Pre-Historical Language Contact in Peruvian Amazonia

A dynamic approach to Shawi (Kawapanan)

image of Pre-Historical Language Contact in Peruvian Amazonia

South America was populated relatively recently, probably around 15,000 years ago. Yet, instead of finding a relatively small number of language families, we find some 118 genealogical units. So far, the historical processes that underlie the current picture are not yet fully understood. This book represents a preliminary attempt at understanding the socio-historical dynamics behind language diversification in the region, focusing on the Kawapanan languages, particularly on Shawi. The book provides an introduction to the ideas behind the flux approach of Dynamic linguistics and later concentrates on prehistorical language contact, specifically in the northern Peruvian Andean sphere. The number of studies presented shed light on a layered picture in which a number of Kawapanan lects were used in non-polyglosic multilingual settings. The book explores the potential contact relationships between Kawapanan languages, Quechuan, Aymaran, Chachapuya, Cholón-Hibito, Arawak, Carib and Puelche. The analysis draws on data collected in the field over a period of eight years (2012-2020) with both Shawi and Shiwilu speakers and includes the first comprehensive grammar sketch of Shawi.


  1. Aboh, E. O.
    (2019) Our creolized tongues. In E. Doron , M. Happaport Hovav , Y. Yeshef , & M. Taube (Eds.), Language contact, language continuity and change in the genesis of Modern Hebrew (pp. 287–320). John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.256.11abo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.256.11abo [Google Scholar]
  2. (2015) The emergence of hybrid grammars: Language contact and change. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139024167
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139024167 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adelaar, W. F. H.
    (1987) Aymarismos en el quechua de Puno. INDIANA, 11, 223–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Adelaar, W. F. H. with Muysken P. C.
    (2004) The languages of the Andes. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486852
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486852 [Google Scholar]
  5. Adelaar, W. F. H.
    (2012) Modeling convergence: Towards a reconstruction of the history of Quechuan–Aymaran interaction. Lingua, 122(5), 461–469. 10.1016/j.lingua.2011.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2011.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Aikhenvald, A. Y.
    (1999a) Areal diffusion and language contact in the Içana-Vaupés basin, north-west Amazonia. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), The Amazonian languages (pp. 385–415). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1999b) The Arawak language family. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald , The Amazonian languages (pp. 65–106). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (2000) Classifiers: A typology of noun categorization devices. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (2003) Multilingualism and ethnic stereotypes: The Tariana of northwest Amazonia. Language in Society, 32(1), 1–21. 10.1017/S0047404503321013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503321013 [Google Scholar]
  10. (2006) Serial verb constructions in typological perspective. In A. Y. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (Eds.), Serial verb constructions: A cross-linguistic typology (pp. 1–60). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2010) Multi-verb constructions: Setting the scene. In A. Y. Aikhenvald & P. C. Muysken (Eds.), Multi-verb constructions: A view from the Americas (pp. 1–26). Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2012) The languages of the Amazon. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593569.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593569.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2015) The art of grammar. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Aikhenvald, A. Y. , & Dixon, R. M. W.
    (Eds.) (2006) Grammars in contact: A cross-linguistic typology. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Alexander-Bakkerus, A.
    (2005) Eighteenth-century Cholón. LOT, Landelijk Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (2013) Vocabulario enla lengua castellano, la del ynga y xebera. STUF - Language Typology and Universals, 66(3), 229–256. 10.1524/stuf.2013.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1524/stuf.2013.0012 [Google Scholar]
  17. (2016) Eighteenth century Xebero: Mss. Add. 25,323 and 25,324 of The British Library, London (UK). Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Allan, K.
    (1977) Classifiers. Language, 53(2), 285–311. 10.1353/lan.1977.0043
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1977.0043 [Google Scholar]
  19. (2001) Natural language semantics. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Backus, A.
    (1996) Two in one: Bilingual speech of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. Tilburg University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2008) Can a mixed language be conventionalized alternational codeswitching? In Y. Matras & P. Bakker (Eds.), The mixed language debate: Theoretical and empirical advances (pp. 237–270). De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Baele, G. , Lemey, P. , Bedford, T. , Rambaut, A. , Suchard, M. A. , & Alekseyenko, A. V.
    (2012) Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(9), 2157–2167. 10.1093/molbev/mss084
    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss084 [Google Scholar]
  23. Bailey, C.-J. N.
    (1973) Variation and linguistic theory. Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (1996) Essays on time-based linguistic analysis. Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Barbieri, C. , Sandoval, J. R. , Valqui, J. , Shimelman, A. , Ziemendorff, S. , Schröder, R. , Geppert, M. , Roewer, L. , Gray, R. , Stoneking, M. , Fujita, R. , & Heggarty, P.
    (2017) Enclaves of genetic diversity resisted Inca impacts on population history. Scientific Reports, 7(1). 10.1038/s41598‑017‑17728‑w
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17728-w [Google Scholar]
  26. Barraza de García, Y.
    (2005a) El sistema verbal en la lengua shawi (Tesis de doctorado). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (2005b) ¿Es la lengua Shawi una Lengua Activa?Memorias Del Congreso de Idiomas Indígenas de Latinoamérica-II.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Beekes, R. S. P.
    (2011) Comparative Indo-European linguistics: An introduction. John Benjamin. 10.1075/z.172
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.172 [Google Scholar]
  29. Beeksma, M. , de Vos, H. , Claassen, T. , Dijkstra, T. , & van Kemenade, A.
    (2017) A probabilistic agent-based simulation for community level language change in different scenarios. Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands, 7, 17–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bendor-Samuel, J. T.
    (1961) The verbal piece in Jebero. Linguistic Circle of New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Benedict, P. K.
    (1976) Sino-Tibetan: Another look. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 96(2), 167–197. 10.2307/599822
    https://doi.org/10.2307/599822 [Google Scholar]
  32. Beuchat, H. , & Rivet, P.
    (1909) La famille linguistique Cahuapana. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 41, 616–634.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Biberauer, T. , & Walkden, G.
    (Eds.) (2015) Syntax over time. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687923.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687923.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  34. Bickerton, D.
    (1971) Inherent variability and variable rules. Foundations of Language, 7(4), 457–492.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. (1975) Dynamics of a creole system. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (1981) Roots of language. Karoma.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Birchall, J. , Dunn, M. , & Greenhill, S. J.
    (2016) A combined comparative and phylogenetic analysis of the Chapacuran language family. International Journal of American Linguistics, 82(3), 255–284. 10.1086/687383
    https://doi.org/10.1086/687383 [Google Scholar]
  38. Blackmore, S.
    (1999) The meme machine. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Boas, F.
    (1917) Introduction. International Journal of American Linguistics, 1, 1–8. 10.1086/463708
    https://doi.org/10.1086/463708 [Google Scholar]
  40. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    (2015) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (version 5.4.21) [Computer software]. www.praat.org
  41. Bouckaert, R. , & Heled, J.
    (2014) Densitree 2: Seeing trees through the forest. BioRxiv, 012401. 10.1101/012401
    https://doi.org/10.1101/012401 [Google Scholar]
  42. Bouckaert, R. , Lemey, P. , Dunn, M. , Greenhill, S. J. , Alekseyenko, A. V. , Drummond, A. J. , Gray, R. D. , Suchard, M. A. , & Atkinson, Q. D.
    (2012) Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family. Science, 337(6097), 957–960. 10.1126/science.1219669
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1219669 [Google Scholar]
  43. Bourdeau, C.
    (2015) Ergativity in Shawi (Unpublished MA thesis). Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Bowern, C. , & Atkinson, Q.
    (2012) Computational phylogenetics and the internal structure of Pama-Nyungan. Language, 88(4), 817–845. 10.1353/lan.2012.0081
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2012.0081 [Google Scholar]
  45. Bowern, C. , Epps, P. , Gray, R. , Hill, J. , Hunley, K. , McConvell, P. , & Zentz, J.
    (2011) Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages?PLOS ONE, 6(9), e25195. 10.1371/journal.pone.0025195
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025195 [Google Scholar]
  46. Brinton, D. G.
    (1888) The language of palæolithic man. Press of McCalla & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Brüning, H. H.
    (2017) Diccionario etnográfico de la costa y la sierra norte del Perú ( M. Urban & R. Eloranta Barrera-Virhuez (Eds.)). Fondo Editorial, Facultad de Ciencias Histórico Sociales y Educación, Universidad Pedro Ruiz Gallo & Fondo Editorial, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Calancha, A.de la
    (1638) Coronica Moralizadora del Orden de San Avgustine n el Perv, con svcesos egenplares en esta monarqvia: Vol. I. Lacavalleria.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Campbell, L.
