentin Werner , Elena Seoane & Cristina Suárez-Gómez (eds.), Re-assessing the present perfect: Corpus studies and beyond, 195–222. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110443530‑010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110443530-010 [Google Scholar]
  362. Shields-Brodber, Kathryn
    1989 Standard English in Jamaica: A case of competing models. English World-Wide10(1). 41–53. 10.1075/eww.10.1.03shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.10.1.03shi [Google Scholar]
  363. 1997 Requiem for English in an ‘English-speaking’ community: The case of Jamaica. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Englishes around the world: Studies in honour of Manfred Görlach: Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australasia (Varieties of English Around the World G19), vol.2, 57–67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g19.07shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g19.07shi [Google Scholar]
  364. Smith, Raymond T.
    1996The matrifocal family: Power, pluralism, and politics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  365. Speelman, Dirk
    2014 Logistic regression: A confirmatory technique for comparisons in corpus linguistics. In Dylan Glynn & Justyna A. Robinson (eds.), Corpus methods for semantics: Quantitative studies in polysemy and synonymy (Human Cognitive Processing 43), 487–534. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.43.18spe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.43.18spe [Google Scholar]
  366. Spencer, Nancy J.
    1975 Singular y’all . American Speech50(3/4). 315–317. 10.2307/3088013
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3088013 [Google Scholar]
  367. Spencer-Oatey, Helen
    1996 Reconsidering power and distance. Journal of Pragmatics26(1). 1–24. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00047‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00047-X [Google Scholar]
  368. Stanley Niaah, Sonjah
    2010Dancehall: From slave ship to ghetto. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  369. Stein, Dieter
    2003 Pronominal usage in Shakespeare: Between sociolinguistics and conversational analysis. In Irma Taavitsainen & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107), 251–307. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107.12ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.12ste [Google Scholar]
  370. Stoll, Rita
    1989Die nicht-pronominale Anrede bei Shakespeare. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  371. Strathern, Marilyn
    1992After nature: English kinship in the late twentieth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  372. Sutton, Laurel A.
    1995 Bitches and skankly hobags: The place of women in contemporary slang. In Kira Hall & Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self, 279–296. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  373. Svartvik, Jan & Geoffrey Leech
    2016English: One tongue, many voices, 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑16007‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-16007-2 [Google Scholar]
  374. Svennevig, Jan
    1999Getting acquainted in conversation: A study of initial interactions (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 64). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  375. Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    2006Morphosyntactic persistence in spoken English: A corpus study at the intersection of variationist sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and discourse analysis. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197808
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197808 [Google Scholar]
  376. Taavitsainen, Irma & Andreas H. Jucker
    (eds.) 2003Diachronic perspectives on address term systems (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 107). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.107
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107 [Google Scholar]
  377. 2016 Forms of address. In Carole Hough (ed.), The Oxford handbook of names and naming, 427–437. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  378. Taavitsainen, Irma , Gunnel Melchers & Päivi Pahta
    (eds.) 1999Writing in nonstandard English (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 67). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.64
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.64 [Google Scholar]
  379. Tagliamonte, Sali A.
    2006Analysing sociolinguistic variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511801624
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801624 [Google Scholar]
  380. 2012Variationist sociolinguistics: Change, observation, interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  381. Tannen, Deborah
    1994Gender and discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  382. Theodoropoulou, Irene
    2014Sociolinguistics of style and social class in contemporary Athens (Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture 57). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.57
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.57 [Google Scholar]
  383. Tillery, Jan & Guy Bailey
    1998Yall in Oklahoma. American Speech73(3). 257–278. 10.2307/455825
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455825 [Google Scholar]
  384. Tracy, Karen & Jessica S. Robles
    2013Everyday talk: Building and reflecting identities, 2nd edn. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  385. Trinidad and Tobago Population and Housing Census
  386. Trudgill, Peter
    1974The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  387. Trudgill, Peter & Jack K. Chambers
    1991Dialects of English: Studies in grammatical variation. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  388. Turner, Lorenzo Dow
    1949Africanisms in the Gullah dialect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  389. Urichuk, Matthew & Verónica Loureiro-Rodríguez
    2019 Brocatives: Self-reported use of masculine nominal vocatives in Manitoba (Canada). In Bettina Kluge & María Irene Moyna (eds.), It’s not all about ‘you’: New perspectives on address research (Topics in Address Research 1), 356–372. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tar.1.14uri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tar.1.14uri [Google Scholar]
  390. Velupillai, Viveka
    2015Pidgins, creoles and mixed languages: An introduction (Creole Language Library 48). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.48
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.48 [Google Scholar]
  391. Vincze, Lajos
    1978 Kinship terms and address in a Hungarian speaking peasant community in Rumania. Ethnology17(1). 101–117. 10.2307/3773283
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3773283 [Google Scholar]
  392. Wales, Kathleen M.
    1983Thou and you in Early Modern English: Brown and Gilman re-appraised. Studia Linguistica37(2). 107–125. 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.1983.tb00316.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.1983.tb00316.x [Google Scholar]
  393. Wales, Katie
    1996Personal pronouns in present-day English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  394. Walker, Terry
    2007Thou and you in Early Modern English dialogues: Trials, depositions, and drama comedy (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.158
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.158 [Google Scholar]
  395. Watts, Richard J.
    2003Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615184
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615184 [Google Scholar]
  396. Watts, Richard J. , Sachiko Ide & Konrad Ehlich
    (eds.) 2005Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice, 2nd edn. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199819
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199819 [Google Scholar]
  397. Westbrook, Alonzo
    2002Hip hoptionary: The dictionary of hip hop terminology. New York, NY: Harlem Moon.
