1887

Defining with Simple Vocabulary in English Dictionaries

image of Defining with Simple Vocabulary in English Dictionaries

This book investigates an important but under-researched aspect of dictionary making: the use of a controlled vocabulary in definitions. The main concern of the author is the role of a definition vocabulary in how foreign learners understand and perceive dictionary definitions. The author takes the reader through a detailed historical account of controlled vocabularies and examines definitions in a range of English dictionaries with respect to their vocabulary loads. He performs a series of experiments with university students to reveal merits and shortcomings of restricted vocabularies. This monograph has been written with the aim to fill a gap in the literature on defining vocabulary. It is intended for lexicographers, dictionary editors, course designers, teachers, and students, as well as anyone who wishes to explain words in an intelligible way.

References

  1. Allen, Robert E.
    1990The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (COD8)
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, Sandra , Lynda Carey , Kay Cullen , Serenella Flackett , Alice Grandison
    eds 1998The Chambers Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers. (Chambers9)
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bailey, Nathaniel
    1721An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bańko, Miroslaw
    ed 2000Inny Słownik Języka Polskiego PWN. [A Different Dictionary of the Polish Language PWN]. Vol. 1–2. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berube, Margery S.
    1982The American Heritage Dictionary. Second College Edition. Boston: Houhgton Mifflin Co. (AHD)
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brookes, Ian
    ed 2003The Chambers Dictionary. New 9th edition. – Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers. (Chambers 9new)
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bullokar, John
    1616An English Expositor. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cawdrey, Robert
    1604A Table Alphabeticall. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cockeram, Henry
    1623The English Dictionarie: Or, an Interpreter of Hard English Words. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cowie, Anthony P.
    ed 1989Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 4th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD4)
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Crowther, Jonathan
    ed 1995Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 5th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD5)
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davidson, Thomas
    ed 1901Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. Edinburgh: W & R. Chambers.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Deuter, Margaret , Jennifer Bradbery, Joanna Turnbull
    eds 2015Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 9th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD9)
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dubisz, Stanislaw
    ed 2003Uniwersalny Słownik Języka Polskiego. [Universal Dictionary of the Polish Language] (4 volumes). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Donald, James
    ed 1867Chambers’s Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers. (CED)
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Flood, Walter E. , and Michael West
    1952An Explaining and Pronouncing Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Words. Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1953 “Supplementary Scientific and Technical Vocabulary” In A General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies and a Supplementary Word–List for the Writing of Popular Science and Technology, edited by Michael West , 583–588. London: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fowler, Henry W. , and Francis G. Fowler
    1911The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (COD1)
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fowler, Henry W. , Herbert G. Le Mesurier , and Edward McIntosh
    1934The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: University Press. (COD3)
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Funk, Isaac K.
    ed 1893–1895A Standard Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gay, Heather , Brian O’Kill , Katherine Seed , Janet Whitcut
    1984Longman Dictionary of the English Language. Second Edition. Harlow: Longman. (LDEL)
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gove, Phillip B.
    ed 1961Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged. Springfield: G. & C. Merriam. (Third New International)
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Guralnik, David
    1972Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language: Compact School and Office Edition. New York: World Publishing. (WNWD)
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hanks, Patrick
    1979Collins English Dictionary. London: Collins. (CoED)
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hornby, Albert Sydney , and Anthony P. Cowie
    eds 1974Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD3)
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hornby, Albert Sydney , Edward V. Gatenby , Harold Wakefield
    eds 1942Idiomatic and Syntactic English Dictionary. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. (ISED)
    [Google Scholar]
  27. eds 1948A Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 1st edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ALD1)
    [Google Scholar]
  28. eds 1963The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 2nd edition. London: Oxford University Press. (ALD2)
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hornby, Albert S. , and Eric C. Parnwell
    1952aThe Progressive English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1952bAn English Reader’s Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ilson, Robert
    1983 “Etymological Information: Can it Help our Students?” ELT Journal 37, no. 1: 76–82. 10.1093/elt/37.1.76
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/37.1.76 [Google Scholar]
  32. 1984Reader’s Digest Great Illustrated Dictionary. 2 vols. London: Reader’s Digest. (GID)
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Johnson, Samuel
    1755A Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. Strahan. (Johnson)
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kaeding, Friedrich Wilhelm
    1898Häufigkeitwörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache. E.S. Mittler & Sohn: Selbstverlag des Herausgebers.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kersey, John
    1708Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum: Or a General English Dictionary. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kirkpatrick, Elizabeth
    1980The Chambers Universal Learners’ Dictionary: International Students’ Edition. Edinburgh: W & R Chambers. (CULD)
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Marr, Vivian
    ed 2011The Chambers Dictionary. 12th edition. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers. (Chambers12)
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Marvick, Karen C. et al
    2014Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 6th edition. Harlow: Pearson Longman. (LDOCE6)
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Mayor, Michael
    ed 2009Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 5th edition. Harlow: Pearson Longman. (LDOCE5)
    [Google Scholar]
  40. McIntosh, Colin
    ed 2013Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 4th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD4)
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mish, Frederick
    1983Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th edition. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc. (Collegiate9)
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1993Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 10th edition. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc. (Collegiate10)
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2003Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 11th edition. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc. (Collegiate11)
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Mosiołek-Kłosińska, Katarzyna , and Anna Ciesielska
    2001W kilku słowach. Słownik frazeologiczny języka polskiego. [In a Few Words. A Phraseological Dictionary of Polish Idioms] Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Szkolne PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Murray, James A. H.
    1888 “Preface to Volume I. A and B” In A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by the Philological Society, edited by James A. H. Murray et al . Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Murray, James A. H. , Henry Bradley , William A. Craigie , Charles T. Onions
    1933The Oxford English Dictionary, Being a Corrected Re-issue with an Introduction, Supplement, and Bibliography of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. (OED)
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pawelec, Radoslaw
    1999Wieża Babel. Słownik Wyrazów Obcych Nie Tylko Dla Gimnazjalisty. [Tower of Babel. A Dictionary of Borrowed Words, Not Only for Secondary School Pupils]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Szkolne PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Pearsall, Judy
    ed 1998The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ODE1/NODE)
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 1999Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: University Press. (COD10)
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Pearsall, Judy , and Patrick Hanks
    eds 2003Oxford Dictionary of English. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ODE2)
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Pearsall, Judy , and Bill Trumble
    1996Oxford English Reference Dictionary. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OERD)
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Perrault, Stephen J.
    2008Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary, 1st edition. Springfield: Merriam-Webster. (MWALED)
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Phillips, Edward
    1671 [1658]The New World of English Words, 3rd edition. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Procter, Paul
    ed 1978Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1st edition. Harlow: Longman. (LDOCE1)
    [Google Scholar]
  55. ed 1995Cambridge International Dictionary of English. 1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD1/CIDE)
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Richards, Jack C. and Richard Schmidt
    2010Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Rundell, Michael
    ed 2002Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 1st edition. Oxford: Macmillan Education. (MEDAL1)
    [Google Scholar]
  58. ed 2007Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 2nd edition. Oxford: Macmillan Education. (MEDAL2)
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Schwarz, Catherine , et al
    eds 1988Chambers English Dictionary. 7th edition. Edinburgh: W & R Chambers. (Chambers7)
    [Google Scholar]
  60. eds 1993The Chambers Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers. (Chambers8)
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Schwarz, Catherine
    ed 1998The Chambers Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers. (Chambers9)
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Sinclair, John
    ed 1987Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. 1st edition. London and Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD1)
    [Google Scholar]
  63. ed 1988Collins Cobuild Essential English Dictionary. London: Collins. (CCEED)
    [Google Scholar]
  64. ed 1995Collins COBUILD English Dictionary. 2nd edition. London: HarperCollins. (COBUILD2)
    [Google Scholar]
  65. ed 2001Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 3rd edition. London: HarperCollins. (COBUILD3)
    [Google Scholar]
  66. ed 2003Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. 4th edition. Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD4)
    [Google Scholar]
  67. ed 2006Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. 5th edition. London and Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD5)
    [Google Scholar]
  68. ed 2009Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary. 6th edition. London and Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD6)
    [Google Scholar]
  69. ed 2012Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of English. 7th edition. London and Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD7)
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sinclair, J.
    ed 2014Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 8th edition. London and Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD8)
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Stevenson, Angus , and Maurice Waite
    2011Concise Oxford English Dictionary. 12th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (COD12)
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Summers, Della
    ed 1995Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3rd edition. Harlow: Longman. (LDOCE3)
    [Google Scholar]
  73. ed 2003Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 4th edition. Harlow: Longman. (LDOCE4)
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Summers, Della , and Michael Rundell
    eds 1987Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 2nd edition. Harlow: Longman. (LDOCE2)
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Sykes, John B.
    1976The Concise Oxford Dictonary of Current English. Oxford: University Press. (COD6)
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 1982The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: University Press. (COD7)
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Thompson, Della
    1995The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: University Press. (COD9)
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Turnbull, Joanna
    ed 2010Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 8th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD8)
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Urdang, Laurence
    1966The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Walter, Elizabeth
    ed 2005Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD2)
    [Google Scholar]
  81. ed 2008Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD3)
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Webster, Noah
    1864An American Dictionary of the English Language. Royal quarto edition. Revised by Chauncey A. Goodrich and Noah Porter . Springfield: G.&C. Merriam. (Webster-Mahn)
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Wehmeier, Sally
    ed 2000Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 6th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD6)
    [Google Scholar]
  84. ed 2005Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 7th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD7)
    [Google Scholar]
  85. West, Michael , and James G. Endicott
    eds 1956 [1935]The New Method English Dictionary. London: Longmans, Green. (NMED)
    [Google Scholar]
  86. West, Michael
    1965An International Reader’s Dictionary. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Williams, Alexander M.