    (1994) Putting pronouns in proper perspective in proposals for remote relationships among Native American languages. In M. Langdon & L. Hinton (Eds.), Proceedings of the Meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous languages of the Americas July 2–4, 1993, and the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, July 3, 1993. Survey of California and Other Indian Languages. linguistics.berkeley.edu/~survey/documents/survey-reports/survey-report-8.01-campbell.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (1997) Amerind personal pronouns: A second opinion. Language, 73(2), 339–351. 10.2307/416022
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416022 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2012) Classification of the indigenous languages of South America. In L. Campbell & V. Grondona (Eds.), The indigenous languages of South America: A comprehensive guide (pp. 59–166). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110258035.59
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110258035.59 [Google Scholar]
  52. Carrera Daza, F. de la
    (1644) El Arte de la Lengva Yvnga de los valles del Obispado de Truxillo del Peru, con vn Confessionario, y todas las Oraciones Christianas, traducidas en la lengua, y otras cosas. Joseph Contreras.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Casamiquela, R. M.
    (1983) Nociones de gramática del gününa küne. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Cedergren, H. J. , & Sankoff, D.
    (1974) Variable rules: Performance as a statistical reflection of competence. Language, 50(2), 333. 10.2307/412441
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412441 [Google Scholar]
  55. Cerrón-Palomino, R.
    (1987) La flexión de persona y número en el protoquechua. INDIANA, 11, 263–276.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2000) Lingüística aimara. Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos Bartolomé de Las Casas (CBC).
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2003) Lingüística quechua (2nd ed.). Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos Bartolomé de Las Casas (CBC).
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2008) Quechumara: Estructuras paralelas del quechua y el aimara. Plural Editores.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. (2016) El uro de la bahía de Puno. Instituto Riva Agüero. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Chacon, T. C. , & Cayón, L. A.
    (2013) Considerações sobre a exogamia linguística no Noroeste Amazônico. Revista de Letras, 6(1/2), 6–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Chacon, T. C. , & List, J.-M.
    (2015) Improved computational models of sound change shed light on the history of the Tukanoan languages. Journal of Language Relationship, Вопросы Языкового Родства, 13(3), 177–203. 10.31826/jlr‑2016‑133‑404
    https://doi.org/10.31826/jlr-2016-133-404 [Google Scholar]
  62. Chantre y Herrera, J.
    (1901) Historia de las Misiones de la Compañía de Jesús en el Marañón Español. 1637–1767.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Chernela, J.
    (1989) Marriage, language, and history among eastern speaking peoples of the northwest Amazon. The Latin American Anthropology Review, 1(2), 36–41. 10.1525/jlat.1989.1.2.36
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlat.1989.1.2.36 [Google Scholar]
  64. Chomsky, N.
    (1957) Syntactic structures. Mouton. 10.1515/9783112316009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783112316009 [Google Scholar]
  65. (1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Church, W. B.
    (1996) Prehistoric cultural development and interregional interaction in the tropical Montane forests of Peru (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Yale University.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Cieza de León, P.
    (1553) Crónica del Peru: Tercera parte ( F. Cantù (Ed.); 1996 ed.). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Claassen, S. , & Rojas-Berscia, L. M.
    (n.d.) From SOV to SVO, ‘free’ word order in Shawi (Kawapanan).
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Clifford, J.
    (1988) The predicament of culture: Twentieth-century ethnography, literature, and art. Harvard University Press. 10.2307/j.ctvjf9x0h
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjf9x0h [Google Scholar]
  70. Conklin, N. F.
    (1981) The semantics and syntax in numeral classification in Tai and Austronesian (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Michigan.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Corbett, G. G.
    (2000) Number. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139164344
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164344 [Google Scholar]
  72. Croft, W.
    (2000) Explaining language change: An evolutionary approach. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Culqui Velásquez, J. T.
    (2004) Llacuash Rimac’na, diccionario Quechua – Español. Indugraph SRL.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Davis, I.
    (1966) Comparative Jê phonology. Estudos Lingüísticos, 1(2), 10–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. (1985) Some Macro-Jê relationships. In H. M. Klein & L. Stark (Eds.), South American Indian languages: Restrospect and prospect (pp. 287–303). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Dawkins, R.
    (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. De la Mata, P.
    (1748) Arte de la Lengua Cholona. Iberoamericana, Vervuert.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. de Santo Tomás, D.
    (1560) Grammatica or arte de la lengua general de los Indios de los Reynos del Peru. Francisco Fernandez de Cordoua, impressor de la M.R.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Diamond, J. , & Bellwood, P.
    (2003) Farmers and their languages: The first expansions. Science, 300(5619), 597–603. 10.1126/science.1078208
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1078208 [Google Scholar]
  80. Dittmar, N.
    (1976) Sociolinguistics: A critical survey of theory and application ( P. Sand , P. A. M. Seuren , & K. Whiteley , Trans.). Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Dixon, R. M. W.
    (1997) The rise and fall of languages. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511612060
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612060 [Google Scholar]
  82. Dixon, R. M. W. , & Aikhenvald, A. Y.
    (1999) The Amazonian languages. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Dradi, M. P.
    (1987) La mujer chayahuita: ¿un destino de marginación?; análisis de la condición femenina en una sociedad indígena de la Amazonía. Instituto Nacional de Planificación.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Drummond, A. J. , Ho, S. Y. W. , Phillips, M. J. , & Rambaut, A.
    (2006) Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biology, 4(5), e88. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088 [Google Scholar]
  85. Drummond, A. J. , Suchard, M. A. , Xie, D. , & Rambaut, A.
    (2012) Bayesian phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(8), 1969–1973. 10.1093/molbev/mss075
    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss075 [Google Scholar]
  86. Dryer, M. S.
    (1986) Primary objects, secondary objects, and antidative. Language, 62(4), 808–845. 10.2307/415173
    https://doi.org/10.2307/415173 [Google Scholar]
  87. Dryer, M. S. , & Haspelmath, M.
    (Eds.) (2013) The world atlas of language structures online. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://wals.info/
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Dunn, M. , Terrill, A. , Reesink, G. , Foley, R. A. , & Levinson, S. C.
    (2005) Structural phylogenetics and the reconstruction of ancient language history. Science, 309(5743), 2072–2075. 10.1126/science.1114615
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1114615 [Google Scholar]
  89. Echevarría López, G. T.
    (2010) Petrograbados en la cuenca del Río Cachiyacu. Una aproximación arqueológica en contexto industrial. Boletín Oficial de La Asociación Peruana de Arte Rupestre (APAR), 2(5), 70–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Eckert, P.
    (1989) The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change, 1, 245–267. 10.1017/S095439450000017X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000017X [Google Scholar]
  91. (2008) Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(4), 453–476. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00374.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00374.x [Google Scholar]
  92. (2012) Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology, 41(1), 87–100. 10.1146/annurev‑anthro‑092611‑145828
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145828 [Google Scholar]
  93. Eckert, P. , & Labov, W.
    (2017) Phonetics, phonology and social meaning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 21(4), 467–496. 10.1111/josl.12244
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12244 [Google Scholar]
  94. Eloranta Barrera-Virhuez, R.
    (2020) Mochica: Grammatical topics and external relations (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Leiden University.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Eloranta, R.
    (2012) Un análisis historiográfico de la ceategoría de clasificador numeral en ocho artes gramaticales de tradición hispánica (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Helsinki.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. (2017) Language contact across the Andes: The case of Mochica and Hibito-Cholón. In K. Dakin , C. Parodi , & N. Operstein (Eds.), Language contact and change in Mesoamerica and beyond. John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.185.15elo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.185.15elo [Google Scholar]
  97. Eloranta, R. , & Jolkesky, M.
    (in preparation) Attested interaction in the Marañón-Huallaga Basin: Contact beyond the Northern Peruvian Andes.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Enfield, N. J.