    [Google Scholar]
  398. Westphal, Michael
    2017Language variation on Jamaican radio (Varieties of English Around the World G60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g60
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g60 [Google Scholar]
  399. Whitcut, Janet
    1980 The language of address. In Leonard Michaels & Christopher Ricks (eds.), The state of the language, 89–97. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  400. Winer, Lise
    1993Trinidad and Tobago (Varieties of English Around the World T6). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.t6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.t6 [Google Scholar]
  401. (ed.) 2009Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago: On historical principles. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  402. Winford, Donald
    1972 A sociolinguistic description of two communities in Trinidad. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. York: University of York.
    [Google Scholar]
  403. 1976 Teacher attitudes toward language varieties in a creole community. Linguistics175. 45–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  404. 1980 The creole situation in the context of sociolinguistic studies. In Richard R. Day (ed.), Issues in English creoles: Proceedings of the 1975 Hawaii conference, 51–76. Heidelberg: Cross. 10.1075/veaw.g2.06win
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g2.06win [Google Scholar]
  405. 1991 The Caribbean. In Jenny Cheshire (ed.), English around the world: Sociolinguistic perspectives, 565–584. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511611889.038
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611889.038 [Google Scholar]
  406. 1992 Back to the past: The BEV/creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change4(3). 311–357. 10.1017/S0954394500000831
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000831 [Google Scholar]
  407. 1993Predication in Caribbean English creoles (Creole Language Library 10). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.10 [Google Scholar]
  408. 1997 Re-examining Caribbean English creole continua. World Englishes16(2). 233–279. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00061
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00061 [Google Scholar]
  409. 2008 English in the Caribbean. In Haruko Momma & Michael Matto (eds.), A companion to the history of the English language, 413–422. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444302851.ch40
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444302851.ch40 [Google Scholar]
  410. Winter, Joanne & Anne Pauwels
    2007Missing me and Msing the other: Courtesy titles for women in Englishes. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics30(1). 1–17. 10.2104/aral0708
    https://doi.org/10.2104/aral0708 [Google Scholar]
  411. Wodak, Ruth & Gertraud Benke
    1997 Gender as a sociolinguistic variable: New perspectives on variation studies. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics, 127–150. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  412. Wolfram, Walt
    1969A sociolinguistic description of Detroit negro speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  413. 2007 Ethnic varieties. In Carmen Llamas , Louise Mullany & Peter Stockwell (eds.), The Routledge companion to sociolinguistics, 77–83. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  414. Wolfram, Walt & Natalie Schilling
    2016American English: Dialects and variation, 3rd edn. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  415. Wolfson, Nessa & Joan Manes
    1980 Don’t ‘dear’ me!In Sally McConnell-Ginet , Ruth Borker & Nelly Furman (eds.), Women and language in literature and society, 79–92. New York, NY: Praeger.
    [Google Scholar]
  416. Wong, Jock
    2006a Social hierarchy in the ‘speech culture’ of Singapore. In Cliff Goddard (ed.), Ethnopragmatics: Understanding discourse in cultural context, 99–125. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110911114.99
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110911114.99 [Google Scholar]
  417. 2006b Contextualizing aunty in Singaporean English. World Englishes25(3/4). 451–466. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2006.00481.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2006.00481.x [Google Scholar]
  418. Wood, Donald
    1968Trinidad in transition: The years after slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  419. Wood, Linda A. & Rolf O. Kroger
    1991 Politeness and forms of address. Journal of Language and Social Psychology10(3). 145–168. 10.1177/0261927X91103001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X91103001 [Google Scholar]
  420. Wright, Susan
    1997 ‘Ah’m going for to give youse a story today’: Remarks on second-person plural pronouns in Englishes. In Jenny Cheshire & Dieter Stein (eds.), Taming the vernacular: From dialect to written standard language, 170–184. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  421. Wu, Yongyi
    1990 The usages of kinship address forms amongst non-kin in Mandarin Chinese: The extension of family solidarity. Australian Journal of Linguistics10(1). 61–88. 10.1080/07268609008599432
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268609008599432 [Google Scholar]
  422. Youssef, Valerie
    2004 ‘Is English we speaking’: Trinbagonian in the twenty-first century. Some notes and comments on the English usage of Trinidad and Tobago. English Today20(4). 42–49. 10.1017/S0266078404004080
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078404004080 [Google Scholar]
  423. Youssef, Valerie & Dagmar Deuber
    2007 ICE Trinidad and Tobago: Teacher language investigation in a university research class. Proceedings from the Corpus Linguistics 2007 Conference. www.birmingham.ac.uk/documents/college-artslaw/corpus/conference-archives/2007/30Paper.pdf. (31March 2021.)
    [Google Scholar]
  424. Youssef, Valerie & Winford James
    2008 The creoles of Trinidad and Tobago: Phonology. In Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, vol.2, 320–338. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  425. Zwicky, Arnold M.
    1974 Hey, Whatsyourname!In Michael La Galy , Robert Fox & Anthony Bruck (eds.), Papers from the tenth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS 10), 787–801. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error