    1903Collins’ Graphic English Dictionary. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Worcester, Joseph Emerson
    1860A Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Hickling, Swan, and Brewer. (Worcester)
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Deuter, Margaret , Jennifer Bradbery , Joanna Turnbull
    eds 2014Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, DVD-ROM, New 9th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD9)
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Mayor, Michael
    ed 2009Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, DVD-ROM, 5th edition. Harlow: Pearson Longman. (LDOCE5)
    [Google Scholar]
  91. McIntosh, Colin
    ed 2013Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. DVD-ROM, 4th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD4)
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Rundell, Michael
    ed 2007Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. CD-ROM. 2nd edition. Oxford: Macmillan Education. (MEDAL2)
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Simpson, John , and Edmund S. C. Weiner
    eds 2009Oxford English Dictionary. Third Edition on CD-ROM. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Sinclair, John
    ed 2003Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary, CD-ROM, 4th edition. Glasgow: HarperCollins. (COBUILD4)
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Summers, Della
    ed 2005Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Writing Assistant Edition CD-ROM. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. (LDOCE4)
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Walter, Elizabeth
    ed 2008Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. DVD-ROM, 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (CALD3)
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Wehmeier, Sally
    ed 2005Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, CD-ROM, 7th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OALD7)
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pl/dictionary/
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of English. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://www.ldoceonline.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Accessed December 15, 2019. https://www.macmillandictionary.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. Accessed December 4, 2019. https://learnersdictionary.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Accessed December 25, 2019. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Aarts, Bas , April MacMahon
    2006The Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470753002
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470753002 [Google Scholar]
  105. Abecassis, Michaël
    2007 “Is Lexicography Making Progress? On Dictionary Use and Language Learners’ Needs.” Lexikos 17: 247–258.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Adamska-Sałaciak, Arleta
    2007 Review of Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, at the University of Leicester, 2002. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, edited by Julie Coleman and Anne McDermott. International Journal of Lexicography, 20 (2): 182–188. 10.1093/ijl/ecm002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecm002 [Google Scholar]
  107. 2010a “Examining Equivalence.” International Journal of Lexicography 23(4): 387–409. 10.1093/ijl/ecq024
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecq024 [Google Scholar]
  108. 2010b “Why we need bilingual learners’ dictionaries.” English Learners’ Dictionaries at the DSNA 2009, edited by Ilan J. Kernerman and Paul Bogaards , 121–37. TelAviv: K Dictionaries.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 2012 “Dictionary Definitions: Problems and Solutions.” Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis 129 Supplementum: 323–339.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 2014 “Bilingual Lexicography: Translation Dictionaries.” International Handbook of Modern Lexis and Lexicography, edited by Patrick Hanks and Gilles-Maurice de Schryver , 1–11. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑45369‑4_6‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-45369-4_6-1 [Google Scholar]
  111. Aisenstadt, Ester
    1979 “Collocability Restrictions in Dictionaries.” Dictionaries and Their Users: Papers from the 1978 B.A.A.L. Seminar on Lexicography, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 71–74. Exeter: University of Exeter.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Aitchison, Jean
    1986 “The Gobbledygook Syndrome.” English Today: The International Review of the English Language 5, January–March: 7–9. 10.1017/S0266078400001619
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400001619 [Google Scholar]
  113. Allan, Keith
    1986Linguistic Meaning Vol. 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Allen, Jeffrey
    1995Review of the Caterpillar KANT English-French MT System, Internal Technical Report, Peoria, IL: Technical Information Department, Caterpillar Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Allen, Robert
    1996 The Big Four. English Today, 12 (2): 41–55. 10.1017/S0266078400009020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400009020 [Google Scholar]
  116. Anthony, Laurence
    2012AntWordProfiler (Version 1.4.0) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Accessed October 1, 2019, www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Apresjan, Jurij. D.
    1972 “Definiowanie znaczeń leksykalnych jako zagadnienie semantyki teoretycznej.” In Semantyka i słownik, edited by Anna Wierzbicka , 39–58. Wroclaw: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 1995Semantyka leksykalna. Synonimiczne środki jezyka. Wroclaw: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. (ASD-STE100)
    2017ASD Simplified Technical English Specification ASD-STE100. Access October 2, 2018, http://www.asd-ste100.org/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Atkins, Beryl T. S.
    1985 “Monolingual and bilingual learners’ dictionaries: A comparison”. In Dictionaries, Lexicography and Language Learning, edited by Robert Ilson , 15–24. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Atkins, Beryl T. S. , Charles J. Fillmore , and Christopher R. Johnson
    2003 “Lexicographic Relevance: Selecting Information from Corpus Evidence.” International Journal of Lexicography 16 (3): 251–80. 10.1093/ijl/16.3.251
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.3.251 [Google Scholar]
  122. Atkins, Beryl T. S. , Michael Rundell
    2008The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Ayto, John
    1984 “The Vocabulary of Definitions.” In Theoretische und Practische Probleme der Lexicographie, edited by Dieter Götz and Thomas Herbst , Munich: Max Hueber Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Baker, Mona
    1992In Other Words: A Course Book on Translation. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Bańko, Miroslaw
    2001Z pogranicza leksykografii i językoznawstwa. Studia o słowniku jednojęzycznym. Warsaw: Wydzial Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Bańko Miroslaw
    2006 “Circulus vitiosus - circulus odiosus. Uwagi o cyrkularnosci w definicjach słownikowych.” Manuscula linguistica. In honorem Alexandrae Cieslikowa oblata, edited by Kazimierz Rymut et al. , 21–34. Cracow: Instytut Jezyka Polskiego PAN.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Bańko, Miroslaw
    2010 “The Polish COBUILD and its Influence on Polish Lexicography.” In A Way with Words: Recent Advances in Lexical Theory and Analysis. A Festschrift for Patrick Hanks, edited by Gilles-Maurice de Schryver , 323–332. Kampala 2010 (Menha Linguistic Series).
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Bańko, Miroslaw , Magdalena Majdak , Maciej Czeszewski
    eds. 2011Słowniki dawne i wspólczesne. Internetowy przewodnik edukacyjny. Accessed August 20, 2017, http://www.leksykografia.uw.edu.pl/slowniki/25/slownik-jezyka-polskiego-warszawa-1978–1981
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Barnhart, Clarence L.
    1962 “Problems in Editing Commercial Monolingual Dictionaries.” In Problems in Lexicography, edited by Fred W. Householder and Sol Saporta , 161–81. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Baroni, Marco
    2006 “Distributions in Text.” In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook, edited by Anke Lüdeling and Merja Kytö , 803–821. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Baroni, Marco , Silvia Bernardini , Adriano Ferraresi , Eros Zanchetta
    2009 “The WaCky wide web: a collection of very large linguistically processed web-crawled corpora.” Language Resources and Evaluation 43. Springer Science+Business Media B.V.: 209–226.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Battenburg, John D.
    1994 “Pioneer in English Lexicography for Language Learners: Michael Philip West.” Dictionaries. Journal of The Dictionary Society of North America. No. 15, Cleveland: Cleveland State University: 132–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Bauer, Laurie and Paul Nation
    1993 “Word Families.” International Journal of Lexicography 6 (4): 253–279. 10.1093/ijl/6.4.253
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/6.4.253 [Google Scholar]
  134. Bauman, John
    2018aAbout the General Service List. Accessed February 24, 2018, http://jbauman.com/aboutgsl.html#1953
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 2018bAbout the University Word List. Accessed February, 2018, http://jbauman.com/aboutUWL.html
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Beekman, John and Callow, John
    1974Translating the Word of God. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Béjoint, Henri
    1981 “The Foreign Student’s Use of Monolingual English Dictionaries: A Study of Language Needs and Reference Skills.” Applied Linguistics 2 (3): 207–222. 10.1093/applin/2.3.207
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/2.3.207 [Google Scholar]
  138. 1987 “The Value of the Dictionary in Vocabulary Acquisition.” In The Dictionary and the Language Learner, edited by Anthony P. Cowie , 97–104. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 2000Modern Lexicography. An Introduction. Oxford: University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Bell, Huw
    2013 “Core Vocabulary.” The Encyclopedia of Applied Sciences, edited by Carol A. Chapelle . Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Bennett, Judith
    1993 “The Future of Plain Legal Language: Australia: A Case Study.” Second International Plain English Conference: Plain English Campaign (UK), London, 24–26 May 1993, Sydney: Centre for Plain Legal Language.
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Benjamin, Martin
    2019Teach You Backwards. Accessed October 17, 2020 https://www.teachyoubackwards.com/user/malangali/
    [Google Scholar]
  143. de Bessé, B.
    1990 “La Définition Terminologique.” In La Définition, edited by J. Charaud and F. Mazière , 252–262. Paris: Larousse.
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Bhatia, Tej K.
    2006 “Bilingualism and Second Language Learning.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., edited by Keith Brown , Anne Anderson , Laurie Bauer , Margie Berns , Jim Miller , and Graeme Hirst , 16–22. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/00620‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00620-9 [Google Scholar]
  145. Biber, Douglas , Stig Johansson , Geoffrey Leech , Susan Conrad , Edward Finegan
    1999The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Biber, Douglas , Susan Conrad , Viviana Cortes
    2003 “Lexical bundles in speech and writing: An initial taxonomy.” In Corpus Linguistics by the Lune: A Festschrift for Geoffrey Leech, edited by Andrew Wilson , Paul Rayson , Tony McEnery , 71–92. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Biber, D. , Conrad, S. & Cortes, V.
    2004 “If you look at … : Lexical Bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks.” Applied Linguistics, 25 (3), 371–405. 10.1093/applin/25.3.371
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/25.3.371 [Google Scholar]
  148. Biber, D.
    2006University Language. A Corpus-Based Study of Spoken and Written Registers. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.23 [Google Scholar]
  149. Biden, James
    1843 “On Grammalogues. A letter to the editor of the Phonotypic Journal.” The Phonotypic Journal Nov. 1843, 2.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Black, Alison
    1986The Effects on Comprehension and Memory of Providign Different Types of Definign Information for New Vocabulary: A Report on Two Experiments Conducted for Longman ELT Dictionaries and Reference Division. Cambridge: MRC Applied Pscyhology Unit (unpublished internal report).
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Blake, Norman F.
    1996A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑24954‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-24954-1 [Google Scholar]
  152. Bogaards, Paul
    1991 “Dictionaries pédagogiques et apprentissage du vocabulaire.” Cahiers de Lexicologie, 59: 93–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. 1996 “Dictionaries for Learners of English.” International Journal of Lexicography 9 (4): 277–320. 10.1093/ijl/9.4.277
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/9.4.277 [Google Scholar]
  154. 1998 “What Type of Words do Language Learners Look Up?” Using Dictionaries, edited by Beryl T. Sue Atkins , 151–157. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. 2003 “MEDAL: A Fifth Dictionary for Learners of English.” International Journal of Lexicography 16 (1): 43–55. 10.1093/ijl/16.1.43
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/16.1.43 [Google Scholar]
  156. 2008 “Frequency in Learners’ Dictionaries.” In Proceedings of the XIII EURALEX International Congress, Barcelona, 15–19 July 2008, edited by Elisenda Bernal and Janet DeCesaris , 1231–1236. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Bogaards, Paul and Willem A. van der Kloot
    2001 “The Use of Grammatical Information in Learners’ Dictionaries.” International Journal of Lexicography 14 (2): 97–121. 10.1093/ijl/14.2.97
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/14.2.97 [Google Scholar]
  158. Bogaards, Paul , and Willem A. van der Kloot
    2002 “Verb Constructions in Learners’ Dictionaries” In Proceedings of the Tenth EURALEX International Congress (Vol. II), edited by Anna Braasch and Claus Povlsen , 747–757. Copenhagen: Center for Sprogteknologi.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Bogusławski, Andrzej
    1966Semantyczne pojęcie liczebnika i jego morfologia w języku rosyjskim. Wroclaw: Ossolineum.