    (2014) Natural causes of language frames, biases and cultural transmission. Language Science Press. 10.26530/OAPEN_533873
    https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_533873 [Google Scholar]
  99. Epps, P.
    tbp Amazonian linguistic diversity and its sociocultural correlates. In M. Crevels & P. C. Muysken Eds. Language dispersal, diversification, and contact: A global perspective. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. (2006) Growing a numeral system: The historical development of numerals in an Amazonian language family. Diachronica, 23(2), 259–288. 10.1075/dia.23.2.03epp
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.23.2.03epp [Google Scholar]
  101. (2009) Language classification, language contact, and Amazonian prehistory. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3(2), 581–606. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2009.00126.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00126.x [Google Scholar]
  102. (2013) Inheritance, calquing, or independent innovation? Reconstructing morphological complexity in Amazonian numerals. Journal of Language Contact, 6(2), 329–357. 10.1163/19552629‑00602007
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-00602007 [Google Scholar]
  103. Epps, P. , Bowern, C. , Hansen, C. A. , Hill, J. H. , & Zentz, J.
    (2012) On numeral complexity in hunter-gatherer languages. Linguistic Typology, 16(1), 41–109. 10.1515/lity‑2012‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lity-2012-0002 [Google Scholar]
  104. Epps, P. , & Michael, L.
    (2017) The areal linguistics of Amazonia. In R. Hickey (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of areal linguistics (pp. 934–963). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107279872.033
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107279872.033 [Google Scholar]
  105. Epps, P. , & Salanova, A. P.
    (2013) The languages of Amazonia. Tipití, 11(1), 1–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Epps, P. , & Stenzel, K.
    (Eds.) (2013) Upper Rio Negro: Cultural and linguistic interaction in northwestern Amazonia. Museo do Índio - FUNAI.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Eriksen, L. , & Danielsen, S.
    (2014) The Arawak matrix. In L. O’Connor & P. C. Muysken , The native languages of South America: Origins, development, typology (pp. 152–176). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Estabrook, G. F. , McMorris, F. R. , & Meacham, C. A.
    (1985) Comparison of undirected phylogenetic trees based on subtrees of four evolutionary units. Systematic Zoology, 34(2), 193–200. 10.2307/2413326
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2413326 [Google Scholar]
  109. Evans, N.
    (1988) Arguments for Pama-Nyungan as a genetic sub-group, with particular reference to initial laminalization. In N. Evans & S. Johnson (Eds.), Aboriginal linguistics 1 (pp. 91–110). Department of Linguistics, University of New England.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Evans, N.
    (2003) Bininj Gun-wok: A pan-dialectal grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and Kune. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. (2016) As intimate as it gets: Paradigm borrowing in Marrku and its implications for the emergence of mixed languages. Loss and Lenewal: Australian Languages Since Colonisation, 13, 29. 10.1515/9781614518792‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614518792-008 [Google Scholar]
  112. Facundes, S. da S.
    (2002) Historical linguistics and its contribution to improving the knowledge of Arawak. In J. D. Hill & F. Santos-Granero (Eds.), Comparative Arawakan histories (pp. 74–98). University of Illinois Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Farfán Reto, H.
    (2011) Clasificadores en shiwilu (jebero): Organización semántica y morfosintáctica (Unpublished Licenciate dissertation). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Faust, N.
    (1972) Gramática Cocama: Lecciones para el aprendizaje del idioma cocama (Vol. 6). Ministerio de Educación & Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Figueroa, F. de , & Acuña, C. de.
    (1986) Informes de jesuitas en el Amazonas (repr. 1660–1684). Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonía Peruana, Centro de Estudios Teológicos de la Amazonía.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Fishman, J.
    (1970) Sociolinguistics: A brief introduction. Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Fleck, D. W.
    (2013) Panoan languages and linguistics. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 1–112. 10.5531/sp.anth.0099
    https://doi.org/10.5531/sp.anth.0099 [Google Scholar]
  118. Floyd, S.
    (2013) Semantic transparency and cultural calquing in the Northwest Amazon. InUpper Rio Negro: Cultural and linguistic interaction in northwestern Amazonia (pp. 271–308). Museu do Indio.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Foley, W.
    (2007) A typology of information packaging in the clause. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description (pp. 362–446). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511619427.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619427.007 [Google Scholar]
  120. Franchetto, B.
    (2011) Evidências linguísticas para o entendimento de uma sociedade multilíngue: O Alto Xingu. In B. Franchetto (Ed.), Alto Xingu: Uma sociedade multilíngue (pp. 3–38). Museo do Índio - Funai.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. François, A.
    (2014) Trees, waves and linkages: Models of language diversification. In C. Bowern & B. Evans (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of historical linguistics (pp. 161–189). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Fritz, S.
    (2016) El Vocabulario de la lengua xebera, una doctrina critiana en xebero y quechua, y la gramatica de la lengua xebera ( A. Alexander-Bakkerus (Ed.)). Iberoamericana, Vervuert.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Fuentes, A.
    (1988) Porque las piedras no mueren. Centro Amazónico de Antropología y Aplicación Práctica.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Gabas Jr., N.
    (2006) Tupían languages. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 146–150). Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/02299‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02299-9 [Google Scholar]
  125. Garrett, A.
    (1999) A new model of Indo-European subgrouping and dispersal. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 25(1), 146–156. 10.3765/bls.v25i1.1180
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v25i1.1180 [Google Scholar]
  126. Gibson, M. L.
    (1996) El Munichi: Un idioma que se extingue. Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Gildea, S.
    (1998) On reconstructing grammar: Comparative Cariban morphosyntax. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Gomez-Imbert, E.
    (1991) Force des langues vernaculaires en situation d’exogamie linguistique: Le cas du Vaupès colombien, Nord-Ouest amazonien. Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, 27(3–4), 535–559.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Gong, H.
    (2002) Hàn Zàng yǔ yánjiū lùnwén jí 漢藏語硏究論文集 [Collected papers on Sino-Tibetan linguistics]. Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Gordon de Powlison, E. , Hart, H. , & Hart, G.
    (1976) La fonología del chayahuita. InDatos etno-lingüísticos: Colección de los archivos del ILV (Vol. 28). Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Greenberg, J. H.
    (1960) General classification of Central and South American languages. In A. Wallace (Ed.), Men and cultures: Fifth international congress of anthropological and ethnological sciences (1956) (pp. 791–794). University of Pennsylvania Press. 10.9783/9781512819526‑121
    https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512819526-121 [Google Scholar]
  132. (1987) Language in the Americas. Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Greenhill, S. J. , Atkinson, Q. D. , Meade, A. , & Gray, R. D.
    (2010) The shape and tempo of language evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1693), 2443–2450. 10.1098/rspb.2010.0051
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0051 [Google Scholar]
  134. Grollemund, R. , Branford, S. , Bostoen, K. , Meade, A. , Venditti, C. , & Pagel, M.
    (2015) Bantu expansion shows that habitat alters the route and pace of human dispersals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(43), 13296–13301. 10.1073/pnas.1503793112
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503793112 [Google Scholar]
  135. Guidon, N. , & Delibrias, G.
    (1986) Carbon-14 dates point to man in the Americas 32,000 years ago. Nature, 321(6072), 769–771. 10.1038/321769a0
    https://doi.org/10.1038/321769a0 [Google Scholar]
  136. Guillaume, A.
    (2016) Associated motion in South America: Typological and areal perspectives. Linguistic Typology, 20(1), 81–177. 10.1515/lingty‑2016‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2016-0003 [Google Scholar]
  137. Guillaume, A. , & Rose, F.
    (2010) Sociative causative in South American languages: A possible areal feature. In F. Floricic (Ed.), Essais de typologie et de linguistique générale. Mélanges offertes a Denis Creissels (pp. 383–402). ENS Éditions.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Gumperz, J. J.
    (1970) Language in social groups: Essays by John J. Gumperz ( A. S. Dil (Ed.)). Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Gumperz, J. J. , & Hymes, D.
    (Eds.) (1972) Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Gundel, J. K. , & Fretheim, T.
    (2006) Topic and focus. In L. R. Horn & G. Ward (Eds.), The Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 175–196). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756959.ch8
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756959.ch8 [Google Scholar]
  141. Gupta, A. , & Ferguson, J.
    (1997) Beyond ‘culture’: Space, identity, and the politics of difference. In A. Gupta & J. Ferguson (Eds.), Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology. Duke University Press. 10.1215/9780822382089‑001
    https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822382089-001 [Google Scholar]
  142. Gussenhoven, C. , & Jacobs, H.
    (2011) Understanding phonology (3rd ed.). Hodder Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Hammarström, H. , Forkel, R. , & Haspelmath, M.
    (2018) Glottolog (version 3.3) [Computer software]. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. glottolog.org
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Hardman, M. J.
    (1983) Jaqaru, compendio de estructura fonológica y morfológica. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos e Instituto Indigenista Interamericano.
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Harris, R. A.
    (1993) The linguistics wars. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Hart, H.
