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Beyond Nativization? Philippine English in Schneider's Dynamic Model

image of Beyond Nativization? Philippine English in Schneider's Dynamic Model

According to Schneider (2007), the development of Philippine English (PE) is unique in that the language was brought to the country through American, and not British, colonial expansion. Whereas Outer Circle countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, took about two hundred years to move from Phase 1 to Phase 3 of the Dynamic Model, English in the Philippines evolved to a state of Nativization in fewer than a hundred years. In this chapter, I explore the issue of PE as remaining restricted in Phase 3 and thus, “coming to a halt” in the Nativization Phase (Schneider 2007: 143) of the model. Or, as some have claimed, has PE progressed beyond Nativization and developed into a variety of Endonormative Stabilization?

References

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    1997 Standards in Philippine English: The writers’ forum. InEnglish is an Asian language: The Philippine Context, M.L. Bautista (ed.), 163–176. Manila: The Macquarie Library.
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  5. Bautista, M.L
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  7. 1998 Another look at Tagalog-English code-Switching. InPagtanaw: Essays on Language in Honor of Teodoro A. Llamzon, M.L. Bautista (ed.), 128–146. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
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  8. 2000aDefining Standard Philippine English: Its Status and Grammatical Features. Manila: De La Salle University Press.
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  9. 2000b The grammatical features of educated Philippine English. InParangal Cang Brother Andrew: Festschrift for Andrew Gonzalez on his Sixtieth Birthday, M.L. Bautista , T. Llamzon & B. Sibayan (eds), 146–158. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
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  10. 2001a Attitudes of English language faculty in three leading Philippine universities towards Philippine English. Asian Englishes4(1): 4–32. doi: 10.1080/13488678.2001.10801062
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2001.10801062 [Google Scholar]
  11. 2001b Attitudes of selected Luzon University students and faculty towards Philippine English. InRosario E. Maminta In Focus: Selected Writings in Applied Linguistics, Philippine Association for Language Teaching, 235–273. Quezon City: Philippine Association for Language Teaching.
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  12. 2004 An overview of the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PH). Asian Englishes7(2): 71–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2008 Investigating the grammatical features of Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 201–218.
  14. 2011 Introducing the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English: Circa 2010. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 3–22.
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    (ed.) 1996Readings in Philippine Sociolinguistics. Manila: DLSU Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (ed.) 2011Studies of Philippine English: Exploring the Philippine Component of the International Corpus of English. Manila: Anvil Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bautista, M.L. & Bolton, K.
    (eds) 2008Philippine English: Linguistic and Literary Perspectives. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. doi: 10.5790/hongkong/9789622099470.001.0001
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    2011 Lexical trends in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 223–247.
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    2008 Lexicography and the description of Philippine English vocabulary. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 175–200.
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    2009a A survey on language use, attitudes, and identity in relation to Philippine English among young generation Filipinos: An initial sample from a private university. Philippine ESL Journal3: 74–107.
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    1903Reports of Division Superintendents and Principals of the Insular, Normal, Trade, and Nautical Schools for the Year Ending September 1, 1903. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
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  36. Collins, P
    2011 Variable agreement in the existential-there construction in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 175–186.
  37. Dayag, D
    2002 Code-switching in Philippine print ads: A syntactico-pragmatic description. Philippine Journal of Linguistics3(1): 33–52.
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  38. 2007 Exploring the intelligibility of Philippine English. Asian Englishes10(1): 4–23. doi: 10.1080/13488678.2007.10801197
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2007.10801197 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2012 Philippine English. In E.L. Low & A. Hashim (eds), 91–100.
  40. Dita, S
    2011 The grammar and semantics of adverbial disjuncts in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 33–50.
  41. Freer, W.B
    1906The Philippine Experiences of an American Teacher: A Narrative of Work and Travel in the Philippine Islands. New York NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
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  42. Friginal, E
    2011 The modal verb would in spoken and written Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 51–74.
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  43. Gleeck, L. Jr.
    1977The Manila Americans (1901–1964). Manila: Carmelo and Bauermann.