    [Google Scholar]
  160. 1970 “On Semantic Primitives and Meaningfulness.” In Signs, Language and Culture, edited by R. J. A. Greimas , R. Jakobson , M. R. Mayenowa , and S. Zółkiewski , 143–52. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Bongers, Herman
    1947The History and Principles of Vocabulary Control. Parts 1 and 2. Woerden: Wocopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Brezina, Vaclav , and Dana Gablasova
    2015 “Is There a Core General Vocabulary? Introducing the New General Service List.” Applied Linguistics 36 (1): 1–22. 10.1093/applin/amt018
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt018 [Google Scholar]
  163. Browne, Charles
    2013 “The New General Service List: Celebration 60 Years of Vocabulary Learning.” The Language Teacher, 37 (4): 13–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. 2014 “The New General Service List Version 1.01: Getting Better All the Time.” Korea TESOL Journal 11 (1): 35–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Bullock, David
    2010 “NSM + LDOCE: A Non-Circular Dictionary of English.” International Journal of Lexicography 24 (2): 226–240. 10.1093/ijl/ecq035
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecq035 [Google Scholar]
  166. 2019Learn These Words First. Accessed March 8, 2019. http://learnthesewordsfirst.com/about/what-is-a-multi-layer-dictionary.html
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Bullon, Stephen , and Geoffrey Leech
    2007 “Longman Communication 3000 and the Longman Defining Vocabulary.” In Longman Communication 3000, edited by Stephen Bullon and Geoffrey Leech , 1–7. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Burkhanov, Igor
    1998Lexicography A Dictionary of Basic Terminology. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Wyzszej Szkoly Pedagogicznej.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Campion, Mary E. , and Warwick B. Elley
    1971An Academic Vocabulary List. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Carrol, John , Peter Davies , Barry Richman
    1971The American Heritage Word Frequency Book. New York: American Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Carter, Ronald
    1986 “Core Vocabulary and Discourse in the Curriculum: A Question of the Subject.” RELC Journal 17 (1): 52–70. 10.1177/003368828601700104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828601700104 [Google Scholar]
  172. 2012Vocabulary. Applied Linguistic Perspectives. Second edition. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203124659
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203124659 [Google Scholar]
  173. Carver, Ronald P.
    1994 “Percentage of Unknown Vocabulary Words in Text as a Function of the Relative Difficulty of the Text: Implications for instruction.” Journal of Reading Behavior 26: 413–437. 10.1080/10862969409547861
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10862969409547861 [Google Scholar]
  174. Cheng, Yong
    2019Joint Training for Neural Machine Translation. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑32‑9748‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9748-7 [Google Scholar]
  175. Chi, Man L. A.
    2003 “Teaching Dictionary Skills in the Classroom.” In Lexicography. Critical Concepts. Vol. I, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 355–369. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Chlebda, Wojciech
    2010 “W jakim zakresie słownik dwujęzyczny może być źródłem informacji etnolingwistycznej?” In Etnolingwistyka a leksykografia, edited by Wojciech Chlebda , 201–208. Opole: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Chruszczewski, Piotr P.
    2006 “Ogden, Charles Kay (1889–1957).” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., edited by Keith Brown , Anne Anderson , Laurie Bauer , Margie Berns , Jim Miller , and Graeme Hirst , 18. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/02788‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02788-7 [Google Scholar]
  178. Coady, James
    1997 “L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Through Extensive Reading.” In Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: A Rationale for Pedagogy, edited by James Coady and Thomas Huckin , 225–237. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Coseriu, Eugenio
    1962Teoría del Lenguaje y Lingüística General: Cinco Estudios. Madrid: Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Cowie, Anthony P.
    1989 “Learners’ Dictionaries – Recent Advances and Developments.” In Learners’ Dictionaries: State of the Art, edited by Makhan L. Tickoo , 42–51. Singapore: SEAMEO.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. 1990 “Language as Words: Lexicography.” In An Encyclopedia of Language, edited by N. E. Collinge , 363–377. London and New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  182. 1998a “A.S. Hornby: a Centenary Tribute.” In Proceedings of the 8th EURALEX International Congress, Liège, Belgium, edited by Thierry Fontenelle , Philippe Hiligsmann , Archibald Michiels , André Moulin , Siegried Theissen.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. 1998b “A.S. Hornby, 1898–1998: A Centenary Tribute.” International Journal of Lexicograpy 11 (4).
    [Google Scholar]
  184. 1999aEnglish Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History. Oxford: University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. 1999b “Learner’s Dictionaries in a Historical and Theoretical Perspective.” In The Perfect Learners’ Dictionary (?), edited by Thomas Herbst and Kerstin Popp , 3–14. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 10.1515/9783110947021.3
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110947021.3 [Google Scholar]
  186. 2009 “The Earliest Foreign Learners’ Dictionaries.” In The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Vol. 2: Specialized Dictionaries, edited by Anthony P. Cowie , 385–411. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Coxhead, Averil
    2000 “A New Academic Word List.” TESOL Quarterly, 34 (2): 213–238. 10.2307/3587951
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587951 [Google Scholar]
  188. Crabbe, Stephen
    2017Controlling Language in Industry. Controlled Languages for Technical Documents. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑52745‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52745-1 [Google Scholar]
  189. Croft, William , Alan Cruse
    2004Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511803864
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803864 [Google Scholar]
  190. Cruse, Alan
    1986Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. 2004Meaning in Language. An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Crystal, David
    2003A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  193. 1986 “The Ideal Dictionary, Lexicographer and User.” In Lexicography: An Emerging International Profession, edited by In Robert F. Ilson , 72–81. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  194. 2006 “Into the Twenty-first Century.” In The Oxford History of English, edited by Lynda Mugglestone , 394–414. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Cumming, Geoff , Samantha Cropp , Ronald Sussex
    1994 “On-line Lexical Resources for Language Learners: Assessment of Some Approaches to Word Definition.” System 22(3): 369–377. 10.1016/0346‑251X(94)90022‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(94)90022-1 [Google Scholar]
  196. Cummins, Jim
    2008 “Teaching for Transfer: Challenging the Two Solitudes Assumption in Bilingual Education.” Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd edition, Vol. 5: Bilingual Education, edited by Jim Cummins and Nancy H. Hornberger , 65–75. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑30424‑3_116
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_116 [Google Scholar]
  197. Curzan, Anne
    2000 “The Compass of the Vocabulary.” In Lexicography and the OED, edited by Lynda Mugglestone , 96–109. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Dancette, Jeanne
    2003 “Les Représentations Lexico-Sémantiques (RLS), Moyen de Structuration des Connaissances dans les Domaines Spécialisés,” ISKO-France, Grenoble, 1–16 [83–96].
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Davies, Mark
    2012Corpus of Contemporary American English (1990–2012). Accessed March 15, 2018. http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/
    [Google Scholar]
  200. DeRocher, James E. , Murray S. Miron , S. M. Patten , Charles C. Pratt
    1973The Counting of Words: A Review of the History, Techniques and Theory of Word Counts with Annotated Bibliography. New York: Syracuse University Research Corp.
    [Google Scholar]
  201. De Schryver, Gilles-Maurice
    2008 “Review of Patrick Hanks (ed.). Lexicology: Critical Concepts.” International Journal of Lexicography 21 (4): 419–438. 10.1093/ijl/ecn040
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecn040 [Google Scholar]
  202. De Schryver, Gilles-Maurice , and Daniel J. Prinsloo
    2011 “Do Dictionaries Define on the Level of Their Target Users? A Case Study for Three Dutch Dictionaries.” International Journal of Lexicography 24 (1): 5–28. 10.1093/ijl/ecq045
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecq045 [Google Scholar]
  203. Dewey, Godfrey
    1923Relative Frequency of English Speech Sounds. London: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Dodd, Stuart C.
    1955 “Model English.” In Machine Translation of Languages, edited by William N. Locke and Andrew D. Booth , 165–173. Cambridge: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Dolan, William , Stephen Richardson , Lucy Vanderwende
    1993 “Automatically Deriving Structured Knowledge Bases from On-line Dictionaries.” In Proceedings of the First Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics, edited by Paul McFetridge and Fred Popowich , 5–14. Vancouver: Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Duygu, Ataman , Matteo Negri , Marco Turchi , Marcello Federico
    2017 Linguistically Motivated Vocabulary Reduction for Neural Machine Translation from Turkish to English. The Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 108: 331–342. 10.1515/pralin‑2017‑0031
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pralin-2017-0031 [Google Scholar]
  207. Dziemianko, Anna
    2004 “Verb Syntax in Monolingual English Learners’ Dictionaries: A Study of User-Friendliness” In Proceedings of the Eleventh EURALEX International Congress (Vol. II), Lorient, France. Universite de Bretagne-Sud, edited by Geoffrey Williams and Sandra Vessier : 683–691.
    [Google Scholar]
  208. 2012aNoun and Verb Codes in English Monolingual Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A Study of Usefulness in the Polish Context. Poznan: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. 2012b “On the Use(fulness) of Paper and Electronic Dictionaries.” In Electronic Lexicography, edited by Sylviane Granger and Magali Paquot , 319–341. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654864.003.0015
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654864.003.0015 [Google Scholar]
  210. 2012c “Why One and Two do not Make Three: Dictionary Form Revisited.” Lexikos 22: 195–216. 10.5788/22‑1‑1003
    https://doi.org/10.5788/22-1-1003 [Google Scholar]
  211. Dziemianko, Anna , and Robert Lew
    2006 “Research into Dictionary Use by Polish Learners of English: Some Methodological Considerations.” In IFAtuation: A Life in IFA. A Festschrift for Professor Jacek Fisiak on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Poznan, edited by Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kolaczyk .
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Eder, Maciej
    2017 “Visualization in Stylometry: Cluster Analysis Using Networks.” Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 32 (1): 50–64. 10.1093/llc/fqv061
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqv061 [Google Scholar]
  213. Eder, Maciej , Jan Rybicki , Mike Kestemont
    2016 “Stylometry with R: A Package for Computational Text Analysis.” The R Journal 8 (1): 107–121. 10.32614/RJ‑2016‑007
    https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-2016-007 [Google Scholar]
  214. Ek, Jan Ate van
    1975The Threshold Level English in a European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults. (Council of Europe Modern Languages Project). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Ek, Jan Ate van , L. G. Alexander , M. A. Fitzpatrick
    1980Waystage English: An Intermediary Objective below Threshold Level in a European Unit/Credit System of Modern Language Learning by Adults. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Ek, Jan Ate van , and John L. M. Trim
    1990a/1998aThreshold 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. 1990b/1998bWaystage 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  218. 2001Vantage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Eldridge, R. C.
    1911Six Thousand Common English Words. Their Comparative Frequency and What Can Be Done With Them. New York: Niagara Falls.
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Engels, L. K.
    1968The Fallacy of Word-Counts. IRAL, 6(3), 213–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  221. English Oxford Living Dictionaries 2017 Accessed September 10, 2017. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Eunson, Baden
    1996Writing in Plain English. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Faucett, Lawrence , and Itsu Maki
    1932A Study of English Word-Values, Statistically Determined from the Latest Extensive Word-Counts. Tokyo: Matsumura Sanshodo.