    (1988) Diccionario Chayahuita-Castellano Castellano Chayahuita: Canponanquë nisha nisha nonacaso. SIL International.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Haspelmath, M.
    (2005) Argument marking in ditransitive alignment types. Linguistic Discovery, 3(1). 10.1349/PS1.1537‑0852.A.280
    https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.280 [Google Scholar]
  148. Haspelmath, M. , & Tadmor, U.
    (Eds.) (2009) WOLD. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. wold.clld.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Heggarty, P. , Maguire, W. , & McMahon, A.
    (2010) Splits or waves? Trees or webs? How divergence measures and network analysis can unravel language histories. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1559), 3829–3843. 10.1098/rstb.2010.0099
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0099 [Google Scholar]
  150. Heggarty, Paul , & Beresford-Jones, D. G.
    (2010) Archaeology, language, and the Andean past: Principles, methods, and the new ‘State of the Art’. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, 14, 29–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Heine, B. , & Kuteva, T.
    (2002) World lexicon of grammaticalization. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511613463
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613463 [Google Scholar]
  152. Herndon, L. W. M. , & Gibbon, L.
    (1854) Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, made under direction of the Navy Department (Vol. 1). Robert Armstrong, Public Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Hervás, L.
    (1787) Saggio pratico delle lingue. Gregorio Biasini all’Insegna di Pallade.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Hildebrandt, K. A. , Jany, C. , & Silva, W.
    (2017) Documenting variation in endangered languages. University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Hovdhaugen, E.
    (2004) Mochica. Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática
    (2009) Censos nacionales 2007: XI de población y VI de vivienda: Vol. Resumen ejecutivo: Resultados definitivos de las comunidades indígenas. Dirección Nacional de Censos y Encuestas: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI).
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Jacques, G.
    (2006) La morphologie du sino-tibétain. La linguistique comparée aujourd’hui, EHESS, Mar 2006, Paris, France. ffhalshs-00173948
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Janhunen, J.
    (2009) Proto-Uralic – What, where, and when?In J. Ylikoski (Ed.), The Quasquicentennial of the Finno-Ugrian Society (pp. 57–58). Société Finno-Ougrienne Helsinki.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Jolkesky, M.
    (2016) Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Unpublished Tese de Doutorado). Universidade de Brasília. 10.26512/2016.02.T.21671
    https://doi.org/10.26512/2016.02.T.21671 [Google Scholar]
  160. Kamo no Chōmei
    (2007) An account of a ten-foot-square hut. In H. Shirane (Ed.) & A. H. Chambers (Trans.), Traditional Japanese literature: An anthology. Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Kaufman, T.
    (1990) Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D.L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. (1994) The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world’s languages (pp. 46–76). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Key, M. R. , & Comrie, B.
    (Eds.) (2015) Intercontinental dictionary series. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. ids.clld.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Kilarski, M.
    (2013) Nominal classification: A history of its study from the classical period to the present. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sihols.121
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sihols.121 [Google Scholar]
  165. Kochetov, A. , & Alderete, J.
    (2011) Patterns and scales of expressive palatalization: Experimental evidence from Japanese. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La Revue Canadienne de Linguistique, 56(3), 345–376. 10.1017/S0008413100002048
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008413100002048 [Google Scholar]
  166. Kohlberger, M.
    (2020) A grammatical description of Shiwiar [PhD Thesis, Leiden Universiteit]. https://www.lotpublications.nl/a-grammatical-description-of-shiwiar
    [Google Scholar]
  167. (2016) Prescriptivism as a nation-building tool in the Upper Amazon: The case of Shiwiar. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(3), 263–273. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1068785
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1068785 [Google Scholar]
  168. Kroeber, A. L.
    (1913) The determination of linguistic relationship. Anthropos, 8(2/3), 389–401.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Labov, W.
    (1966) The social stratification of English in New York City. Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. (1972) Sociolinguistic patterns. University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Lakoff, R.
    (1989) The way we were; or; the real actual truth about generative semantics: A memoir. Journal of Pragmatics, 13(6), 939–988. 10.1016/0378‑2166(89)90016‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(89)90016-7 [Google Scholar]
  172. Le Page, R. B. , & Tabouret-Keller, A.
    (2006) Acts of identity: Creole-based approached to language and ethnicity. E.M.E. & Intercommunications S.P.R.L.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Lejeune, M.
    (1974) Manuel de la langue vénète. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  174. León Zaldívar, R.
    (1920) Léxico de piuranismos.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Lerche, P.
    (1995) Los chachapoya y los símbolos de su historia. P. Lerche.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Liefrink, F.
    (1973) Semantico-Syntax. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. List, J.-M. , Greenhill, S. , & Forkel, R.
    (2017) LingPy. A Python library for historical linguistics (version 2.6) [Computer software]. lingpy.org
  178. Loukotka, Č.
    (1968) Classification of South American Indian languages ( J. Wilbert (Ed.)). Latin American Center, University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Lucero, J. S. J.
    (n.d.) Gramática y Catecismo de muchas lenguas de Quito, y principalmente de los idiomas Paranapuro y Cocamo.
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Lüpke, F.
    (2016a) Pure fiction – The interplay of indexical and essentialist language ideologies and heterogeneous practices A view from Agnack. In M. Seyfeddinipur (Ed.), African language documentation: New data, methods and approached (pp. 8–39). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. (2016b) Uncovering small-scale multilingualism. Critical Multilingualism, 4(2), 35–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. (2017) African(ist) perspectives on vitality: Fluidity, small speaker numbers, and adaptive multilingualism make vibrant ecologies (Response to Mufwene). Language, 93(4), e275–e279. 10.1353/lan.2017.0071
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2017.0071 [Google Scholar]
  183. Macklin-Cordes, J. L. , & Round, E. R.
    (2015) High-definition phonotactics reflect linguistic pasts. Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Quantitative Investigations in Theoretical Linguistics, Tübingen, Germany.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Madalengoitia Barúa, M. G.
    (2013) Bosquejo fonológico de la lengua jebero (shiwilu) (Tesis de licenciatura, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú). www.etnolinguistica.org/tese:barua-2013
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Maddieson, I.
    (1984) Patterns of sounds. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511753459
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753459 [Google Scholar]
  186. Malchukov, A. L.
    (2004) Nominalization/verbalization, constraining a typology of transcategorial operations. Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. (2006) Constraining nominalization: Function/form competition. Linguistics, 44, 973–1009. 10.1515/LING.2006.032
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LING.2006.032 [Google Scholar]
  188. Malvestitti, M. , & Orden, M. E.
    (2014) Günün a yajütshü: El Vocabulario Puelche documentado por Roberto Lehmann-Nitsche. Universidad Nacional de la Pampa.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Mansfield, J. B.
    (2015) Consonant lenition as a sociophonetic variable in Murrinh Patha (Australia). Language Variation and Change, 27(2), 203–225. 10.1017/S0954394515000046
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394515000046 [Google Scholar]
  190. Martínez Compañón, B. J.
    (1783) Trujillo del Perú. Volumen 1 | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra/trujillo-del-peru--volumen-i/
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Matras, Y.
    (2007) The borrowability of structural categories. In Y. Matras & J. Sakel (Eds.), Grammatical borrowing in cross-linguistic perspective (p. 44). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199192.31
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199192.31 [Google Scholar]
  192. (2009) Language contact. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  193. McCawley, J. D.
    (1970) English as a VSO language. Language, 46(2), 286–299. 10.2307/412279
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412279 [Google Scholar]
  194. McGregor, W.
    (1998) ‘Optional’ ergative marking in Gooniyadi revisited: Implications to the theory of marking. Leuvens Contributions in Linguistics, 87(3–4), 491–571.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Meakins, F.