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  44. Go, M.A. & Gustilo, L
    2013 Tagalog or Taglish: The Lingua Franca of Filipino Urban Factory Workers. Philippine ESL Journal10: 57–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gonzalez, A
    1972 Review of Teodoro Llamzon’s Standard Filipino English (1969). Philippine Journal of Language Teaching7(1–2): 93–108.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1996 Evaluating bilingual education in the Philippines: Towards a multidimensional model of evaluation in language planning. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 325–340.
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    2002 Code Switching among Literature Teachers of Miriam College: Patterns, Functions, and Implications. MA dissertation, Ateneo de Manila University.
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    1969Standard Filipino English. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
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  55. Low, E.L. & Hashim, A.
    (eds) 2012English in Southeast Asia: Features, Policy, and Language in Use [Varieties of English Around the World G42]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g42
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  57. Martin, I.P
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    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2006.10801188 [Google Scholar]
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  60. 2010 Periphery ELT: The politics and practice of teaching English in the Philippines. In A. Kirkpatrick (ed.), 247–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2012 Diffusion and directions: English language policy in the Philippines. In E.L. Low & A. Hashim (eds), 189–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Mufwene, S
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  63. Nivera, G.C
    2003 Spoken discourse in the tertiary mathematics classroom. Philippine Journal of Linguistics34(2) and 35(1): 7–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Pascasio, E.M
    1978 Dynamics of code switching in the business domain. Philippine Journal of Linguistics9(1–2): 40–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sandlin, R
    2008 English remains the only hope of the Philippines [Letter to the editor]. /Philippine Daily Inquirer/, 2008-03-11. opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/lettersto-theeditor/view/20080311-123952/English-remains-the-only-hope-of-the-Philippines (11 May 2011).
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  67. 2011 The subjective in Philippine English: An updated assessment. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 159–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Sibayan, B
    1996 The intellectualization of Filipino. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 240–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tayao, M.L
    2008 A lectal description of the phonological features of Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 157–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Thompson, R
    2003Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives [Varieties of English Around the World G31]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g31
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g31 [Google Scholar]
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    2008 Negotiating language: Postcolonialism and nationalism in Philippine literature in English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 261–278.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Tupas, T.R
    2006 Standard Englishes: Pedagogical paradigms and their conditions of (im)possibility. InEnglish in the World: Global Rules, Global Roles , R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (eds), 169–185. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 2010 Which norms in everyday practice and why? In A. Kirkpatrick (ed.), 567–579.
    [Google Scholar]

References

  1. Abad, G. , Butler, S. , Evasco, M. & Hidalgo, C.P
    1997 Standards in Philippine English: The writers’ forum. InEnglish is an Asian language: The Philippine Context, M.L. Bautista (ed.), 163–176. Manila: The Macquarie Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anvil-Macquarie Dictionary of Philippine English for High School 2000 Manila: Anvil Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Asuncion, Z.S
    2010 Filipino college freshman students’ oral compensatory strategies. Philippine ESL Journal5: 2–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Azores, F.M
    1967 A Preliminary Investigation of the Phenomenon of Language Change in the Philippines. MA dissertation, Ateneo de Manila University.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bautista, M.L
    1980 [1974] The Filipino Bilingual’s Linguistic Competence: A Model Based on an Analysis of Tagalog-English Code Switching [Pacific Linguistics Series C-59]. Canberra: Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 1996 An outline: The national language and the language of instruction. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 223–227.
  7. 1998 Another look at Tagalog-English code-Switching. InPagtanaw: Essays on Language in Honor of Teodoro A. Llamzon, M.L. Bautista (ed.), 128–146. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2000aDefining Standard Philippine English: Its Status and Grammatical Features. Manila: De La Salle University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2000b The grammatical features of educated Philippine English. InParangal Cang Brother Andrew: Festschrift for Andrew Gonzalez on his Sixtieth Birthday, M.L. Bautista , T. Llamzon & B. Sibayan (eds), 146–158. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 2001a Attitudes of English language faculty in three leading Philippine universities towards Philippine English. Asian Englishes4(1): 4–32. doi: 10.1080/13488678.2001.10801062
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2001.10801062 [Google Scholar]
  11. 2001b Attitudes of selected Luzon University students and faculty towards Philippine English. InRosario E. Maminta In Focus: Selected Writings in Applied Linguistics, Philippine Association for Language Teaching, 235–273. Quezon City: Philippine Association for Language Teaching.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2004 An overview of the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PH). Asian Englishes7(2): 71–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2008 Investigating the grammatical features of Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 201–218.