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Faucett, Lawrence , Harold Palmer , Edward L. Thorndike , and Michael West
    1936Interim Report on Vocabulary Selection. London: P.S. King and Son, Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Fellbaum, Christiane
    ed. 1998WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. Cambridge: The MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/7287.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/7287.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  226. Ferraresi, Adriano , Eros Zanchetta , Marco Baroni , and Silvia Bernardini
    2008 “Introducing and Evaluating ukWaC, a Very Large Web-Derived Corpus of English.” In Proceedings of the 4th Web as Corpus Workshop (WAC-4) Can We Beat Google? Marrakech, Morrocco, 1 June 2008, edited by Stefan Evert , Adam Kilgarriff and Serge Sharoff . Accessed May, 4, 2017. http://webascorpus.sourceforge.net/
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Fischer, Ute
    1991 “How Students Misunderstand Definitions: Some Evidence for Contextual Representations of Word Meanings.” In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Chicago, August 1991. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Flood, Walter E. , and Michael West
    1953 “Supplementary Scientific and Technical Vocabulary.” In A General Service List of English Words, edited by Michael West , 583–588. London: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Flesch, Rudolf Franz
    1944 How Basic is Basic English? Harper’s Magazine: 339–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Fontenelle, Thierry
    1994 “What on Earth are Collocations?” English Today 10 (4): 42–48. 10.1017/S0266078400007902
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400007902 [Google Scholar]
  231. 2009 “Linguistic Research and Learners’ Dictionaries: the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.” In Oxford History of English Lexicography, edited by Anthony P. Cowie , 412–435. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Fox, Gwyneth
    1989 “A Vocabulary for Writing Dictionaries.” In Learners’ Dictionaries: State of the Art, edited by Makhan L. Tickoo , 153–171. Singapore: SEAMEO.
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Francis, Winthrop N. , and Henry Kucera
    1964Manual of Information to Accompany A Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital Computers. Providence, Rhode Island: Department of Linguistics, Brown University. Revised 1971. Revised and amplified 1979.
    [Google Scholar]
  234. 1982Frequency Analysis of English Usage: Lexicon and Grammar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Friend, Joseph Harold
    1967The Development of American Lexicography 1798–1864. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Fries, Charles C. and Traver, Alice A.
    1963English Word Lists. A Study of their Adaptability for Instruction. Ann Arbor: The George Wahr Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Gairns, Rurth , and Redman, Stuart
    1986Working with Words: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Gao, Jun
    2012 “Basic Cognitive Experiences and Definitions in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.” International Journal of Lexicography 26 (1): 58–89. 10.1093/ijl/ecs014
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecs014 [Google Scholar]
  239. Gardner, Dee , and Mark Davies
    2013 “A New Academic Vocabulary List.” Applied Linguistics 35(3): 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Geeraerts, Dirk
    2003 “Meaning and Definitions”. In A Practical Guide to Lexicography, edited by Piet van Sterkenburg , 83–93. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tlrp.6.11gee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tlrp.6.11gee [Google Scholar]
  241. 2006a “The Definitional Practice of Dictionaries and the Cognitive Semantic Conception of Polysemy.” Words and other Wonders. Papers on Lexical and Semantic Topics, edited by Dirk Geeraerts , 345–363. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110219128.5.345
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110219128.5.345 [Google Scholar]
  242. 2006b “Prospects and Problems of Prototype Theory.” In Corpus Linguistics: Basic Readings, edited by Dirk Geeraerts , 141–166. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199901.141
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199901.141 [Google Scholar]
  243. 2010Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Ghadessy, Mohsen
    1979 “Frequency Counts, Word Lists and Materials Preparation: A New Approach.” English Teaching Forum 17 (1): 24–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Gill, Francis
    2015 “‘Hugh’s across all that’ Some changing uses of prepositions.” Corpora, Grammar and Discourse In honour of Susan Hunston, edited by Nicholas Groom , Maggie Charles , and Suganthi John , 73–96. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.73.04fra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.73.04fra [Google Scholar]
  246. Gilner, Leah
    2011 “A Primer on the General Service List.” Reading in a Foreign Language, 23 (1): 65–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Gilner, Leah , and Frank Morales
    2008 “Corpus-based Frequency Profiling: Migration to a Word List Based on the British National Corpus.” The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics: 41–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Goddard, Cliff
    2010 “The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach.” The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 459–484.
    [Google Scholar]
  249. ed. 2018Minimal English for a Global World. Improved Communication Using Fewer Words. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑62512‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62512-6 [Google Scholar]
  250. Goddard, Cliff , and Anna Wierzbicka
    eds. 2002Meaning and Universal Grammar – Theory and Empirical Findings. Vols I and II. John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.6010.1075/slcs.61
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.60 [Google Scholar]
  251. eds. 2014Words and Meanings: Lexical Semantics across Domains, Languages and Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  252. 2018 “Minimal English and How it can Add to Global English.” In Minimal English for a Global World. Improved Communication Using Fewer Words, edited by Cliff Goddard , 5–28. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑62512‑6_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62512-6_2 [Google Scholar]
  253. Gordon, W. Terrence
    ed. 1994C.K. Ogden and Linguistics. 5 volumes. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Gove, Phillip B.
    1972 “English Dictionaries of the Future.” In New Aspects of Lexicography, edited by Howard D. Weinbrot , 152–170. London: Southern Illinois University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Grabowski, Łukasz
    2015Phraseology in English Pharmaceutical Discourse. A Corpus-Driven Study of Register Variation. Opole: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Greenbaum, Sidney , Charles F. Meyer , and John Taylor
    1984 “The Image of the Dictionary for American College Students.” Dictionaries 6: 31–52. 10.1353/dic.1984.0008
    https://doi.org/10.1353/dic.1984.0008 [Google Scholar]
  257. Grochowski, Maciej
    1993Konwencje Semantyczne a Definiowanie Wyrażeń Językowych. Warszawa: Zakład Semiotyki Logicznej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Gries, Stefan Th.
    2009Quantitative Corpus Linguistics with R. Routledge: New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Grzegorczykowa, Renata
    2001Wprowadzenie do Semantyki Jezykoznawczej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Hancioglu, Nilgün , Steven Neufeld , and John Eldridge
    2008 “Through the Looking Glass and into the Land of Lexico-Grammar.” English for Specific Purposes 27: 459–79. 10.1016/j.esp.2008.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2008.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  261. Hanks, Patrick
    1979 “To What Extent does a Dictionary Definition Define?” In Dictionaries and their Users, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann . Exeter: University of Exeter, 32–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  262. 1987 “Definitions and Explanations.” In Looking up: An account of the COBUILD project in lexical computing, edited by John M. Sinclair , 116–136. London, Glasgow.
    [Google Scholar]
  263. 1990 ‘Evidence and Intuition in Lexicography’, In Meaning and Lexicography, edited by Jerzy Tomaszczyk and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk , 31–41. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/llsee.28.07han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/llsee.28.07han [Google Scholar]
  264. 1994 “Lexicography: Theory and Practice.” Dictionaries. 1992/3 (14): 97–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  265. 2005 “Johnson and Modern Lexicography.” International Journal of Lexicography 18 (2): 243–266. 10.1093/ijl/eci024
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/eci024 [Google Scholar]
  266. 2008Lexicology: Critical Concepts. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  267. 2009 Common Sense Blossoms in Springfield, MA. Review of Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc, edited by Stephen J. Perrault , International Journal of Lexicography 22 (3).
    [Google Scholar]
  268. 2015 Cognitive Semantics and the Lexicon. Review Article. International Journal of Lexicography 28 (1): 86–106. 10.1093/ijl/ecv002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecv002 [Google Scholar]
  269. 2019Pattern Dictionary of English Verbs (PDEV). https://pdev.org.uk/
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Hanks, Patrick , and James Pustejovsky
    2005 “A Pattern Dictionary for Natural Language Processing”. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, 10 (2): 63–82. 10.3917/rfla.102.82
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rfla.102.82 [Google Scholar]
  271. Hartmann, Reinhard R. K.
    1989 “Dictionaries of English: The User’s Perspective.” In Dictionaries. Prospects for the Record of Our Language, edited by Richard W. Bailey , 121–135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  272. 1993 “Recent trends in pedagogical lexicography: The case of the ‘bilingualised’ learner’s dictionary”. In Endangered Languages. Proceedings of XVth International Congress of Linguists, Québec, August 1992, edited by André Crochetière , Jean-Claude Boulanger , and Conrad Ouellette , 159–162. Québec: Les Presses de l’Université Laval.
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Hartmann, Reinhard R. K. , and Gregory James
    1998Dictionary of Lexicography. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203159040
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203159040 [Google Scholar]
  274. Harvey, Keith , and Deborah Yuill
    1997 “A Study of the Use of a Monolingual Pedagogical Dictionary by Learners of English Engaged in Writing.” Applied Linguistics 18 (3): 253–278. 10.1093/applin/18.3.253
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/18.3.253 [Google Scholar]
  275. Heatley, Alex , Paul I. S. Nation , and Averil Coxhead
    2002RANGE and FREQUENCY Programs. http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/staff/paul-nation.aspx.
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Herbst, Thomas
    1986 “Defining with a Controlled Defining Vocabulary in Foreign Learners’ Dictionaries.” Lexicographica: International Annual for Lexicography 2: 101–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  277. 1996 “On the Way to the Perfect Learners’ Dictionary: A First Comparision of OALD5, LDOCE3, COBUILD2 and CIDE.” International Journal of Lexicography 9 (4): 321–357. 10.1093/ijl/9.4.321
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/9.4.321 [Google Scholar]
  278. Hiles, Lorna
    2014 “Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary.” Lexikos 24: 178–185. 10.5788/24‑1‑1257
    https://doi.org/10.5788/24-1-1257 [Google Scholar]
  279. Hindmarsh, Roland
    1980The Cambridge English Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Hirsh, David
    1993The vocabulary demands and vocabulary learning opportunities in short novels. Unpublished master’s thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Hirsh, David , and Paul I. S. Nation
    1992 “What Vocabulary Size is Needed to Read Unsimplified Texts for Pleasure?” Reading in a Foreign Language, 8 (2): 689–696.
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Horn, Ernest
    1926A Basic Writing Vocabulary. Iowa City: State University of Iowa Monograph First Series No. 4.
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Hornby, Albert S.
    1938 “Report on the Year’s Work: Dictionary Problems.” IRET Bulletin 148: 20–8; 36.
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Horst, Marlise , Tom Cobb , and Paul Meara
    1998 “Beyond a Clockwork Orange: Acquiring Second Language Vocabulary through Reading.” Reading in a Foreign Language 11: 207–223.
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Howatt, Anthony Phillip R.
    1984A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  286. 2006 “Language Teaching: History.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., edited by Keith Brown , Anne Anderson , Laurie Bauer , Margie Berns , Jim Miller , and Graeme Hirst , 634–646. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/01325‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01325-0 [Google Scholar]
  287. Hu, Marcella and Paul Nation
    2000 “Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension” Reading in a Foreign Language, 13 (1): 403–430.
    [Google Scholar]
  288. Huijsen, Willem
    1998 “Controlled Language – An Introduction.” In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Controlled Language Applications. (CLAW) Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University Language Technologies Institute. 1–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Hulstijn, Jan H.
    1993 “When do Foreign-Language Readers Look Up the Meaning of Unfamiliar Words? The Influence of Task and Learner Variables.” The Modern Language Journal 77: 139–147. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1993.tb01957.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1993.tb01957.x [Google Scholar]
  290. Hutchins, W. John
    1995 “Machine Translation: A Brief History.” In Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists, edited by E. F. K. Koerner and Ronald E. Asher , 431–445. New York: Pergamon. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑042580‑1.50066‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-042580-1.50066-0 [Google Scholar]
  291. Hwang, Kyongho
    1989Reading Newspapers for the Improvement of Vocabulary and Reading Skills. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, Wellington.