    (2011) Case-marking in contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol. John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.39 [Google Scholar]
  196. Meakins, F.
    (2012) Which mix – Code-switching or a mixed language? – Gurindji Kriol. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 27(1), 105–140. 10.1075/jpcl.27.1.03mea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.27.1.03mea [Google Scholar]
  197. (2013) Mixed languages. In P. Bakker & Y. Matras (Eds.), Contact languages: A comprehensive guide (pp. 159–228). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614513711.159
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513711.159 [Google Scholar]
  198. (2014) Language contact varieties. In H. Koch & R. Nordlinger (Eds.), The languages and linguistics of Australia: A comprehensive guide (pp. 365–416). Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110279771.365
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110279771.365 [Google Scholar]
  199. Meakins, F. , Hua, X. , Algy, C. , & Bromham, L.
    (2019) Birth of a contact language did not favor simplification. Language, 95(2), 294–332. 10.1353/lan.2019.0032
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2019.0032 [Google Scholar]
  200. Meira, S.
    (2006) Cariban languages. In K. Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 199–203). Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/02294‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02294-X [Google Scholar]
  201. Meira, S. , & Franchetto, B.
    (2005) The southern Cariban languages and the Cariban family. International Journal of American Linguistics, 71(2), 127–192. 10.1086/491633
    https://doi.org/10.1086/491633 [Google Scholar]
  202. Michael, L.
    (2014) On the Pre-Columbian origin of Proto-Omagua-Kokama. Journal of Language Contact, 7(2), 309–344. 10.1163/19552629‑00702004
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-00702004 [Google Scholar]
  203. Michael, L. D. , Beier, C. , Sullón Acosta, K. , Farmer, S. , Finley, G. , & Roswell, M.
    (2009) Una breve descripción del idioma muniche. Cabeceras Aid Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Middendorf, E. W.
    (1892) Das Muchik oder die Chimu-Sprache. Mit einer Einleidung über die Culturvölker, die gleichzeitig mit den Inkas und Aimaràs in Südamerika lebten, und einem Anhang über die Chibcha-Sprache. F. A. Brockhaus.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Milroy, J. , & Milroy, L.
    (1978) Belfast: Change and variation in an urban vernacular. In P. Trudgill (Ed.), Sociolinguistic patterns in British English (pp. 19–36). Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Morales Chocano, D.
    (2001) Aportes amazónicos al formativo andino. Investigaciones sociales, 8, 35–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Mufwene, S. S.
    (1996) The founder principle in Creole genesis. Diachronica, 13(1), 83–134. 10.1075/dia.13.1.05muf
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.13.1.05muf [Google Scholar]
  208. (2005) Language evolution: The population genetics way. In G. Hauska (Ed.), Gene, Sprachen, und ihre Evolution (pp. 30–52). Universitätsverlag Regensburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. (2008) Language evolution: Contact, competition and change. Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. (2018) Language evolution from an ecological perspective. In A. F. Fill & H. Penz (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of ecolinguistics (Vol. 13, pp. 73–88). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Müller, F. M.
    (1861) Lectures on the science of language. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Muysken, P. C.
    (2001) Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  213. (2004) Cholón. In W. F. H. Adelaar , The languages of the Andes (pp. 460–475). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  214. (2010) Scenarios for language contact. In R. Hickey (Ed.), The handbook of language contact (pp. 265–281). Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444318159.ch13
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444318159.ch13 [Google Scholar]
  215. (2012) Modelling the Quechua-Aymara relationship: Sociolinguistic scenarios and possible archaeological evidence. In P. Heggarty & D. Beresford-Jones (Eds.), Archaeology and language in the Andes (pp. 83–107). Oxford University Press. 10.5871/bacad/9780197265031.003.0004
    https://doi.org/10.5871/bacad/9780197265031.003.0004 [Google Scholar]
  216. Muysken, P. C. , Hammarström, H. , Birchall, J. , Danielsen, S. , Eriksen, L. , Galucio, A. V. , van Gijn, R. , van de Kerke, S. , Kolipakam, V. , Krasnoukhova, O. , Müller, N. , & O’Connor, L.
    (2014) The languages of South America: Deep families, areal relationships, and language contact. In L. O’Connor & P. C. Muysken (Eds.), The native languages of South America: Origins, development, typology. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Muysken, P. C. , & O’Connor, L.
    (Eds.) (2014) The native languages of South America. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Muysken, P. C. , & Smith, N.
    (1994) The study of pidgin and creole languages. InPidgins and Creoles: An introduction, J. Arends , P. C. Muysken , & N. Smith (Eds.) (pp. 3–14). John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.15.05muy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.15.05muy [Google Scholar]
  219. Myers-Scotton, C.
    (2000) What matters: The out of sight in mixed languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(2), 119–121. 10.1017/S1366728900280218
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728900280218 [Google Scholar]
  220. (2006) Natural codeswitching knocks on the laboratory door. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9(2), 203–212. 10.1017/S1366728906002549
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728906002549 [Google Scholar]
  221. Myers-Scotton, C. , & Jake, J. L.
    (2000) Testing the 4-M model: An introduction. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(1), 1–8. 10.1177/13670069000040010101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069000040010101 [Google Scholar]
  222. Nichols, J. , & Peterson, D. A.
    (1996) The Amerind personal pronouns. Language, 72(2), 336–371. 10.2307/416653
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416653 [Google Scholar]
  223. (1998) Amerind personal pronouns: A reply to Campbell. Language, 74(3), 605–614. 10.1353/lan.1998.0126
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1998.0126 [Google Scholar]
  224. Nikulin, A.
    (2020) Proto-Macro-Jê: Um estudo reconstrutivo (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Universidade de Brasília.
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Ochoa Siguas, N.
    (2016) Los piyapi yamorai o ‘gente del río de la sal’. Los últimos proveedores de sal del Paranapuras, Alto Amazonas, Perú. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines, 45 (1), 91–108. 10.4000/bifea.7819
    https://doi.org/10.4000/bifea.7819 [Google Scholar]
  226. Ochoa-Gilonne, N.
    (2007) Entre plusieurs mondes. Les Chayahuita de l’Amazonie (Unpublished PhD dissertation). EHESS.
    [Google Scholar]
  227. O’Connor, L. , & Muysken, P. C.
    (2014) The native languages of South America origins, development, typology. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Orr, C. , & Longacre, R. E.
    (1968) Proto-Quechumaran. Language, 44(3), 528–555. 10.2307/411720
    https://doi.org/10.2307/411720 [Google Scholar]
  229. O’Shannessy, C. , & Meakins, F.
    (2016) Australian language contact in historical and synchronic perspective. Loss and Renewal: Australian Languages Since Colonisation, 13, 3–26. 10.1515/9781614518792‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614518792-007 [Google Scholar]
  230. Osthoff, H. , & Brugmann, K.
    (1878) Morphologische Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen (Vol. 1). Hirzel.
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Overall, S. E.
    (2017) A Grammar of Aguaruna. De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Park, M. , Weber, N. , & CenepoS. V.
    (1976) Diccionario Quechua de San Martín. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP).
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Parker, G. J.
    (2013) Trabajos de lingüística histórica Quechua ( R. Cerrón-Palomino (Ed.)). Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Parker, S.
    (1994) Coda Epenthesis in Huariapano. International Journal of American Linguistics, 60(2), 95–119. 10.1086/466224
    https://doi.org/10.1086/466224 [Google Scholar]
  235. Paul, H.
    (1909) Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte. Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Payne, D. L.
    (1990) Some widespread grammatical forms in South American languages. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 75–87). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  237. (1991) A classification of Maipuran (Arawakan) languages based on shared lexical retentions. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian languages (Vol. 3, pp. 354–499). De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Payne, T. E.
    (1997) Describing morphosyntax: A guide for field linguists. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511805066
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805066 [Google Scholar]
  239. Pemberton, T. J. , DeGiorgio, M. , & Rosenberg, N. A.
    (2013) Population structure in a comprehensive genomic data set on human microsatellite variation. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 3(5), 891–907. 10.1534/g3.113.005728
    https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.113.005728 [Google Scholar]
  240. Peña, J.
    (2016) A grammar of Wampis. PhD dissertation. University of Oregonscholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/19730
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Peyró García, M.
    (2005) Estructuras gramaticales en el glosario de la lengua Atacameña (1896). LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 5, 25–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Pike, K. L.
    (1959) Language as particle, wave, and field. The Texas Quarterly, 2(2), 37–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Pompei, S. , Loreto, V. , & Tria, F.
    (2011) On the accuracy of language trees. PLOS ONE, 6(6), e20109. 10.1371/journal.pone.0020109
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020109 [Google Scholar]
  244. Quilter, J. , Zender, M. , Spalding, K. , Jordán, R. F. , Mora, C. G. , & Murga, J. C.
    (2010) Traces of a lost language and number system discovered on the north coast of Peru. American Anthropologist, 112(3), 357–369. 10.1111/j.1548‑1433.2010.01245.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1433.2010.01245.x [Google Scholar]
  245. Rabinowitz, J.
    (1983) La lengua Pescadora: The lost dialect of Chimu fishermen. In D. Sandweiss (Ed.), Latin American studies program (pp. 243–267). Cornell University.
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Rambaut, A. , & Drummond, A. J.
