oa “Self” in Language, Culture, and Cognition

image of “Self” in Language, Culture, and Cognition

This book explores socio-cultural meanings of ‘self’ in the Chinese language through analysing a range of conversations among Chinese immigrants to Australia qualitatively on the topics of individuality, social relationships and collective identity. If language, culture and cognition are major roads, this book is the junction that unites them by arguing that selfhood occurs at their interface. It provides an interdisciplinary approach to unpack manifestations and perceptions of ‘self’ in the contemporary Chinese diaspora discourse from the perspectives of Sociolinguistics, Cognitive Linguistics and the newly developed Cultural Linguistics. This book not only discusses empirical and theoretical issues on the conceptualisation and communication of social identity in a cross-cultural context, it also reveals how traditional and modern ideas in Chinese culture are interacting with those of other world cultures. Considering the power of language, enduring and emerging beliefs and stances that permeate these speakers’ views on their social being and outlooks on life impart their significance in cross-cultural communication and pragmatics.

As of January 2023, this e-book is freely available, thanks to the support of libraries working with Knowledge Unlatched.


  1. ABS
    ABS (2016) Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia– Stories from the Census. Retrieved fromwww.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Snapshot%20of%20Australia,%202016~2
  2. Allan, S.
    (1997) The way of water and sprouts of virtue. Sunny Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ames, R. T. , & Hall, D. L.
    (2010) Dao de jing: A philosophical translation. Ballantine Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bamberg, M.
    (1997) Positioning between structure and performance. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7(1–4), 335–342. 10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos [Google Scholar]
  5. Barresi, J. , & Martin, R.
    (2011) History as prologue: western theories of the self. In S. Gallagher (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self (pp.35–56). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bauman, R.
    (1993) Disclaimers of performance. In J. H. Hills & J. T. Irvine (Eds.), Responsibility and evidence in oral discourse (pp.182–196). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, D. , Johansson, S. , Leech, G. , Conrad, S. , Finegan, E. , & Quirk, R.
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English (Vol.2). Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Biq, Y.-O.
    (1991) The multiple uses of the second person singular pronoun ni in conversational Mandarin. Journal of Pragmatics, 16(4), 307–321. 10.1016/0378‑2166(91)90084‑B
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(91)90084-B [Google Scholar]
  9. Brindley, E.
    (2009) ‘Why Use an Ox-Cleaver to Carve a Chicken?’ The Sociology of the Junzi Ideal in the Lunyu. Philosophy East and West, 59(1), 47–70. 10.1353/pew.0.0033
    https://doi.org/10.1353/pew.0.0033 [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, R. , & Gilman, A.
    (1960) The pronouns of power and solidarity. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Language (pp.253–276). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bucholtz, M. , & Hall, K.
    (2005) Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies, 7(4/5), 585–614. 10.1177/1461445605054407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407 [Google Scholar]
  12. Budwig, N.
    (2000) Language and the construction of self. In N. Budwig , I. Č. Užgiris , & J. V. Wertsch (Eds.), Communication: An arena of development (Vol.19, pp.195–214). Stamford, CT: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cameron, L. , & Deignan, A.
    (2006) The emergence of metaphor in discourse. Applied Linguistics, 27(4), 671–690. 10.1093/applin/aml032
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/aml032 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cheek, T.
    (1992) From priests to professionals: Intellectuals and the State under the CCP. In J. N. Wasserstrom & E. J. Perry (Eds.), Popular protest and political culture in modern China (pp.184–205). Boulder: Westview Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chen, M. Y.
    (2002) The space in identity: A cognitivist approach to ‘outsider’ discourses. In A. Duszak (Ed.), Us and others: Social identities across languages, discourses and cultures (Vol.98, pp.87–109). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.98.06che
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.98.06che [Google Scholar]
  16. Chong, K.-C.
    (2008) Xunzi and the essentialist mode of thinking about human nature. In Q. Shen & K. Shun (Eds.), Confucian Ethics in Retrospect and Prospect (Vol.27, pp.93–102). Washington, D. C.: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cua, A. S.
    (2013) Encyclopedia of Chinese philosophy. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203953624
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203953624 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dancygier, B.
    (2008) Personal pronouns, blending, and narrative viewpoint. In A. Tyler , Y. Kim , & M. Takada (Eds.), Language in the context of use: Discourse and cognitive approaches to language (Vol.37, pp.167–183). Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Davies, B. , & Harré, R.