  14. 2011 Introducing the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English: Circa 2010. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 3–22.
  15. Bautista, M.L.
    (ed.) 1996Readings in Philippine Sociolinguistics. Manila: DLSU Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (ed.) 2011Studies of Philippine English: Exploring the Philippine Component of the International Corpus of English. Manila: Anvil Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bautista, M.L. & Bolton, K.
    (eds) 2008Philippine English: Linguistic and Literary Perspectives. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. doi: 10.5790/hongkong/9789622099470.001.0001
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  18. Benton, R
    1996 The Philippine bilingual education program – Education for the masses or the preparation of a new elite? (1980). In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 308–326.
  19. Bernardo, A
    2013 Toward an Endonormative Pedagogic Model in the Teaching of English Grammar in Philippine Higher Education Institutions. PhD dissertation, University of Santo Tomas.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Biermeier, T
    2011 Lexical trends in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 223–247.
  21. Bloomfield, L
    1933Language. New York NY: Holt Rinehart Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Blount, J.H
    1912The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1898–1912. New York NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bolton, K
    2003Chinese Englishes: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2011 The study of Philippine English: The contribution of corpus linguistics. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), xi–xiv.
  25. Bolton, K. & Butler, S
    2008 Lexicography and the description of Philippine English vocabulary. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 175–200.
  26. Borlongan, A.M
    2009a A survey on language use, attitudes, and identity in relation to Philippine English among young generation Filipinos: An initial sample from a private university. Philippine ESL Journal3: 74–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 2009b Tagalog-English code-switching in English language classes: Frequency and forms. TESOL Journal1: 28–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 2011a Relocating Philippine English in Schneider’s Dynamic Model. Paper presented at the 17th Conference of International Association for World Englishes, 23 to 25 November, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2011b Some aspects of PhilE morphosyntax. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 187–199.
  30. 2011c The preparation and writing of a grammar of the verb in Philippine English and the teaching of the English verb system in Philippine schools. Philippine ESL Journal7: 120–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bureau of Census and Statistics, Department of Commerce and Industry, Republic of the Philippines
    1954Summary and General Report on the 1948 Census of Population and Agriculture (Part I Population). Manila: Bureau of Printing.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bureau of Education
    1903Reports of Division Superintendents and Principals of the Insular, Normal, Trade, and Nautical Schools for the Year Ending September 1, 1903. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 19088th Annual Report of the Director of Education, June 1, 1907 to June 30, 1908. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Bureau of Public Schools
    1954 Report of the General Superintendent for Education for the Philippine Islands for the period September 1, 1902 to September 30, 1903. InAnnual School Reports 1901–1903. Manila: Bureau of Printing.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Chanco, A. , Francisco, E. & Talamisan, T
    1999 Code switching: A look into the language patterns of some television hosts in Metro Manila. InThe Filipino Bilingual: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, M.L. Bautista & G.O. Tan (eds), 32–35. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Collins, P
    2011 Variable agreement in the existential-there construction in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 175–186.
  37. Dayag, D
    2002 Code-switching in Philippine print ads: A syntactico-pragmatic description. Philippine Journal of Linguistics3(1): 33–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2007 Exploring the intelligibility of Philippine English. Asian Englishes10(1): 4–23. doi: 10.1080/13488678.2007.10801197
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2007.10801197 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2012 Philippine English. In E.L. Low & A. Hashim (eds), 91–100.
  40. Dita, S
    2011 The grammar and semantics of adverbial disjuncts in Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 33–50.
  41. Freer, W.B
    1906The Philippine Experiences of an American Teacher: A Narrative of Work and Travel in the Philippine Islands. New York NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Friginal, E
    2011 The modal verb would in spoken and written Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 51–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gleeck, L. Jr.