    (2012) Tracer (version 1.5). beast.community
  247. (2017) TreeAnnotator (version 2.4.7) [Computer software]. beast.community/treeannotator
  248. Reeve, M.-E.
    (1994) Regional interaction in the western Amazon: The early colonial encounter and the Jesuit years: 1538–1767. Ethnohistory, 41(1), 106–138. 10.2307/3536980
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3536980 [Google Scholar]
  249. Reich, D. , Patterson, N. , Campbell, D. , Tandon, A. , Mazieres, S. , Ray, N. , Parra, M. V. , Rojas, W. , Duque, C. , Mesa, N. , García, L. F. , Triana, O. , Blair, S. , Maestre, A. , Dib, J. C. , Bravi, C. M. , Bailliet, G. , Corach, D. , Hünemeier, T. , … Ruiz-Linares, A.
    (2012) Reconstructing native American population history. Nature, 488(7411), 370–374. 10.1038/nature11258
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11258 [Google Scholar]
  250. Ribeiro, E. R. , & van der Voort, H.
    (2010) Nimuendajú was right: The inclusion of the Jabutí language family in the Macro-Jê stock. International Journal of American Linguistics, 76(4), 517–570. 10.1086/658056
    https://doi.org/10.1086/658056 [Google Scholar]
  251. Rivas Panduro, S.
    (2000) Identificación y desciframiento de los petroglifos de Balsapuerto: Una aproximación desde la perspectiva chayahuita. Municipalidad Distrital de Balsapuerto, Alto Amazonas.
    [Google Scholar]
  252. (2003) Los asentamientos prehispánicos de la cuencia del río Cachiyacu -Amazonía Peruana-. Instituto Cultural Rvna.
    [Google Scholar]
  253. (2014) Arqueología de la cuenca del Paranpura/Archaeology of the Paranapura Basin. In N. Pitman , C. Vriesendorp , D. Alvira , J. A. Markel , M. Johnston , E. Ruelas Izunza , A. Lancha Pizango , G. Sarmiento Valenzuela , P. Álvarez-Loayza , J. Homan , T. Wachter , Á. del Campo , F. Stotz , & S. Heilpern (Eds.), Perú: Cordillera Escalera-Loreto. Rapid biological and social inventories report 26 (pp. 204–210, 389–395 and 528–529). The Field Museum.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Rodrigues, A. D.
    (1985) Evidence for Tupi-Carib relationships. In H. E. M. Klein & L. R. Stark (Eds.), South American Indian languages: Retrospect and prospect (pp. 371–404). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  255. (1999a) Macro-Jê. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), The Amazonian languages (pp. 165–206). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  256. (1999b) Tupí. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), The Amazonian languages (pp. 107–124). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  257. (2000) ‘Ge-Pano-Karib’ X ‘Jê-Tupí-Karib’: Sobre relaciones lingüísticas prehistóricas en Sudamérica. In L. Miranda (Ed.), Actas del I Congreso de Lenguas Indígenas de Sudamérica: Vol. Tomo I (pp. 95–104). Universidad Ricardo Palma, Facultad de Lenguas Modernas.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Rodrigues, A. D.
    (2009) A case of affinity among Tupí, Karíb, and Macro-Jê. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Antropológica, 1(1). 10.26512/rbla.v1i1.12289
    https://doi.org/10.26512/rbla.v1i1.12289 [Google Scholar]
  259. Rodrigues, A. D. , & Cabral, A. S. A. C.
    (2007) Através do léxico Macro-Jê: Em busca de cognatos. In A. D. Rodrigues & A. S. A. C. Cabral (Eds.), Línguas e culturas Macro-Jê (pp. 175–179). Editora Universidade de Brasilia.
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Rojas-Berscia, L. M.
    (ms.). Selk’nam as an SOV language. In L. M. Rojas-Berscia & P. A. M. Seuren Eds. Case studies in Semantic Syntax.
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Rojas-Berscia, L. M.
    (2013) La sintaxis y semántica de las construcciones causativas en el chayahuita de Balsapuerto (Unpublished Licentiate thesis). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Rojas-Berscia, L. M.
    (2014) A heritage reference grammar of Selk’nam (Unpublished MA thesis). Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
    [Google Scholar]
  263. (2015) Mayna, the lost Kawapanan language. LIAMES, 15, 393–407. 10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642308
    https://doi.org/10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642308 [Google Scholar]
  264. (2017) Fritz, Samuel (?). El vocabulario de la lengua xebera, una doctrina cristiana en xebero y quechua, y la gramática de la lengua xebera (siglo XVIII). A. Alexander-Bakkerus (edición y estudio). Iberoamericana Vervuert 2016 152 pp. Lexis, 40(2), 479–489.
    [Google Scholar]
  265. (2019a) From Kawapanan to Shawi: Topics in language variation and change. Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  266. (2019b) Nominalization in Shawi (Chayahuita). In R. Zariquiey , D. W. Fleck , & M. Shibatani (Eds.), Nominalization in the languages of the Americas (pp. 491–514). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.124.13roj
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.124.13roj [Google Scholar]
  267. (2020) The Chachapuya language and Proto-Kawapanan: Lexical affinities and hypothetical contact scenarios. INDIANA, 34(1), 155–188.
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , & Bourdeau, C.
    (2018) ‘Optional’ or syntactic ergativity in Shawi: Distribution and possible origins. Linguistic Discovery, 15(1), 50–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , & Ghavami Dicker, S.
    (2015) Teonimia en el Alto Amazonas, el caso de Kanpunama. Escritura y Pensamiento, 18(36), 117–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , Lehecka, T. , Claassen, S. A. , Peute, A. A. K. , Escobedo, M. P. , Escobedo, S. P. , Tangoa, A. H. , & Pizango, E. Y.
    (2022) Embedding in Shawi narrations: A quantitative analysis of embedding in a post-colonial Amazonian indigenous society. Language in Society, 51(3), 427–451. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404521000634
    https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404521000634 [Google Scholar]
  271. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , Napurí, A. , & Wang, L.
    (2019) Shawi (Chayahuita). Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1–14. 10.1017/S0025100318000415
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100318000415 [Google Scholar]
  272. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , & Nikulin, A.
    (2016, May26). Nuevos alcances para la reconstrucción léxica y fonológica del proto-cahuapana y más allá. Coloquio Amazónicas VI - Simposio de fonología. Coloquio Amazónicas VI - Simposio de fonología, Leticia.
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , & Piepers, J.
    (in preparation) The valency changing operator -te: The Arawak Flux hypothesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  274. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. R. , & Eloranta, R.
    (2019) The Marañón-Huallaga exchange route: ‘stones’ and ‘grains’ as counting devices. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 19, e019011–e019011. 10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655449
    https://doi.org/10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655449 [Google Scholar]
  275. Rojas-Berscia, L. M. , & Roberts, S.
    (2020) Exploring the history of pronouns in South America with computer-assisted methods. Journal of Language Evolution, 5(1), 54–74. 10.1093/jole/lzz006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jole/lzz006 [Google Scholar]
  276. Ross, M. D.
    (1992) The sound of Proto-Austronesian: An outsider’s view of the Formosan evidence. Oceanic Linguistics, 31(1), 23–64. 10.2307/3622965
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3622965 [Google Scholar]
  277. (2015) Reconstructing proto Austronesian verb classes. Language and Linguistics, 16(3), 279–345. 10.1177/1606822X15569162
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1606822X15569162 [Google Scholar]
  278. Ruhlen, M.
    (1987) A guide to the world’s languages, Vol. 1: classification. Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  279. Saad, G.
    (2014) A grammar sketch of Shuar (Unpublished MA thesis). Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Salas, J. A.
    (2012) El sistema de clasificadores numerales del Cholón. Boletín de la Academia Peruana de la Lengua, 54, 87–138. 10.46744/bapl.201202.003
    https://doi.org/10.46744/bapl.201202.003 [Google Scholar]
  281. Salminen, T.
    (2001) The rise of the Finno-Ugric language family. In C. Carpelan , A. Parpola , & P. Koskikallio (Eds.), Early contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and archaeological considerations (pp. 385–396). Suomalias-Ugrilainen Seura.
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Sankoff, D. , & Labov, W.