    (1990) Positioning: The discursive production of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20(1), 43–63. 10.1111/j.1468‑5914.1990.tb00174.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1990.tb00174.x [Google Scholar]
  20. (1991) Contradiction in lived and told narratives. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 25(1–4), 1–35. 10.1080/08351819109389355
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351819109389355 [Google Scholar]
  21. Davies, G.
    (2007) Worrying about China: The language of Chinese critical inquiry. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674030237
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674030237 [Google Scholar]
  22. De Fina, A.
    (2013) Discourse and identity. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. De Fina, A. , Schiffrin, D. , & Bamberg, M.
    (2006) Discourse and identity. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511584459
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511584459 [Google Scholar]
  24. Du Bois, J. W. , & Kärkkäinen, E.
    (2012) Taking a stance on emotion: Affect, sequence, and intersubjectivity in dialogic interaction. Text & Talk: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language, Discourse & Communication Studies, 32(4), 433–451. 10.1515/text‑2012‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2012-0021 [Google Scholar]
  25. Duranti, A.
    (2011) Linguistic anthropology: Language as a non-neutral medium. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511997068.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997068.006 [Google Scholar]
  26. Eckert, P.
    (2008) Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(4), 453–476. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00374.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00374.x [Google Scholar]
  27. Fauconnier, G.
    (1997) Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139174220
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174220 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fauconnier, G. , & Turner, M.
    (1998) Conceptual Integration Networks. Cognitive Science, 22(2), 133–187. 10.1207/s15516709cog2202_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog2202_1 [Google Scholar]
  29. (2002) The way we think conceptual blending and the mind’s hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fei, X.
    (1948) Xiangtu Zhongguo (Rural China). Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ferrari, L. , & Almeida, P. de
    (2015) Subjectitity and Intersubjectivity in Conditionals: Temporal Backshifting Strategies in Brazilian Portuguese. Alfa: Revista de Linguística (São José Do Rio Preto), 59(1), 89–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Gaertner, L. , Sedikides, C. , Luke, M. , O’Mara, E. M. , Iuzzini, J. , Jackson, L. E. , … Wu, Q.
    (2012) A motivational hierarchy within: Primacy of the individual self, relational self, or collective self?Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 997–1013. 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.03.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2012.03.009 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gergen, K. J.
    (2011) The Social Construction of Self. In S. Gallagher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the self (pp.633–653). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Giddens, A.
    (1984) The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Goffman, E.
    (1974) Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (1981) Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Goodwin, C.
    (1981) Conversational organization: Interaction between speakers and hearers. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hansen, C.
    (2000) A Daoist theory of Chinese thought: A philosophical interpretation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Harris, P.
    (2002) The origins of modern citizenship in China. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 43(2), 181–203. 10.1111/1467‑8373.00172
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8373.00172 [Google Scholar]
  40. Harrison, A. R.
    (2011) Representing the ideal self: Represented speech and performance roles in Fulfulde personal narratives. Pragmatics, 21(2), 191–211. 10.1075/prag.21.2.02har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.21.2.02har [Google Scholar]
  41. Helmbrecht, J.
    (2002) Grammar and function of we. In A. Duszak (Ed.), Us and Others: Social Identities Across Languages, Discourses and Cultures (pp.31–50). 10.1075/pbns.98.03hel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.98.03hel [Google Scholar]
  42. Hill, J. H. , & Zepeda, O.
    (1993) Mrs. Patricio’s trouble: The distribution of responsibility in an account of personal experience. In J. H. Hill & J. T. Irvine (Eds.), Responsibility and evidence in oral discourse (pp.197–225). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hsü, F. L. K.
    (1971) Psychosocial Homeostasis and Jen: Conceptual Tools for Advancing Psychological Anthropology. American Anthropologist, 73(1), 23–44. 10.1525/aa.1971.73.1.02a00030
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1971.73.1.02a00030 [Google Scholar]
  44. Huang, H. , & Lu, Y.
    (2016) ‘Who are we’ A conversational study of self-reference. In M. Cordella & H. Huang (Eds.), Rethinking Second Language Learning: Using Intergenerational Community Resources. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Huang, S.
    (2003) Doubts about complementation: A functionalist analysis. Language and Linguistics, 4(2), 429–455.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hymes, D.
    (1971) Sociolinguistics and the ethnography of speaking. In E. Ardener (Ed.), Social anthropology and language (ASA Monographs no. 10, pp.47–93). London: Tavistock.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Irvine, J. T.
    (1996) Shadow conversations: The indeterminacy of participant roles. In M. Silverstein & G. Urban (Eds.), Natural histories of discourse (pp.131–159). Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Jaffe, A. M.