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Ilson, Robert
    1986 “Lexicographic Archeology: Comparing Dictionaries of the Same Family.” In The History of Lexicography, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 127–136. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sihols.40.14ils
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sihols.40.14ils [Google Scholar]
  293. 1990 “Present-Day British Lexicography.” In Wörterbücher Dictionaries Dictionnaires. An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. Vol. 2 (1989–91), edited by Franz J. Hausmann , Oskar Reichmann , Herbert E. Wiegand , and Ladislav Zgusta , 1967–1983. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Jain, Mahavir P.
    1981 “On Meaning in the Foreign Learner’s Dictionary.” Applied Linguistics 2 (3): 274–286. 10.1093/applin/2.3.274
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/2.3.274 [Google Scholar]
  295. James, Gregory C. A.
    2003 “Bilingualisation as a Genre.” In Lexicography. Critical Concepts. Vol. III, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 135–146. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Jansen, Jacques , Mergeai, Jean-Paul , and Jocelyne Vanandroye
    1987 “Controlling LDOCE’s controlled vocabulary.” In The Dictionary and the Language Learner (Lexicographica, Series maior 17), edited by Anthony P. Cowie . Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111340500‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111340500-008 [Google Scholar]
  297. Jeffery, G. B.
    1953 “Foreword” In A General Service List of English Words, edited by Michael West , v–vi. London: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Jenkins, Joseph R. , Marcy L. Stein , and Katherine Wysocki
    1984 “Learning Vocabulary through Reading.” American Educational Research Journal 21: 767–787. 10.3102/00028312021004767
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312021004767 [Google Scholar]
  299. Johansson, Stig
    1978Manual of Information to Accompany the Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus of British English for Use with Digital Computers. Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of English.
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Johnson, Samuel
    1747The Plan of an English Dictionary. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Kamińska, Małgorzata Anna
    2014A History of the Concise Oxford Dictionary. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑653‑04370‑9
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-04370-9 [Google Scholar]
  302. Kamiński, Mariusz Piotr
    2013A History of the Chambers Dictionary. Lexicographica Series Maior 143. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110312737
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110312737 [Google Scholar]
  303. 2016 “Corpus-based Extraction of Collocations for Near-Synonym Discrimination.” In Proceedings of the XVII EURALEX International Congress. Lexicography and Linguistic Diversity. 6–10 September 2016 Tbilisi, edited by Tinatin Margalitadze and George Meladze , 375–382. http://euralex2016.tsu.ge/publication.html
    [Google Scholar]
  304. 2019 “Use of Hedges in Definitions: Out of Necessity or Theory Driven?” Lexikos 29: 55–74. 10.5788/29‑1‑1512
    https://doi.org/10.5788/29-1-1512 [Google Scholar]
  305. (2020). Does a limited defining vocabulary make definitions syntactically more complex? Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 55, 5–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Kamprath C , Adolphson E , Mitamura, T and Nyberg E
    1998 “Controlled Language for Mulitilingual Document Production: Experience with Caterpillar Technical English.” In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Controlled Language Applications, 51–61. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University Language Technologies Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Kay, Christian J.
    2000 “Historical Semantics and Historical Lexicography: Will the Twain Ever Meet?” In Lexicology, Semantics and Lexicography, edited by Julie Coleman and Christain J. Kay , 53–68. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.194.07kay
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.194.07kay [Google Scholar]
  308. Kernerman, Lionel
    1996 “English Learners’ Dictionaries: How Much Do We Know about their Use?” In EURALEX’ 96 Proceedings. Göteborg: Department of Swedish, Göteborg University, edited by Martin Gellerstam , Jerker Jarborg , Sven-Göran Malmgren , Lena Rogström , Catarina Röjder Papmehl .
    [Google Scholar]
  309. Kernerman, Ilan
    1999 “Back to the Future.” Dictionary News, no 7: 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  310. Khoong, Elaine , C., Eric Steinbrook , Cortlyn Brown , and Alicia Fernandez
    2019 “Assessing the Use of Google Translate for Spanish and Chinese Translations of Emergency Department Discharge Instructions.” JAMA Internal Medicine 2019, E1–E3.
    [Google Scholar]
  311. Kilgarriff, Adam
    2006 “Word Senses.” In Word Sense Disambiguation: Algorithms and Applications, edited by Eneko Agirre and Phillip Edmonds , 29–45. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑4809‑8_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4809-8_2 [Google Scholar]
  312. Kilgarriff, Adam , and Michael Rundell
    2002 “Lexical Profiling Software and its Lexicographic Applications: Case Study.” In Proceedings of the Tenth EURALEX International Congress, EURALEX 2002, Copenhagen: Center for Sprogteknologi, edited by Anna Braasch and Claus Povlsen , 807–819.
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Kilgarriff, Adam , Joseph Rosenzweig
    1999 “English SENSEVAL: reports and results.” In Proceedings of the 5th natural language processing Pacific Rim symposium (NLPRS ‘99), Beijing, China.
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Kirkness, Alan
    2001 “Review. English Dictionaries for Foreign Learners: A History. A. P. Cowie.” ELT Journal 55 (1): 110–112. 10.1093/elt/55.1.110
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/55.1.110 [Google Scholar]
  315. Kirkpatrick, Betty
    1985 “A Lexicographical Dilemma: Monolingual Dictionaries for the Native Speaker and for the Learner.” In Dictionaries, Lexicography and Language Learning, edited by Robert Ilson , 7–13. Oxford 1985 (ELT Documents 120).
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Kitzes, Adam H.
    2006The Politics of Melancholy from Spenser to Milton. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  317. Kjellmer, Göran
    1986 “‘The Lesser Man’: Observations on the Role of Women in Modern English Writings.” In Corpus Linguistics II, edited by Jan Arts and Willem Meijs , 163–76. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Klare, George R.
    1968 “The Role of Word Frequency in Readability.” Elementary English 45 (1): 12–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Knowles, J.
    1904The London Point System of Reading for the Blind. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  320. Koeneke, Rodney
    2004Empires of the Mind. I. A. Richards and Basic English in China, 1929–1979. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  321. Krashen, Stephen D.
    2011Free Voluntary Reading. Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited.
    [Google Scholar]
  322. Kucera, Henry , and Winthrop N. Francis
    1967Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Landau, Sidney I.
    1993 “Wierzbicka’s Theory and the Practice of Lexicography.” Dictionaries. 14: 113–119. 10.1353/dic.1992.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/dic.1992.0007 [Google Scholar]
  324. 2001Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. 2nd edition. Cambridge: University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  325. 2009 “Major American Dictionaries.” In The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Vol. 2, edited by Anthony P. Cowie , 182–229. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Laufer, Batia
    1989 “What Percentage of Text Lexis is Essential for Comprehension?” In Special Language: From Humans Thinking to Thinking Machines, edited by Christer Lauren and Marianne Nordman , 316–323. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  327. 1993 “The Effect of Dictionary Definitions and Examples on the Use and Comprehension of New L2 Words.” Cahiers de Lexicologie 63 (2): 131–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Laufer, Batia , Cathie Elder , Kathryn Hill , and Peter Congdon
    2004 “Size and strength: Do we need both to measure vocabulary knowledge?” Language Testing 21: 202–226. 10.1191/0265532204lt277oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532204lt277oa [Google Scholar]
  329. Leech, Geoffrey , Paul Rayson , and Andrew Wilson
    2001Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Lew, Robert
    2002 “A Study in the Use of Bilingual and Monolingual Dictionaries by Polish Learners of English: A Preliminary Report.” In Proceedings of the Tenth EURALEX International Congress (Vol. II), Copenhagen: Center for Sprogteknologi, edited by A. Anna Braasch and Claus Povlsen , 759–763.
    [Google Scholar]
  331. 2004Which Dictionary for Whom? Receptive Use of Bilingual, Monolingual and Semi-Bilingual Dictionaries by Polish Learners of English. Poznan: Motivex.
    [Google Scholar]
  332. 2010 “Multimodial Lexicography: The Representation of Meaning in Electronic Dictionaries.” Lexikos 20: 290–306. 10.4314/lex.v20i1.62717
    https://doi.org/10.4314/lex.v20i1.62717 [Google Scholar]
  333. 2012 “How Can We Make Electronic Dictionaries More Effective?” In Electronic Lexicography, edited by Sylviane Granger and Magali Paquot , 343–363. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  334. 2013 “Identifying, Ordering and Defining Senses.” In The Bloomsbury Companion to Lexicography, edited by Howard Jackson , 284–302. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Lew, Robert , Anna Dziemianko
    2006 “A New Type of Folk-inspired Definition in English Monolingual Learners’ Dictionaries and its Usefulness for Conveying Syntactic Information.” International Journal of Lexicography 19 (3): 225–242. 10.1093/ijl/ecl011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecl011 [Google Scholar]
  336. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, Barbara
    2007 “Polysemy, Prototypes, and Radial Categories.” In The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, edited by Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert Cuyckens , 139–169. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Li, Hanhong
    2010 “Word Frequency Distribution for Electronic Learner’s Dictionaries.” In eLexicography in the 21st Century: New Challenges, New Applications. Proceedings of eLex 2009, Louvain-la-Neuve, 22–24 October 2009, edited by Sylviane Granger , Magali Paquot , 203–216. UCL Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Lorge, Irving
    1944 “Word Lists as Background for Communication.” Teachers College Record 45: 543–552.
    [Google Scholar]
  339. 1949Semantic Count of the 570 Commonest English Words. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
    [Google Scholar]
  340. 1953 “The Semantic Count.” In A General Service List of English Words, edited by Michael West , xi–xiii. London: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Lorge, Irving and Edward L. Thorndike
    1938A Semantic Count of English Words. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Louw, Phillip
    2000 “An Integrated Semasiological and Onomasiological Presentation of Semantic Information in General Monolingual Dictionaries as Proposed in H.E. Wiegand’s Semantics and Lexicography.” Lexikos 10: 119–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Lovelace, Eugene A.