    (1979) On the uses of variable rules. Language in Society, 8(2), 189–222. 10.1017/S0047404500007430
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500007430 [Google Scholar]
  283. Santos-Granero, F.
    (2002) The Arawakan matrix: Ethos, language, and history in native South America. In J. D. Hill & F. Santos-Granero (Eds.), Comparative Arawakan histories: Rethinking language family and culture area in Amazonia (pp. 25–50). University of Illinois Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Sapir, Edward
    (1929) The status of linguistics as a science. Language, 207–214. 10.2307/409588
    https://doi.org/10.2307/409588 [Google Scholar]
  285. Sasse, H.-J.
    (2015) Syntactic categories and subcategories. In T. Kiss & A. Alexiadou (Eds.), Syntax – Theory and analysis. An international handbook (Vol. 3, pp. 158–217). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110377408.158
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110377408.158 [Google Scholar]
  286. Schachter, P. , & Shopen, T.
    (2007) Parts-of-speech systems. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description (Vol. I). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511619427.001
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619427.001 [Google Scholar]
  287. Schjellerup, I. R.
    (2005) Incas y españoles en la conquista de los Chachapoya. Fondo Editorial, PUCP & Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos. 10.4000/books.ifea.4903
    https://doi.org/10.4000/books.ifea.4903 [Google Scholar]
  288. Schleicher, A.
    (1863) Die Darwinsche Theorie und die Sprachwissenschaft: Offenes Sendschreiben an Herrn Dr. Ernst Häckel. Böhlau.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. (1868) Eine fabel in indogermanischer ursprache. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung, 5, 206–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Schmidt, J.
    (1872) Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der indogermanischen Sprachen. Böhlau.
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Schuchardt, H.
    (1885) Ueber die Lautgesetze. Gegen die Junggrammatiker. Oppenheim.
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Seki, L.
    (1999) The Upper Xingu as an incipient linguistic area. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), The Amazonian languages (pp. 415–430). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  293. (2011) Alto Xingu: Uma área linguística. In B. Franchetto (Ed.), Alto Xingu, uma sociedade multilíngue (pp. 57–85). Museo do Índio - Funai.
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Senft, G.
    (1993) A grammaticalization hypothesis on the origin of Kilivila classificatory particles. Sprachtypologie Und Universalienforschung, 46, 100–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  295. (1996) Classificatory particles in Kilivila. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Seuren, P. A. M.
    (1972) Autonomous versus semantic syntax. Foundations of Language, 8(2), 237–265.
    [Google Scholar]
  297. (1982) Internal variability in competence. Linguistische Berichte, 77, 1–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. (1993) The question of predicate clefting in the Indian Ocean Creoles. In F. Byrne & D. Windford (Eds.), Focus and grammatical relations in Creole languages (pp. 53–64). John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.12.06seu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.12.06seu [Google Scholar]
  299. (1998) Western linguistics: An historical introduction. Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444307467
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444307467 [Google Scholar]
  300. (2009) Language in cognition, Vol.1: Language from within. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559473.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559473.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  301. (2018a) Semantic syntax (2nd rev. ed.). Brill. 10.1163/9789004354296
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004354296 [Google Scholar]
  302. Seuren, P. A. M.
    (2018b) Saussure and Sechehaye: Myth and genius: A study in the history of linguistics and the foundations of language. Brill. 10.1163/9789004378155
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004378155 [Google Scholar]
  303. Seuren, P. A. M. , & Hamans, C.
    (2010) Antifunctionality in language change. Folia Linguistica, 44(1). 10.1515/flin.2010.005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2010.005 [Google Scholar]
  304. Seuren, P. A. M. , & Wekker, H.
    (1986) Semantic transparency as a factor in Creole genesis. In P. C. Muysken & N. Smith (Eds.), Substrata versus universals in Creole genesis: Papers from the Amsterdam Creole Workshop, April 1985 (pp. 57–70). John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.1.05seu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.1.05seu [Google Scholar]
  305. Sgall, P. , Hajičová, E. , & Benešová, E.
    (1973) Topic, focus and generative semantics. Scriptor.
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Shibatani, M. , & Pardeshi, P.
    (2002) The causative continuum. InThe grammar of causation and interpersonal manipulation (pp. 85–126). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.48.07shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.48.07shi [Google Scholar]
  307. Silverstein, M.
    (2003) Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language & Communication, 23(3–4), 193–229. 10.1016/S0271‑5309(03)00013‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00013-2 [Google Scholar]
  308. Sobreviela, M. , Álvarez de Villanueva, F. , & Gómez, V.
    (1787) Diario y mapa del de la Visita que el Guardían del Colegio de Misiones de Ocopa Fr. Manuel Sobreviela ha hecho con otros diferentes religiosos de su orden a las conversiones situadas en las fronteras de las montañas de Huánuco y Pataz o Cajamarquilla. In B. Izaguirre , Historia de las Misiones Franciscanas y Narración de los progresos de la Geografía en el Oriente del Perú (Vol. 6). Talleres Tipográficos de la Penitenciaría.
    [Google Scholar]
  309. Solís Fonseca, G.
    (2017) Tras los pasos del idioma quingnam. Lengua y Sociedad, 15(2), 5–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  310. Sorensen, A. P.
    (1967) Multilingualism in the Northwest Amazon1. American Anthropologist, 69(6), 670–684. 10.1525/aa.1967.69.6.02a00030
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1967.69.6.02a00030 [Google Scholar]
  311. Soto Ruiz, C.
    (1976) Gramática quechua: Ayacucho-Chanca. IEP.
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Starostin, S. , & Peiros, I.
    (1996) A comparative vocabulary of five Sino-Tibetan languages. Melbourne University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Stenzel, K. , & Khoo, V.
    (2016) Linguistic hybridity: A case study in the Kotiria community. Critical Multilingualism Studies, 4(2), 75–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Stiglich, G.
    (2013) Diccionario geográfico del Perú. ( Z. I. Novoa Goicochea & R. Cerrón-Palomino (Eds.); Bib. Central F 3404.1 S81 2013). Sociedad Geográfica de Lima.
    [Google Scholar]
  315. Suárez, J.
    (1974) South American Indian languages. InThe new Encyclopaedia Britannica (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica.
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Suchard, M. A. , Lemey, P. , Baele, G. , Ayres, D. L. , Drummond, A. J. , & Rambaut, A.
    (2018) Bayesian phylogenetic and phylodynamic data integration using BEAST 1.10. Virus Evolution, 4(1). 10.1093/ve/vey016
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/vey016 [Google Scholar]
  317. Swadesh, M.
    (1954) Perspectives and problems of Amerindian comparative linguistics. WORD, 10(2–3), 306–332. 10.1080/00437956.1954.11659530
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1954.11659530 [Google Scholar]
  318. Tallman, A. J. R.
    (2012) The Pano-Takanan Hypothesis: Ancient areal diffusion or long distance genetic relationship.
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Taylor, G.
    (2000) Estudios lingüísticos sobre Chachapoyas. Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos.
    [Google Scholar]
  320. Tessmann, G.
    (1930) Die Indianer Nordost-Perus: Grundlegende Forschungen für eine systematische Kulturkunde. Friederichsen, De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  321. Teza, E.
    (1868) Saggi inediti di lingue americane. Annali dell’università di Pisa, X.
    [Google Scholar]
  322. Thomason, S. G. , & Everett, D. L.
    (2001) Pronoun borrowing. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 27(1), 301. 10.3765/bls.v27i1.1107
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v27i1.1107 [Google Scholar]
  323. Thomason, S. G. , & Kaufman, T.
    (1988) Language contact, creolization and genetic linguistics. University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  324. Thurston, W.
    (1987) Processes of change in the languages of north-western New Britain. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  325. Torero, A.
    (1986) Deslindes lingüísticos en la coste norte peruana. Revista Andina, 8, 523–548.
    [Google Scholar]
  326. (1989) Áreas toponímicas e idiomas en la sierra norte peruana. Un trabajo de recuperación lingüística. Revista Andina, 7, 217–248.
    [Google Scholar]
  327. (2002) Idiomas de los Andes, Lingüística e Historia. Editorial Horizonte.
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Tornello, P. J. , Roig, A. A. , Díaz, N. , Aguirre, L. , & Valdivia, L. de.
    (2011) Introducción al Millcayac: Idioma de los huarpes de Mendoza : textos de Luis de Valdivia. Zeta Editores.
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Trudgill, P.
    (1972) Sex, covert prestige and linguistic change in urban British English. Language in Society, 1, 179–195. 10.1017/S0047404500000488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000488 [Google Scholar]
  330. (1986) Dialects in contact. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  331. (2011) Sociolinguistic typology: Social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  332. Ulloa, L.