    (2009) Stance: Sociolinguistic perspectives. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  49. Jia, Z.
    (1981) Dui ‘zhen’ ‘yu’ (yu) ‘wu’ ‘wo’ de chubu yanjiu (shang)(xia)对 ”朕‘、’余“(予)‘吾’、‘我’的初步研究(上)(下)[Preliminary study of zhen, yu, wu, wo]. Shanxi Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Zhexue Shehui Kexueban)《陕西师范大学学报,哲学社会科学版》, (1 & 2), 101–108–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Johnson, M.
    (1987) The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226177847.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kirkland, R.
    (2004) Taoism The enduring tradion. New York; London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203646717
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203646717 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kitagawa, C. , & Lehrer, A.
    (1990) Impersonal uses of personal pronouns. Journal of Pragmatics, 14(5), 739–759. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90004‑W
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90004-W [Google Scholar]
  53. Kövecses, Z.
    (2005) Metaphor in culture: universality and variation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  54. Kozhevnikov, M. , Motes, M. A. , Rasch, B. , & Blajenkova, O.
    (2006) Perspective‐taking vs. mental rotation transformations and how they predict spatial navigation performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(3), 397–417. 10.1002/acp.1192
    https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1192 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  56. (1988) Cognitive semantics. In U. Eco , M. Santambrogio , & P. Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representations (pp.119–154). Bloomington; Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (1996) Sorry, I’m not myself today: The metaphor system for conceptualizing the self. In G. Fauconnier & E. Sweetser (Eds.), Spaces, worlds, and grammar (pp.91–123). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Lakoff, G. , & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. Basic books.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Langacker, R. W.
    (1990) Concept, Image, and Symbol: The Cognitive Basis of Grammar. In R. Dirven & R. W. Langacker (Eds.), Cognitive Linguistic Research. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (2007) Constructing the meanings of personal pronouns. In G. Radden , K.-M. Köpcke , T. Berg , & P. Siemund (Eds.), Aspects of meaning construction (pp.171–187). John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.136.12lan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.136.12lan [Google Scholar]
  62. Le Page, R. B. , & Tabouret-Keller, A.
    (1985) Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Lee, C. L.
    (2006) Lunyu zhong diyi rencheng daici de qufen. 论语中第一人称代词的区分 [Differentiating first-person pronouns in the Analects]. In R. Chung , H.-C. Liou , J. Hsu , & D. Ho (Eds.), On and off work: Festschrift in honor of Professor Chin-Chuan Cheng on his 70th birthday. (Vol.7, pp.75–87). Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. (2012) Self-Presentation, Face and First-Person Pronouns in the Analects. Journal of Politeness Research: Language, Behavior, Culture, 8(1), 75–92. 10.1515/pr‑2012‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pr-2012-0005 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lee, J. W.
    (2010) Systematic Repetition of the First Person Singular Pronoun wo in Mandarin Conversation: Negotiation of Conflicting Stance in Interaction. Chinese Language and Discourse: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(2), 183–219. 10.1075/cld.1.2.02lee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cld.1.2.02lee [Google Scholar]
  66. Lerner, G. H. , & Kitzinger, C.
    (2007) Extraction and aggregation in the repair of individual and collective self-reference. Discourse Studies, 9(4), 526–557. 10.1177/1461445607079165
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445607079165 [Google Scholar]
  67. Liebkind, K.
    (2010) Social psychology. In J. A. Fishman & O. García (Eds.), Handbook of language and ethnic identity (Vol.1, pp.140–151). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Liu, Y.
    (1986) Duihua zhong ‘shuo’ ‘xiang’ ‘kan’ de yizhong teshu yongfa (A special use of "shuo’, ‘xiang’, and ‘kan’ in dialogue). Zhongguo Yuwen, 192, 168–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. (2005) ‘Lunyu’ zhong ‘shen’ ‘ji’ ‘wo’ de ziwo daode jiaoyu yiyi《论语》中‘身’、‘己’、‘我’的自我道德教育意义 [Moral meanings of shen, ji, wo in the Analects]. Hengyang Shifan Xueyuan Xuebao 《衡阳师范学院学报》 , 26(5), 141–144.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lu, Y.