    1988 “On Using Norms for Low-Frequency Words.” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (5): 410–412. 10.3758/BF03334899
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03334899 [Google Scholar]
  344. Luppescu, Stuart , and Richard Day
    1993 “Reading, Dictionaries and Vocabulary Learning.” Language Learning 43 (1): 263–287. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1992.tb00717.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00717.x [Google Scholar]
  345. Lynn, Robert W.
    1973 “Preparing Word Lists: A Suggested Method.” RELC Journal 11 (2): 25–32. 10.1177/003368827300400103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827300400103 [Google Scholar]
  346. Lyons, John
    1969Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  347. 1977Semantics. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Maat, Jaap
    2004Philosophical Languages in the Seventeenth Century: Dalgarno, Wilkins, Leibniz. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑1036‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1036-8 [Google Scholar]
  349. MacFarquhar, Peter
    1985ESL Learner Dictionaries: A Study of Definition Difficulty. Occasional Paper 8. University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    [Google Scholar]
  350. MacFarquhar, Peter D. , and Jack C. Richards
    1983 “On Dictionaries and Definitions.” RELC Journal 14 (1): 111–24. 10.1177/003368828301400112
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828301400112 [Google Scholar]
  351. Martinez, Maria-Angeles
    2015 “Modality Awareness Development in Narratives for Young Readers of English.” In Thinking Modally: English and Contrastive Studies on Modality, edited by Juan Rafael Zamorano-Mansilla , Carmen Maiz , Elena Dominguez , Victoria Martin De la Rosa , 429–448. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  352. McArthur, Tom
    1986Worlds of Reference. Cambridge: University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  353. 1998aLiving Words. Language, Lexicography and the Knowledge Revolution. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  354. 1998b “The Background and Nature of ELT Learner’s Dictionaries.” In Learners’ Dictionaries: State of the Art, edited by Makhan L. Tickoo , 52–64. Singapore: SEAMEO.
    [Google Scholar]
  355. McConchie, Rod W.
    2013 “‘The Most Discriminating Plagiarist’: The Unkindest Cut (and Paste) of All”. In Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX 3), edited by Rod W. McConchie , Teo Juvonen , Mark Kaunisto , 107–119. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  356. McCreary, Don R. , and Elise Amacker
    2006 “Experimental Research on College Students’ Usage of Two Dictionaries: A Comparison of the Merriam-Webster College Dictionary and the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners”. In Proceedings of 12th EURALEX International Congress, EURALEX 2006, edited by Elisa Corino , Carla Marello , and Cristina Onesti , 871–885. Alessandria: Edizioni Dell’Orso.
    [Google Scholar]
  357. McCreary, Don R. , and Fredric T. Dolezal
    1999 “A Study of Dictionary Use by ESL Students in an American University.” International Journal of Lexicography 12 (2): 107–146. 10.1093/ijl/12.2.107
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/12.2.107 [Google Scholar]
  358. McKeown, Margaret
    1993 “Creating Effective Definitions for Young Word Learners.” Reading Research Quarterly 28 (1): 16–31. 10.2307/747814
    https://doi.org/10.2307/747814 [Google Scholar]
  359. Meer, Geart van der
    1999 “Metaphors and Dictionaries: The Morass of Meaning, or How to Get Two Ideas for One.” International Journal of Lexicography 12 (3): 195–208. 10.1093/ijl/12.3.195
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/12.3.195 [Google Scholar]
  360. 2000 “Core, Subsense, and the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE).” In Proceedings of the Ninth EURALEX Congress, edited by Ulrich Heid , Stefan Evert , Egbert Lehmann , Christian Rohrer , 419–431. Stuttgart: Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung.
    [Google Scholar]
  361. 2004 “On Defining: Polysemy, Core Meanings, and ‘Great Simplicity’.” In Proceedings of the Eleventh EURALEX International Congress, EURALEX 2004, Lorient, France, July 6–10, 2004, Vol. 2, edited by Geoffrey Williams and Sandra Vessier , 807–15. Lorient: Université de Bretagne Sud.
    [Google Scholar]
  362. Michiels, Archibald , and Jacques Noël
    1984 “The Pro’s and Con’s of a Controlled Defining Vocabulary in a Learner’s Dictionary.” In LEXeter’s 83 Proceedings. Papers from the International Conference on Lexicography at Exeter, 9–12 September 1983, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 385–394. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 10.1515/9783111593166‑051
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111593166-051 [Google Scholar]
  363. Miller, George A. , and Patricia M. Gildea
    1987 “How Children Learn Words.” Scientific American 257 (3): 94–99. 10.1038/scientificamerican0987‑94
    https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0987-94 [Google Scholar]
  364. Minkova, Donka , and Robert Stockwell
    2006 “English Words.” In The Handbook of English Linguistics, edited by Bas Aarts and April McMahon . London: Blackwell Publishing. 461–482. 10.1002/9780470753002.ch20
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470753002.ch20 [Google Scholar]
  365. Miodunka, Wladyslaw
    1989Podstawy Leksykologii i Leksykografii. Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
    [Google Scholar]
  366. Mitamura, Teruko
    1999 “Controlled Language for Multilingual Machine Translation.” In Machine Translation Summit VII, Singapore, 1999, 46–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  367. Moon, Rosamund
    1987 “The Analysis of Meaning.” In Looking up: The COBUILD Project in Lexical Computing, edited by John Sinclair . Collins ELT: London and Glasgow.
    [Google Scholar]
  368. 1998Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  369. Morton, Herbert C.
    1994The Story of Webster’s Third. Philip Gove’s Controversial Dictionary and its Critics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  370. Muegge, Uwe
    2008Machine Translation. Controlled Language. Translation Standards. Accessed August 1, 2017. http://www.muegge.cc/controlled-language.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  371. Murray, James A. H.
    1933 “General Explanations.” In The Oxford English Dictionary, Being a Corrected Re-issue with an Introduction, Supplement, and Bibliography of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, edited by James A. H. Murray et al . Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  372. Nakane, Sadayuki
    1998 “The Defining Vocabularies of LDOCE, OALD, and CIDE: A Comparative Study.” Bulletin of Liberal Arts 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  373. Nation, I. S. Paul
    1990Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. New York: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  374. 1993 “Measuring Readiness for Simplified Material: A Test of the First 1,000 Words of English.” In Simplification: Theory and Application. RELC Anthology Series 31, edited by Makhan L. Tickoo , 193–203.
    [Google Scholar]
  375. 2004 “A Study of the Most Frequent Word Families in the British National Corpus.” In Vocabulary in a Second Language, edited by Paul Bogaards and Batia Laufer , 3–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.10.03nat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.10.03nat [Google Scholar]
  376. Nation, Paul
    2006 “How Large a Vocabulary is Needed for Reading and Listening?.” Canadian Modern Language Review 63 (1), 59–82. 10.3138/cmlr.63.1.59
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.63.1.59 [Google Scholar]
  377. 2009 “New Roles for L2 Vocabulary?” In Contemporary Applied Linguistics. Volume One. Language Teaching and Learning, edited by Vivian Cook and Li Wei , 99–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  378. 2012 “Information on the BNC/COCA lists.” Accessed August 16, 2018. https://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/about/staff/paul-nation#vocab-lists
  379. Nation, I. S. Paul , and Alex Heatley
    2002Range: A Program for the Analysis of Vocabulary in Texts [software]. http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/staff/paul-nation/nation.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  380. Nation, I. S. Paul , and Kyongho Hwang
    1995 “Where Would General Service Vocabulary Stop and Special Purposes Vocabulary Begin?” System 23 (1): 35–41. 10.1016/0346‑251X(94)00050‑G
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(94)00050-G [Google Scholar]
  381. Nation, I. S. P. and Robert Waring
    1997 “Vocabulary Size, Text Coverage and Word Lists.” In Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, edited by Norbert Schmitt and Michael McCarthy , 6–19. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Accessed February 15, 2018. http://www.robwaring.org/papers/CUP/cup.html
    [Google Scholar]
  382. Nation, I. S. Paul , and Stuart Webb
    2011Researching and Analyzing Vocabulary. Boston: Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  383. Nerlich, Brigitte
    1992Semantic Theories in Europe 1830–1930. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sihols.59
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sihols.59 [Google Scholar]
  384. Nesi, Hilary
    1998 “Defining a Shoehorn: The Success of Learners’ Dictionary Entries for Concrete Nouns.” In Using Dictionaries: Studies of Dictionary Use by Language Learners and Translators, edited by Beryl T. Sue Atkins , 159–178. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  385. 2000The Use and Abuse of Learners’ Dictionaries. Lexicographica. Series Maior 98. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110946031
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110946031 [Google Scholar]
  386. 2009 “Dictionaries in Electronic Form.” In The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Vol. 2, edited by Anthony P. Cowie . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  387. 2014 “Dictionary Use by English Language Learners.” Language Teaching 47 (1): 38–55. 10.1017/S0261444813000402
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000402 [Google Scholar]
  388. Nesi, Hilary , and Richard Haill
    2002 “A Study of Dictionary Use by International Students at a British University.” International Journal of Lexicography 15 (4): 277–305. 10.1093/ijl/15.4.277
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/15.4.277 [Google Scholar]
  389. Nesi, Hilary , and Paul Meara
    1994 “Patterns of Misrepresenation in the Productive Use of EFL Dictionary Definitions.” System 22 (1): 1–15. 10.1016/0346‑251X(94)90036‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(94)90036-1 [Google Scholar]
  390. Nesselhauf, Nadja
    2005Collocations in a Leaner Corpus. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.14 [Google Scholar]
  391. Neubauer, Fritz
    1980Die Struktur der Explikationen in Deutschen Einsprachigen Wörterbüchern. Eine Vergleichende Lexiko-Semantische Analyse. Hamburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  392. 1984 “The Language of Explanation in Monolingual Dictionaries.”, LEXeter ‘83. Proceedings. Papers from the International Conference on Lexicography at Exeter, 9–12 September 1983. Lexicographica. Series Maior 1, edited by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann , 117–123. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111593166‑017
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111593166-017 [Google Scholar]
  393. 1987 “How to Define a Defining Vocabulary.” A Spectrum of Lexicography. Papers from AILA Brussels 1984, edited by Robert Ilson , 49–60. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.28.05neu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.28.05neu [Google Scholar]
  394. 1989 “Vocabulary Control in the Definitions and Examples of Monolingual Dictionaries.” In Wörterbücher Dictionaries Dictionnaires. An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. 3 vols. (1989–91), edited by Franz J. Hausmann , Oskar Reichmann , Herbert E. Wiegand , and Ladislav Zgusta , 899–904. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  395. Neufeld, Steve , and Ali Billuroglu
    2005 “In Search of the Critical Lexical Mass: How ‘General’ in the GSL? How ‘Academic’ is the AWL?” Accessed March 16, 2018. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317661877_In_search_of_the_critical_lexical_mass_How_%27general%27in_the_GSL_How_%27academic%27is_the_AWL
  396. Nichols, Wendalyn
    2001 Review of A.P. Cowie. English Dictionaries for Foreign learners: A History. Dictionaries 22: 205–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  397. Nida, Eugene A.
    1975Componential Analysis of Meaning. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  398. Nyberg, Eric H. , Teruko Mitamura , and Willem-Olaf Huijsen
    2003 “Controlled Language for Authoring and Translation.” In Computers and Translation: A Translator’s Guide, edited by Harold L. Somers , 245–281. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.35.17nyb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.35.17nyb [Google Scholar]
  399. Nyberg, Eric H. , and Teruko Mitamura
    1992 “The KANT System: Fast, Accurate, High-Quality Translation in Practical Domains.” In Proceedings of COLLING–92, Nantes, France, July 1992, Vol. 3, 1069–1073.