    (2019) Functional typological approach to Shawi indeterminate pronouns. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 19, e019017–e019017. 10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655557
    https://doi.org/10.20396/liames.v19i0.8655557 [Google Scholar]
  333. Urban, M.
    (2015) El vocabulario sechurano de Richard Spruce. Lexis, 39(2), 395–413.
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Valenzuela Bismarck, P.
    (2012) Voces Shiwilu: 400 años de resistencia lingüística en Jeberos. Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Valenzuela Bismarck, P. M.
    (2011) Contribuciones para la reconstrucción del Proto-Cahuapana: Comparación léxica y gramatical de las lenguas jebero y chayahuita. In W. F. H. Adelaar , P. M. Valenzuela , & R. Zariquiey (Eds.), Estudios en lenguas Andinas y Amazónicas. Homenaje a Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino (pp. 274–304). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Valenzuela, P. M.
    (2011) Argument encoding and pragmatic marking of the transitive subject in Shiwilu (Kawapanan). International Journal of American Linguistics, 77(1), 91–120. 10.1086/657989
    https://doi.org/10.1086/657989 [Google Scholar]
  337. [Google Scholar]
  338. (2014) Noun classification in Shiwilu. Talk for the University of California Berkeley Fieldwork Forum.
    [Google Scholar]
  339. (2015) ¿Qué tan “amazónicas” son las lenguas kawapana? Contacto con las lenguas centro-andinas y elementos para un área lingüística intermedia. Lexis, 39(1), 5–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  340. (2016a) Classifiers in Shiwilu (Kawapanan) in northwestern Amazonian Perspective. Anthropological Linguistics, 58(4), 333–380. 10.1353/anl.2016.0035
    https://doi.org/10.1353/anl.2016.0035 [Google Scholar]
  341. (2016b) “Simple” and “double” applicatives in Shiwilu (Kawapanan). Studies in Language, 40(3), 513–550. 10.1075/sl.40.3.02val
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.40.3.02val [Google Scholar]
  342. Valenzuela, P. M. , Careajano, M. , Guerra, E. , Inuma, J. , & Lachuma, F.
    (2013) Diccionario Shiwilu-Castellano Castellano-Shiwilu. Federación de Comunidades Nativas de Jeberos (FECONAJE).
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Valenzuela, P. M. , & Gussenhoven, C.
    (2013) Shiwilu (Jebero). Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43(1), 97–106. 10.1017/S0025100312000370
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100312000370 [Google Scholar]
  344. Valqui, J.
    (2004) Reconstrucción de la lengua chacha mediante un estudio toponímico en el distrito de la Jalca Grande (Chachapoyas-Amazonas) (Unpublished Tesis de licenciatura). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
    [Google Scholar]
  345. Valqui, J. , & Ziemendorf, M.
    (2016) Vestigios de una lengua originaria en el territorio de la cultura chachapoyana. Letras, 87(125), 5–32. 10.30920/letras.87.125.1
    https://doi.org/10.30920/letras.87.125.1 [Google Scholar]
  346. van Gijn, R. , & Muysken, P. C.
    (sub.). Highland-Lowland language relations. In A. Pearce , D. G. Beresford-Jones , & P. Heggarty Eds. Rethinking the Andes-Amazonia ‘Divide’: A Cross-Disciplinary Exploration.
    [Google Scholar]
  347. van Schie, A. A. K.
    (2018) A grammar sketch of Shiwilu: A semantic syntax approach (Unpublished Bachelor thesis). Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Vidal, S. M.
    (2000) Kuwé, Duwákalumi: The Arawak sacred routes of migration, trade, and resistance. Ethnohistory, 47(3–4), 635–667. 10.1215/00141801‑47‑3‑4‑635
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00141801-47-3-4-635 [Google Scholar]
  349. Viegas Barros, J. P.
    (2017) Reconstrucción interna en pronombres e índices personales de la lengua Gününa Yajüch. 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  350. (1992) La familia lingüística tehuelche. Revista Patagónica, 13(54), 39–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  351. (1995a) La clasificación de las lenguas patagónicas. Revisión de la hipótesis del grupo lingüístico ‘andino meridional’ de Joseph H. Greenberg. Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 15, 167–184.
    [Google Scholar]
  352. (1995b) La reconstrucción de los personales en proto-chon. In A. Fernández Garay & J. P. Viegas Barros (Eds.), Actas Segunda Jornada de Lingüística Aborigen (pp. 339–346). Instituto de LIngüística. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Universidad de Buenos Aires.
    [Google Scholar]
  353. Viegas Barros, J.P.
    (1997) Aspectos de la fonología del proto-chon: Consonantes labiales, dentales, alveolares y palatales. InEtnolingüística. Actas Jornadas de Antropología de la Cuenca del Plata y II Jornadas de Etnolingüística (Vol. I, pp. 221–228). Escuela de Antropología. Facultad de Humanidades y Artes. Universidad de Rosario.
    [Google Scholar]
  354. (2005) Voces en el viento, raíces lingüísticas de la Patagonia. Mondragón.
    [Google Scholar]
  355. Weinreich, U.
    (1963) Languages in contact: Findings and problems. Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  356. Weinreich, U. , Labov, W. , & Herzog, M. I.
    (1968) Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In W. P. Lehmann & Y. Malkiel (Eds.), Directions for historical linguistics (p. 100). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  357. Whitney, W. D.
    (1875) The life and growth of language. An outline of linguistic science. Appleton.
    [Google Scholar]
  358. Wise, M. R.
    (1990) Valence-changing affixes in Maipuran Arawakan languages. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 89–116). University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  359. (2002) Applicative suffixes in Peruvian Amazonian languages. In M. Crevels , Current studies on South American Indian languages: Selected papers from the 50th International Congress of Americanists in Waraw and the Spinoza Workshop on Amerindian Languages in Leiden (pp. 329–344). Research School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies (CNWS).
    [Google Scholar]
  360. (2011) Rastros desconcertantes de contactos entre idiomas y culturas a lo largo de los contrafuertes orientales de los Andes del Perú. In W. F. H. Adelaar , P. M. Valenzuela Bismarck , & R. Zariquiey Biondi (Eds.), Estudios sobre lenguas andinas y amazónicas: Homenaje a Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino (pp. 305–326). Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  361. Wundt, W.
    (1904) Völkerpsychologie: Eine Untersuchung der Entwicklungsgesetze von Sprache, Mythus und Sitte (Vol. 1). Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann. https://ia802705.us.archive.org/28/items/vlkerpsycholog11wund/vlkerpsycholog11wund.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  362. Yang, C. , Stanford, J. N. , & Yang, Z.
    (2015) A sociotonetic study of Lalo tone split in progress*. Asia-Pacific Language Variation, 1(1), 52–77. 10.1075/aplv.1.1.03yan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aplv.1.1.03yan [Google Scholar]
  363. Yosë nanamën
    (Wycliffe Bible Translators, Trans.; 2011th ed.) (2011) Wycliffe Bible Translators. https://ebible.org/cbtNTpo/
    [Google Scholar]
  364. Zamponi, R.
    (2017) First-person n and second-person m in Native America: A fresh look. Italian Journal of Linguistics, 29(2), 189–230. 10.26346/1120‑2726‑113
    https://doi.org/10.26346/1120-2726-113 [Google Scholar]
  365. Zariquiey, R.
    (2015) Diferencias intergeneracionales en el uso de construcciones de cambio de referencia entre hablantes de Kakataibo (Pano, Perú). Proceedings of the Conference of Indigenous Languages of Latin America VII.
    [Google Scholar]
  366. Zariquiey, R. , & Valenzuela, P.
    (tbp.). Language classification in Western Amazonia: Advances in favor of the Pano-Takana Hypothesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  367. Zariquiey, R. , Vásquez, A. , & Tello, G.
    (2017) Lenguas y dialectos pano del Purús: Una aproximación filogenética. Lexis, 41(1), 83–120. 10.18800/lexis.201701.003
    https://doi.org/10.18800/lexis.201701.003 [Google Scholar]
  368. Zevallos Quiñones, J.
    (1975) Algunas palabras indígenas de la región de Trujillo (Vol. 5). Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP).
    [Google Scholar]
  369. (1993a) Onomástica Chimú. Fundación Alfredo Pinillos Goicochea.
    [Google Scholar]
  370. (1993b) Toponimia Chimú. Fundación Alfredo Pinillos Goicochea.
    [Google Scholar]
  371. Zhang, J. , & Norman, D. A.
    (1995) A representational analysis of numeration systems. Cognition, 57, 271–295. 10.1016/0010‑0277(95)00674‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(95)00674-3 [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error