    (2012) Water Metaphors in Dao de jing: A Conceptual Analysis. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 2(4), 151–158. 10.4236/ojml.2012.24020
    https://doi.org/10.4236/ojml.2012.24020 [Google Scholar]
  71. (2017) The cultural conceptualisation of collective self-representation among Chinese immigrants. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in Cultural Linguistics. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_5 [Google Scholar]
  72. Maitland, K. , & Wilson, J.
    (1987) Pronominal Selection and Ideological Conflict. Journal of Pragmatics: An Interdisciplinary Monthly of Language Studies, 11(4), 495–509. 10.1016/0378‑2166(87)90092‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(87)90092-0 [Google Scholar]
  73. Mao, L.
    (1996) Chinese First Person Pronoun and Social Implicature. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 7(3–4), 106–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Markus, H. , & Kitayama, S.
    (1991) Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224. 10.1037/0033‑295X.98.2.224
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224 [Google Scholar]
  75. Marsella, A. J. , De Vos, G. A. , Hsü, F. L. K.
    , & others (1985) Culture and self: Asian and Western perspectives. New York: Tavistock.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Martin, B.
    (1996) Femininity played straight: The significance of being Lesbian. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Morris, B.
    (1994) Anthropology of the self: The individual in cultural perspective. London; Boulder: Pluto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Ochs, E.
    (2012) Experiencing language. Anthropological Theory, 12(2), 142–160. 10.1177/1463499612454088
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499612454088 [Google Scholar]
  79. Ochs, E. , & Capps, L.
    (2001) Living narrative: creating lives in everyday storytelling. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ochs, E. , & Taylor, C.
    (1995) ‘The ‘Father Knows Best’ Dynamic in Dinnertime Narratives. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp.97–120). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Pritzker, S.
    (2007) Thinking Hearts, Feeling Brains: Metaphor, Culture, and the Self in Chinese Narratives of Depression. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(3), 251–274. 10.1080/10926480701357679
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480701357679 [Google Scholar]
  82. Qian, Z.
    (1947) Wei Cheng (Fortress Besieged). Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Raphals, L.
    (2014) Uprightness, Indirection, Transparency. In A. Olberding (Ed.), Dao Companion to the Analects (pp.159–170). Netherlands: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7113‑0_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7113-0_9 [Google Scholar]
  84. Rees, A.
    (1983) Pronouns of person and power: A study of personal pronouns in public discourse. Department of Linguistics, The University of Sheffield.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Riessman, C. K.
    (2003) Performing Identities in Illness Narrative: Masculinity and Multiple Sclerosis. Qualitative Research, 3(1), 5–33. 10.1177/146879410300300101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/146879410300300101 [Google Scholar]
  86. Sacks, H.
    (1992) Lectures on conversation. ( G. Jefferson , Ed.) (Vol.2). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Schegloff, E. A.
    (1996) Confirming allusions: Toward an empirical account of action. American Journal of Sociology, 161–216. 10.1086/230911
    https://doi.org/10.1086/230911 [Google Scholar]
  88. Schwarcz, V.
    (1986) The Chinese enlightenment: Intellectuals and the legacy of the May Fourth movement of 1919. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520341203
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520341203 [Google Scholar]
  89. Sharifian, F.
    (2003) On cultural conceptualisations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(3), 187–207. 10.1163/156853703322336625
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853703322336625 [Google Scholar]
  90. (2011) Cultural conceptualisations and language: Theoretical framework and applications (Vol.1). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.1 [Google Scholar]
  91. (Ed.) (2017) Advances in cultural linguistics. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6 [Google Scholar]
  92. Sharifian, F. , Dirven, R. , Yu, N. , & Niemeier, S.
    (Eds.) (2008) Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (Vol.7). Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199109
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109 [Google Scholar]
  93. Shweder, R. A. , & Bourne, E. J.
    (1982) Does the concept of the person vary cross-culturally?In A. J. Marsella & G. White (Eds.), Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑9220‑3_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9220-3_4 [Google Scholar]
  94. Slingerland, E. G.
    (2004) Conceptions of the Self in the Zhuangzi: Conceptual Metaphor Analysis and Comparative Thought. Philosophy East and West, 54(3), 322–342. 10.1353/pew.2004.0023
    https://doi.org/10.1353/pew.2004.0023 [Google Scholar]
  95. Smith, E. R.
    (1993) Social Identity and Social Emotions: Toward New Concepitualizations of Prejudice. Affect, Cognition and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception, 297–315. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑088579‑7.50017‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-088579-7.50017-X [Google Scholar]
  96. Sparrowe, R. T.
    (2005) Authentic leadership and the narrative self. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 419–439. 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  97. Steels, L. , & Loetzsch, M.
    (2008) Perspective alignment in spatial language. Spatial Language and Dialogue, 70–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Sun, L.-K.