    [Google Scholar]
  400. Oakes, Michael P.
    2009 “Corpus Linguistics and Language Variation.” In Contemporary Corpus Linguistics, edited by Paul Baker , 159–83. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  401. Odlin, Terence
    1989Language Transfer: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524537
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524537 [Google Scholar]
  402. Ogden, Charles K.
    1930Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar. London. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  403. 1931Debabelization. With a Survey of Contemporary Opinion on the Problem of a Universal Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  404. Ogden, Charles K. , and Ivor A. Richards
    1923The Meaning of Meaning. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  405. Ogden, Charles K.
    1932The Basic Dictionary. London.
    [Google Scholar]
  406. 1940The General Basic English Dictionary. London: Evans.
    [Google Scholar]
  407. Osgood, Charles E. , George J. Suci , and Percy H. Tannenbaum
    1957The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  408. Page, Edward C.
    2001Governing by Numbers Delegated Legislation and Everyday Policy-Making. Portland: Hart Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  409. Palmer, Harold E.
    1929a “What shall We Call ‘a Word’?” IRET Bulletin 54: 1–2.
    [Google Scholar]
  410. 1929b “Editorial: What is an idiom?” IRET Bulletin 56: 1–2.
    [Google Scholar]
  411. 1932 “Some Notes on Construction-Patterns” Institute Leaflet 38. Tokyo: IRET.
    [Google Scholar]
  412. Palmer, Harol E.
    1933Second Interim Report on English Collocations. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  413. 1936 “The History and Present State of the Movement Towards Vocabulary Control.” IRET Bulletin 120: 14–17; 121: 19–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  414. Palmer, Harol , and Albert S. Hornby
    1937Thousand-Word English. London: George Harrap.
    [Google Scholar]
  415. Piotrowski, Tadeusz
    1994Problems in Bilingual Lexicography. Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Universitetu Wroclawskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  416. 2001Zrozumieć leksykografię. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
    [Google Scholar]
  417. 2002An Overview of Monolingual EFL Dictionaries Today. Accessed May 5, 2017. http://www.academia.edu/23933212/
    [Google Scholar]
  418. 2009 “Pedagogical Dictionaries of English as Commercial Products.” In On Language Structure, Acquisition and Teaching. Studies in Honour of Janusz Arabski on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, edited by Maria Wysocka , 171–176. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  419. Plain English Campaign. Accessed March 2, 2019. http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/about-us.html
    [Google Scholar]
  420. Plain Speaking is no Joke
    1997BBC News. Accessed March 2, 2019. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/38503.stm
    [Google Scholar]
  421. Podhajecka, Miroslawa
    2009 “Historical Development of Lexicographical Genres: Some Methodological Issues.” In Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX 2), edited by Roderick W. McConchie , Alpo Honkapohja , and Jukka Tyrkkö , 153–170. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  422. 2016A History of Polish-English / English-Polish Bilingual Lexicography (1788–1947). Opole: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  423. Pottier, Bernard
    1964 Vers une Sémantique Moderne. Travaux de Linguistique et de Littérature 2: 107–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  424. Praninskas, Jean
    1972American University Word List. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  425. Preiss, Judita , and Mark Stevenson
    2004 “Introduction to the Special Issue on Word Sense Disambiguation.” In Computer Speech and Language 18 (3): 201–207. 10.1016/j.csl.2004.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2004.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  426. Pym, Peter J.
    1990 “Pre-Editing and the Use of Simplified Writing for MT: An Engineer’s Experience of Operating an MT System.” In Translating and the Computer 10: The Translation Environment 10 Years on, edited by Pamela Mayorcas , 80–95. London: Aslib.
    [Google Scholar]
  427. Quirk, Randolph
    1973 “The Social Impact of Dictionaries in the U.K.” In Lexicography in English, edited by Raven I. McDavid and Audrey Duckert , 76–88. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  428. 1982 “International communication and the concept of nuclear English.” In English for Cross-cultural Communication, edited by Larry E. Smith , 151–165. NewYork: St. Martin’s Press. [Re-printed in Style and Communication in the English Language. London: Arnold, 37–53.]
    [Google Scholar]
  429. 1986 “Opening Remarks.” In Lexicography. An Emerging International Profession, edited by Robert Ilson , 1–6. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  430. Qun, Liu , and Zhang Xiaojun
    2015 “Machine Translation.” In The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology, edited by Chan Sin-wai , 105–119. Routledge: New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  431. R Development Core Team
    2013R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.
    [Google Scholar]
  432. Read, John
    1988 “Measuring the vocabulary knowledge of second language learners.” RELC Journal 19 (2): 12–25. 10.1177/003368828801900202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828801900202 [Google Scholar]
  433. Redmond, Phil.
    2010 “Chrissie Maher–a story of inspiration and aspiration.” Liverpool Daily Post. Liverpool: Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales.
    [Google Scholar]
  434. Reisner, Edward H.
    1925Nationalism and Education since 1789: a Social and Political History of Modern Education. London: The Macmillan Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  435. Renouf, Antoinette
    1987 “Corpus Development” In Looking Up: An Account of the COBUILD Project in Lexical Computing, edited by John Sinclair , 10–40. London: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  436. Rey, Alain
    1990 “Definitional Semantics: Its Evolution in French Lexicography.” Meaning and Lexicography, edited by Jerzy Tomaszczyk and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk , 43–55. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/llsee.28.08rey
    https://doi.org/10.1075/llsee.28.08rey [Google Scholar]
  437. Riemer, Nick
    2006 “Reductive Paraphrase and Meaning: A Critique of Wierzbickian Semantics.” Linguistics and Philosophy 29: 347–79. 10.1007/s10988‑006‑0001‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-006-0001-4 [Google Scholar]
  438. Richards, Jack C.
    1974 Word Lists: Problems and Prospects. RELC Journal 5 (2): 69–84. 10.1177/003368827400500207
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827400500207 [Google Scholar]
  439. Ronald, James
    2002 “L2 Lexical Growth through Extensive Reading and Dictionary Use: A Case Study.” In Proceedings of the Tenth EURALEX International Congress, EURALEX 2002. Vol 2, edited by Anna Braasch and Claus Povlsen , 765–772. Copenhagen.
    [Google Scholar]
  440. Rundell, Michael
    1988 “Changing the Rules: Why the Monolingual Learner’s Dictionary Should Move Away from the Native Speaker Tradition.” In ZüriLEX’ 86 Proceedings, edited by Mary Snell-Hornby , 127–138. Tübingen: Francke Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  441. 2006 “Learner’s Dictionaries.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., edited by Keith Brown , Anne Anderson , Laurie Bauer , Margie Berns , Jim Miller , and Graeme Hirst , 739–743. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/00427‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00427-2 [Google Scholar]
  442. 2008a “Recent Trends in English Pedagogical Lexicography.” In Practical Lexicography A Reader, edited by Thierry Fontenelle , 221–243. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  443. 2008b “More Than One Way to Skin a Cat: Why Full-Sentence Definitions Have Not Been Universally Adopted.” In Practical Lexicography A Reader, edited by Thierry Fontenelle , 197–209. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  444. 2015 “From Print to Digital: Implications for Dictionary Policy and Lexicographic Conventions.” Lexikos 25: 301–322. 10.5788/25‑1‑1301
    https://doi.org/10.5788/25-1-1301 [Google Scholar]
  445. Russo, John P.
    1989I.A. Richards. His Life and Work. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  446. Sager, Juan , and Marie-Claude L’Homme
    1994 “A Model for the Definition of Concepts: Rules for Analytical Definitions in Terminological Databases.” Terminology, Vol. 1 (2): 351–373. 10.1075/term.1.2.08sag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.1.2.08sag [Google Scholar]
  447. Sager, Juan , and Kyo Kageura
    1994 “Concepts Classes and Conceptual Structures: Their Role and Necessity in Terminology.” ALFA: Terminology and Special Linguistics 7 (8): 191–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  448. Sager, Juan. C. , and Augustin Ndi-Kimbi
    1995 “The Conceptual Structure of Terminological Definitions and their Linguistic Realisations: A Report on Research in Progress.” Terminology 2 (1): 61–85. 10.1075/term.2.1.04sag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.2.1.04sag [Google Scholar]
  449. San Martin, A. , and Marie-Claude L’Homme
    2014 “Definition Patterns for Predicative Terms in Specialized Lexical Resources.” In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’14). (Reykjavik, Iceland) European Language Resources Association (ELRA), May 2014, edited by Nicoletta Calzolari , Khalid Choukri , Thierry Declerck , Hrafn Loftsson , Bente Maegaard , Joseph Mariani , Asuncion Moreno , Jan Odijk , and Stelios Piperidis .
    [Google Scholar]
  450. Santini, Marina , and Serge Sharoff
    eds. 2007Proceedings of the CL 2007 Colloquium: Towards a Reference Corpus of Web Genres. Birmingham, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  451. Seppälä, Selja
    2015 “An Ontological Framework for Modeling the Contents of Definitions,” Terminology 21 (1): 23–50. 10.1075/term.21.1.02sep
    https://doi.org/10.1075/term.21.1.02sep [Google Scholar]
  452. Seppälä, Selja , Alan Ruttenberg , and Barry Smith
    2016 “The Functions of Definitions in Ontologies.” In Formal Ontology in Information Systems: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference (FOIS 2016), July 6–9 2016, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 283, edited by Roberta Ferrario and Werner Kuhn , 37–50. Annecy, France: IOS Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  453. Schmitt, Norbert
    2000Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  454. Schmitt, Norbert , and Diane Schmitt
    2014 “A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching.” Language Teaching 47 (04): 484–503. 10.1017/S0261444812000018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444812000018 [Google Scholar]
  455. Sutarsyah, Cucu , Nation, I. S. Paul , and Graeme Kennedy
    1994 “How Useful is EAP Vocabulary for ESP? A Corpus Based Study.” RELC Journal 25 (2): 34–50. 10.1177/003368829402500203
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368829402500203 [Google Scholar]
  456. Seretny, Anna
    1998Definicje i definiowanie. Cracow: Zakład Wydawniczy “NOMOS”.
    [Google Scholar]
  457. Schul, James E. , and Gregory E. Hamot
    2011 “An Engaged Pragmatist: Uncovering and Assessing Ernest Horn’s View of Moral Education.” Journal of Social Studies Research 35 (2): 277–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  458. Shaw, Claire
    2013Is English Still the Dominant Language of Higher Education? – Live Chat. The Guardian. Accessed September 2, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2013/feb/13/english-language-international-higher-education
    [Google Scholar]
  459. Simpson, John A.
    1990 “English Lexicography After Johnson to 1945.” In Wörterbücher Dictionaries Dictionnaires. An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. 2 vol., (1989–91), edited by Franz J. Hausmann , Oskar Reichmann , Herbert E. Wiegand , and Ladislav Zgusta , 1953–1966. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  460. Sinclair, John M.
    1984 “Naturalness in Language.” In Corpus Linguistics. Recent Developments in the Use of Computer Corpora in English Language Research, edited by Jan Aarts and Willem Meijs , 203–10. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  461. ed. 1987Looking Up: An account of the COBUILD Project in lexical computing and the development of the Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. London: Collins ELT.