    1977The Manila Americans (1901–1964). Manila: Carmelo and Bauermann.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Go, M.A. & Gustilo, L
    2013 Tagalog or Taglish: The Lingua Franca of Filipino Urban Factory Workers. Philippine ESL Journal10: 57–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gonzalez, A
    1972 Review of Teodoro Llamzon’s Standard Filipino English (1969). Philippine Journal of Language Teaching7(1–2): 93–108.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 1996 Evaluating bilingual education in the Philippines: Towards a multidimensional model of evaluation in language planning. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 325–340.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1998 The language planning situation in the Philippines. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development19(5–6): 487–525. doi: 10.1080/01434639808666365
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639808666365 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2005 Philippine English. InConcise Oxford Companion to the English Language, T. McArthur (ed.), 438–440. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 2008 A favorable climate and soil: A transplanted language and literature. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 13–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gonzalez, A. , Jambalos, T. & Romero, M.C
    2003Three Studies on Philippine English across Generations: Towards an Integration and some Implications. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kachru, B
    2005Asian Englishes: Beyond the Canon. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kirkpatrick, A.
    (ed.) 2010. The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Limoso, R.J
    2002 Code Switching among Literature Teachers of Miriam College: Patterns, Functions, and Implications. MA dissertation, Ateneo de Manila University.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Llamzon, T
    1969Standard Filipino English. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Low, E.L. & Hashim, A.
    (eds) 2012English in Southeast Asia: Features, Policy, and Language in Use [Varieties of English Around the World G42]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g42
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g42 [Google Scholar]
  56. Marcos, F
    1977 Education and the realities of Pilipino life. FAPE Review7: 4–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Martin, I.P
    2006 Language in Philippine classrooms: Enfeebling or enabling? Asian Englishes Journal9(2): 48–67. doi: 10.1080/13488678.2006.10801188
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2006.10801188 [Google Scholar]
  58. 2007 The literature Filipino students do not read. InEnglish in Southeast Asia: Literacies, Literatures and Varieties, D. Prescott , A. Kirkpatrick , A. Hashim & I.P. Martin (eds), 290–318. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 2008 Colonial education and the shaping of Philippine literature in English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 245–260.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 2010 Periphery ELT: The politics and practice of teaching English in the Philippines. In A. Kirkpatrick (ed.), 247–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2012 Diffusion and directions: English language policy in the Philippines. In E.L. Low & A. Hashim (eds), 189–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Mufwene, S
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  63. Nivera, G.C
    2003 Spoken discourse in the tertiary mathematics classroom. Philippine Journal of Linguistics34(2) and 35(1): 7–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Pascasio, E.M
    1978 Dynamics of code switching in the business domain. Philippine Journal of Linguistics9(1–2): 40–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sandlin, R
    2008 English remains the only hope of the Philippines [Letter to the editor]. /Philippine Daily Inquirer/, 2008-03-11. opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/lettersto-theeditor/view/20080311-123952/English-remains-the-only-hope-of-the-Philippines (11 May 2011).
    [Google Scholar]
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    2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2011 The subjective in Philippine English: An updated assessment. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 159–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Sibayan, B
    1996 The intellectualization of Filipino. In M.L. Bautista (ed.), 240–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tayao, M.L
    2008 A lectal description of the phonological features of Philippine English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 157–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Thompson, R
    2003Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives [Varieties of English Around the World G31]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g31
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g31 [Google Scholar]
  71. Tope, L.R
    2008 Negotiating language: Postcolonialism and nationalism in Philippine literature in English. In M.L. Bautista & K. Bolton (eds), 261–278.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Tupas, T.R
    2006 Standard Englishes: Pedagogical paradigms and their conditions of (im)possibility. InEnglish in the World: Global Rules, Global Roles , R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (eds), 169–185. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 2010 Which norms in everyday practice and why? In A. Kirkpatrick (ed.), 567–579.
    [Google Scholar]
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5
Chapter
content/books/9789027269416
Book
false
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