    (1986) To Be or Not to Be ‘Eaten’: Lu Xun’s Dilemma of Political Engagement. Modern China, 12(4), 459–485. 10.1177/009770048601200402
    https://doi.org/10.1177/009770048601200402 [Google Scholar]
  99. (1991) Contemporary Chinese culture: Structure and emotionality. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, (26), 1–41. 10.2307/2949867
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2949867 [Google Scholar]
  100. Sweetser, E.
    (2012) Introduction: viewpoint and perspective in language and gesture, from the Ground down. In B. Dancygier & E. Sweetser (Eds.), Viewpoint in language: a multimodal perspective (pp.1–22). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139084727.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139084727.002 [Google Scholar]
  101. Tajfel, H.
    (1981) Human groups and social categories: studies in social psychology. Cambridge Cambridgeshire; New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Tao, H.
    (1996) Units in Mandarin conversation: Prosody, discourse, and grammar (Vol.5). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sidag.5
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sidag.5 [Google Scholar]
  103. (1999) The grammar of demonstratives in Mandarin conversational discourse: A case study/汉语指代词在话语中的用法初探. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 27(1), 69–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Triandis, H. C.
    (1989) The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96(3), 506. 10.1037/0033‑295X.96.3.506
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.3.506 [Google Scholar]
  105. Tu, W.
    (1991) The enlightenment mentality and the Chinese intellectual dilemma. In K. Lieberthal (Ed.), Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries (pp.103–118). Sharpe, M. E.: Armonk.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Turner, J. C. , Oakes, P. J. , Haslam, A. , & Mcgarty, C.
    (1994) Self and collective: Cognition and social context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 454–463. 10.1177/0146167294205002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205002 [Google Scholar]
  107. Verhagen, A.
    (2005) Constructions of intersubjectivity: Discourse, syntax, and cognition. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Watson, B.
    (Trans.) (1964) Han Feizi: Basic Writings. Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Xiang, X.
    (2003) Multiplicity of Self in Public Discourse: The Use of Personal References in Two Radio Sports Shows. Language Sciences, 25(5), 489–514. 10.1016/S0388‑0001(03)00022‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(03)00022-6 [Google Scholar]
  110. Xiong, X.
    (1998) First person zero anaphor as a cognitive unit in Chinese. Word, 49(3), 383–401. 10.1080/00437956.1998.11432479
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1998.11432479 [Google Scholar]
  111. Yang, B. , & Pan, F.
    (Trans.) (1993) The Analects of Confucius. Beijing: Qi Lu Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Yau, O. H. M.
    (1988) Chinese cultural values: Their dimensions and marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 22(5), 44–57. 10.1108/EUM0000000005285
    https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005285 [Google Scholar]
  113. Yu, N.
    (1998) The contemporary theory of metaphor: A perspective from Chinese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.1 [Google Scholar]
  114. (2003) Metaphor, Body, and Culture: The Chinese Understanding of Gallbladder and Courage. Metaphor and Symbol, 18(1), 13–31. 10.1207/S15327868MS1801_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1801_2 [Google Scholar]
  115. (2004) The eyes for sight and mind. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(4), 663–686. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(03)00053‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(03)00053-5 [Google Scholar]
  116. (2007a) Heart and Cognition in Ancient Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 7, 27–47. 10.1163/156853707X171801
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853707X171801 [Google Scholar]
  117. (2007b) The Chinese conceptualization of the heart and its cultural context. In F. Sharifian & G. B. Palmer (Eds.), Applied cultural linguistics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication (p.65). London; New York: Routledge. 10.1075/celcr.7.06yu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.7.06yu [Google Scholar]
  118. (2009) The Chinese heart in a cognitive perspective culture, body, and language. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110213348
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110213348 [Google Scholar]
  119. Zeng, L.
    (2005) Shijing lunyu zhong diyi rencheng daici ‘wo’ de bijiao《诗经》《论语》中第一人称代词‘我’的比较 [Comparing first-person pronouns in the Book of Odes and Analects]. Zaozhuang Xueyuan Xuebao 《枣庄学院学报》 , 22(3).
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Zhou, M.
    (2002) Between us and them in Chinese: Use of Lai (come) and qu (go) in the construction of social identities. In A. Duszak (Ed.), Us and others: Social identities across languages, discourses and cultures (Vol.98, pp.51–67). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.98.04zho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.98.04zho [Google Scholar]
  121. Zhou, M. , & Fu, P.
    (1996) Physical space and social space: how to come and go in Chinese. In L. Romary (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Deixis: Time, Space and Identity (pp.97–114). Nancy, France: The CRIN-CNRS & INRIA Lorraine.
    [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error