    [Google Scholar]
  462. 1991Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  463. Sin-Wai, Chan
    2015 “Computer-Aided Translation: Major Concepts.” In Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology, edited by Sin-Wai Chan , 32–67. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  464. Smith, Richard C.
    ed. 2003 “Introduction.” In Teaching English as a Foreign Language, 1912–1936. Pioneers of ELT. Volume III Michael West, ix–xxvi. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  465. 2015Lawrence Faucett’s Life and Career. Accessed March 6, 2018. https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collections/elt_archive/halloffame/faucett/life
    [Google Scholar]
  466. Snider, James G. , and Charles E. Osgood
    ed. 1969Semantic Differential Technique: A Sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine.
    [Google Scholar]
  467. Sobkowiak, Włodzimierz , and Marek Kuczyński
    2002 “Phonetics and Ideology of Defining Vocabularies.” In EURALEX’ 2002 Proceedings, Copenhagen, 13–17 August 2002, edited by Anna Braasch and C. Povlsen , 495–502. Copenhagen: Center fro Sprogteknologi.
    [Google Scholar]
  468. Staehr, Lars S.
    2009 “Vocabulary Knowledge and Advanced Listening Comprehension in English as a Foreign Language.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 31 (4): 577–607. 10.1017/S0272263109990039
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109990039 [Google Scholar]
  469. Stein, Gabriele
    1979 “The Best of British and American Lexicography.” Dictionaries 1:1–23. 10.1353/dic.1979.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1353/dic.1979.0004 [Google Scholar]
  470. 1989 “Recent Developments in EFL Dictionaries.” In Learners’ Dictionaries: State of the Art, edited by Makhan L. Tickoo , 10–41. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  471. 2002aBetter Words. (selected essays by G. Stein on Dictionary Criticism). Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  472. 2002bDeveloping Your English Vocabulary. A Systematic New Approach. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  473. 2016 “Some Thoughts on the Issue of Core Vocabularies. A Response to Vaclav Brezina and Dana Gablasova: ‘Is There a Core General Vocabulary?’ Introducing the New General Service List.” Applied Linguistics 38(5): 759–763.
    [Google Scholar]
  474. Sterkenburg, Piet van
    ed. 2003A Practical Guide to Lexicography. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tlrp.6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tlrp.6 [Google Scholar]
  475. Stubbs, Michael
    1986 “Language development, lexical competence and nuclear vocabulary.” Educational Linguistics, edited by Michael Stubbs , 98–115. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  476. Summers, Della
    1988 “English Language Teaching Dictionaries: Past, Present, and Future.” English Today 4 (2): 10–16. 10.1017/S0266078400013274
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400013274 [Google Scholar]
  477. Svensén, Bo
    1993Practical Lexicography: Principles and Methods of Dictionary-Making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  478. Swanepoel, Piet
    1994 “Problems, Theories and Methodologies in Current Lexicographic Semantic Research.” In EURALEX 1994 Proceedings. Papers submitted to the 6th EURALEX International Congress on Lexicography in Amsterdam (Vrije Universiteit) 1994, edited by Willy Martin , Willem Meijs , and Margreet Moerland , 11–26. Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  479. Sweet, Henry
    1899 “The Practical Study of Languages: A Guide for Teachers and Learners.” London: J. M. Dent . [Reprinted 2003. Lexicography Critical Concepts. vol. 2, edited by Reinhard R.K. Hartmann, 257–268. London: Routledge.]
    [Google Scholar]
  480. Šcerba, Lev
    1995 “Towards a General Theory of Lexicography.” (translated by Farina, D. ) International Journal of Lexicography 8 (4): 305–349.
    [Google Scholar]
  481. Taylor, John R.
    1995Linguistic categorization. Prototypes in linguistic theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  482. Thorndike, Edward L.
    1921The Teacher’s Word Book. Columbia University: Teachers College.
    [Google Scholar]
  483. Thorndike, Edward L. , and Irving Lorge
    1944The Teacher’s Word Book of 30,000 Words. Oxford: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  484. Thouin, Benoît
    1982 “The Meteo System.” In Practical Experience of Machine Translation: Proceedings of Translating and the Computer 1981, edited by Veronica Lawson , 39–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  485. Tickoo, Makhan L.
    2008Harold E. Palmer: From Learner-teacher to Legend. Hydrabad: Orient Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  486. Tomaszczyk, Jerzy
    1979 Dictionaries: Users and Uses, Glottodidactica 12: 103–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  487. Tono, Yukio
    1989 “Can a Dictionary Help One Read Better?” In Lexicographers and their Works. (Exeter Linguistic Studies Volume 14), edited by Gregory James , 192–200. University of Exeter.
    [Google Scholar]
  488. Trask, Robert L.
    1996Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  489. Trier, Jost
    1931Der Deutsche Wortschatz im Sinnbezirk des Verstandes: Die Geschichte eines Sprachlichen Feldes I. Von den Anfängen bis zum Beginn des 13. Jhdts. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  490. Ungerer, Friedrich , and Hans-Jörg Schmid
    2006An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics. Harlow: Pearson Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  491. VOA Special English Word Book A–Z
    2009 Washington, D.C. www.VOASpecialEnglish.com.
  492. WaCKy
    2017The ukWaC unigrams (lemmas). Accessed May 10, 2017. https://wacky.sslmit.unibo.it/doku.php?id=frequency_lists.
    [Google Scholar]
  493. Waring, Rob , and Misako Takaki
    2003 “At What Rate Do Learners Learn and Retain New Vocabulary from Reading a Graded Reader?” Reading in a Foreign Language 15 (2): 130–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  494. Webb, Stuart
    2007 “The Effects of Repetition on Vocabulary Knowledge.” Applied Linguistics 28 (1): 46–65. 10.1093/applin/aml048
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/aml048 [Google Scholar]
  495. Webb, Stuart , Paul I. S. Nation
    2008 “Evaluating the Vocabulary Load of Written Text.” TESOLANZ Journal 16: 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  496. Weinreich, Uriel
    1980On Semantics. Edited by William Labov and Beatrice S. Weinreich . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 10.9783/9781512819267
    https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512819267 [Google Scholar]
  497. Wekker, Herman , and Phil Hyams
    1979 “De Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.” Review Article. Levende Talen 342: 406–417.
    [Google Scholar]
  498. West, Michael
    1926Bilingualism (with Special Reference to Bengal). Calcutta: Government of India. (Reprinted in: Richard C. Smith. ed. 2003. Vol. 3, 1–392).
    [Google Scholar]
  499. 1927aThe Construction of Reading Material for Teaching a Foreign Language. London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  500. 1927bThe New Method Readers for Students of English. Longmans, Green and Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  501. 1935Definition Vocabulary. Bulletin no. 4 of the Department of Educational Research. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  502. 1953A General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies and a Supplementary Word-List for the Writing of Popular Science and Technology (GSL). London: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  503. 1954 “Vocabulary Selection and the Minimum Adequate Vocabulary.” English Language Teaching 8 (4): 121–126. 10.1093/elt/VIII.4.121
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/VIII.4.121 [Google Scholar]
  504. 1960Teaching English in Difficult Circumstances: Teaching English as a Foreign Language with Notes on the Technique of Textbook Constructions. London: Longmans, Green.
    [Google Scholar]
  505. West, Michael , E. Swenson , K. M. Fawkes , F. L. Russell , and Wilf J. de Magellanes
    1934A Critical Examination of Basic English. Bulletin of Department of Educational Research, University of Toronto, 2: 1–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  506. Whitcut, Janet
    1978 “Lexicography in Controlled Vocabulary.” Paper presented at the AILA conference. Montreal 1978.
    [Google Scholar]
  507. 1986 “The Training of Dictionary Users.” In Lexicography An Emerging International Profession, edited by Robert Ilson , 111–122. London: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  508. 1988 “Lexicography in Simple Language.” International Journal of Lexicography 1 (1): 49–55. 10.1093/ijl/1.1.49
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/1.1.49 [Google Scholar]
  509. Wiegand, Herbert E.
    1994 “Elements of a Theory Toward a So-called Lexicographic Definition.” In Wiegand, Herbert E. 1999 Semantics and Lexicography. Selected Studies (1976–1996), 203–282, edited by Antje Immken and Werner Wolski . Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  510. Wingate, Ursula
    2002The Effectiveness of Different Learner Dictionaries. An Investigation into the Use of Dictionaries for Reading Comprehension by Intermediate Learners of German. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  511. Widdowson, H. G.
    1968 “The Teaching of English Through Science.” In Language in Education, edited by Julian Dakin , Brian Tiffen , and H. G. Widdowson . London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  512. Wierzbicka, Anna
    1972Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt.
    [Google Scholar]
  513. 1985Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  514. 1996Semantic Primes and Universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  515. 2003Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. 2nd ed. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110220964
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110220964 [Google Scholar]
  516. 2014Imprisoned in English. The Hazards of English as a Default Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  517. Wilks, Yorick , Dan Fass , Cheng-ming Guo , James E. McDonald , Tony Plate , and Brian M. Slator
    1988 “Machine Tractable Dictionaries as Tools and Resources for Natural Language Processing.” In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling-88) Budapest, Vol. 2, 750–755, Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/991719.991789
    https://doi.org/10.3115/991719.991789 [Google Scholar]
  518. Williams, Christopher
    2004 “Legal English and Plain Language: An introduction.” ESP Across Cultures 1: 111–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  519. Wojcik, Richard H.
    2006 “Controlled Languages.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed., edited by Keith Brown , Anne Anderson , Laurie Bauer , Margie Berns , Jim Miller , and Graeme Hirst , 136–142. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/05081‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/05081-1 [Google Scholar]
  520. Xiao, Richard
    2008 “Well-known and influential corpora.” In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook, Vol. 1, edited by Anke Lüdeling and Merja Kytö , 383–456. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  521. Xu, Hai
    2012 “A Critique of the Controlled Defining Vocabulary in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.” Lexikos 22: 367–381. 10.5788/22‑1‑1013
    https://doi.org/10.5788/22-1-1013 [Google Scholar]
  522. Xue, Guoyi , and Paul I. S. Nation
    1984 “A University Word List.” Language Learning and Communication 3 (2): 215–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  523. Youngblood, Alison M. , and Keith S. Folse
    2017 “Survey of Corpus-Based Vocabulary Lists for TESOL Classes.” MEXTESOL Journal 41 (1): 1–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  524. Zakaluk, Beverley L. , and S. Jay Samuels
    1996 “Issues Related to Text Comprehensibility: The Future of Readability.” Revue Québécoise de Linguistique 25 (1): 41–59. 10.7202/603126ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/603126ar [Google Scholar]
  525. Zarechnak, Michael
    2000 “The early days of GAT-SLC.” In Early Years in Machine Translation. Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers, edited by W. John Hutchins , 111–128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sihols.97.11zar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sihols.97.11zar [Google Scholar]
  526. Zipf, George K.
    1935The Psycho-Biology of Language: An Introduction to Dynamic Philology. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
    [Google Scholar]
  527. Żmigrodzki, Piotr
    2003Wprowadzenie do leksykografii polskiej. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/books/9789027260000
Loading
/content/books/9789027260000
dcterms_subject,pub_keyword
-contentType:Journal
10
5
Chapter
content/books/9789027260000
Book
false
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error