Corporate Argumentation in Takeover Bids

image of Corporate Argumentation in Takeover Bids

This volume systematically investigates the role of argumentation in takeover bids. The announcement of these financial proposals triggers an argumentative situation, in which both the economic desirability and the social acceptability of the deal become argumentative issues for different classes of stakeholders (shareholders, employees, customers, etc.). The study focuses on the strategic maneuvers that corporate directors deploy in order to persuade their audiences while complying with precise regulatory requirements, designed to allow shareholders to make reasonable decisions.

A conceptual reframing of takeovers as an argumentative context brings to light the different argumentative situations of friendly and hostile bids. The argumentative strategies that corporate directors adopt in the two situations are identified and analyzed on the basis of a corpus of takeover documents referring to offers launched in the UK market between 2006 and 2010. The argumentative reconstruction focuses in particular on the inferential configuration of arguments, which is accomplished by means of the Argumentum Model of Topics (AMT). This kind of analysis enables capturing the inherently argumentative processes through which information becomes a relevant starting point for investment decisions.


  1. Aakhus, M
    (2006) The act and activity of proposing in deliberation. In P. Riley (Ed.), Engaging Argument. Selected Papers from the 2005 National Communication Association/American Forensic Association Summer Conference on Argumentation (pp. 402-408). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aakhus, M. , & Jackson, S
    (2005) Technology, interaction, and design. In K. Fitch , & R. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of language and social interaction (pp. 411-436). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adelberg, A.H
    (1979) Narrative disclosures contained in financial reports: Means of communication or manipulation?Accounting and Business Research 9(35): 179-190. doi: 10.1080/00014788.1979.9729157
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00014788.1979.9729157 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aerts, W
    (2005) Picking up the pieces: Impression management in the retrospective attributional framing of accounting outcomes. Accounting, Organizations and Society30: 493-517. doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2004.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2004.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aiello, R.J. , & Watkins, M.D
    (2001) Harvard Business Review on Mergers and Acquisitions.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Amernic, J. , & Craig, R
    (2006) CEO-speak: The language of corporate leadership. McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (2010) Accounting as a facilitator of extreme narcissism. Journal of Business Ethics96, 79-93. doi: 10.1007/s10551‑010‑0450‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0450-0 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2013) Leadership discourse, culture, and corporate ethics: CEO-speak at news corporation. Journal of Business Ethics118: 379-394. doi: 10.1007/s10551‑012‑1506‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1506-0 [Google Scholar]
  9. Amihud, Y. , & Lev, B
    (1981) Risk reduction as a managerial motive for conglomerate mergers. Bell Journal of Economics12: 605-617. doi: 10.2307/3003575
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3003575 [Google Scholar]
  10. Andrade, G. , Mitchell, M. , & Stafford, E
    (2001) New evidence and perspectives on mergers. The Journal of Economic Perspectives15(2): 103-120. doi: 10.1257/jep.15.2.103
    https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.15.2.103 [Google Scholar]
  11. Armour, J. , & Skeel, D
    (2007) The divergence of US and UK takeover regulation. Regulation30(3): 8-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Arzac, E.R
    (2005) Valuation for mergers, buyouts and restructuring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Asquith, P. , Bruner, R. , & Mullins, D
    (1987) Merger returns and the form of financing. Proceedings of the Seminar on the Analysis of Security Prices34: 115-146.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Auster, E.R. , & M.L. Sirower
    (2002) The dynamics of merger and acquisition waves: A three-stage conceptual framework with implications for practice. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science38: 216-244. doi: 10.1177/00286302038002005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00286302038002005 [Google Scholar]
  15. Balmer, J.M.T. , & Dinnie, K
    (1999) Corporate identity and corporate communications: The antidote to merger madness. Corporate Communications: An International Journal4(4): 182-192. doi: 10.1108/13563289910299300
    https://doi.org/10.1108/13563289910299300 [Google Scholar]
  16. Baron, D.P
    (1983) Tender offers and management resistance. The Journal of Finance38(2): 331-343. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑6261.1983.tb02237.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1983.tb02237.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Barone-Adesi, G
    (2002) The role of inside information. Financial disclosure and value creation. In S. Russ-Mohl , & S. Fengler (Eds.), Business journalism, corporate communications, and newsroom management (pp. 63-68). Lugano: USI.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Barth, E.M. , & Krabbe, E.C.W
    (1982) From axiom to dialogue. A philosophical study of logics and argumentation. Berlin: de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110839807
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110839807 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bastien, D.T
    (1992) Change in organizational culture. The use of linguistic methods in a corporate acquisition. Management Communication Quarterly5(4): 403-442. doi: 10.1177/0893318992005004002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318992005004002 [Google Scholar]
  20. Baum, H
    (2006) Takeover law in the EU and Germany: Comparative analysis of a regulatory model. University of Tokyo Journal of Law and Politics3: 60-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bell, A
    (1984) Language style as audience design. Language in Society13(2): 145-204. doi: 10.1017/S004740450001037X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001037X [Google Scholar]
  22. Benoit, W.L. , & D’Agostine, J.M
    (1994) The case of the midnight judges and multiple audience discourse: Chief Justice Marshall and Marbury v. Madison. Southern Communication Journal59: 89-96. doi: 10.1080/10417949409372928
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10417949409372928 [Google Scholar]
  23. Berkovitch, E. , & Narayanan, M.P
    (1993) Motives for takeovers: An empirical investigation. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis28: 347-362. doi: 10.2307/2331418
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2331418 [Google Scholar]
  24. Berle, A. & G. Means
    (1991) The Modern Corporation and Private Property. New Brunswick (NJ): Transaction Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Berle, A.A. , & Means, G.C
    (1932) The modern corporation and private property. New York: Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bitzer, L.F
    (1968) The rhetorical situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric1-14.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Black, B.S
    (1989) Bidder overpayment in takeovers. Stanford Law Review41(3): 597-660. doi: 10.2307/1228881
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1228881 [Google Scholar]
  28. Bodie, Z. , A. Kane , A.J. Marcus , & S. Lynn
    (1992) Essentials of investments. London: McGraw Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Borek, T. , Buehler, S. , & Schmutzler, A
    (2004) Mergers under asymmetric information-is there a lemons problem?. Socioeconomic Institute Working Paper (0213) , University of Zurich.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bova, A. , & Arcidiacono, F
    (2013) Investigating children’s Why-questions: A study comparing argumentative and explanatory function. Discourse Studies. doi: 10.1177/1461445613490013
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445613490013 [Google Scholar]
  31. Bradley, M. , Desai, A. , & Kim, E.H
    (1983) The rationale behind interfirm tender offers: Information or synergy. Journal of Financial Economics11: 183-206. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(83)90010‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(83)90010-7 [Google Scholar]
  32. Brealey, R.A. , Myers, S.C. , & Allen, F
    (2008) Principles of Corporate Finance. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Brennan, N.M
    (1998) Disclosure of profit forecasts during takeovers: Evidence from directors and advisors. Edinburgh: Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (1999) Voluntary disclosure of profit forecasts by target companies in takeover bids. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting26(7/8): 883-917. doi: 10.1111/1468‑5957.00279
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5957.00279 [Google Scholar]
  35. Brennan, N
    (2000) An empirical examination of forecast disclosure by bidding companies. Accounting and Business Research30(3): 175-194. doi: 10.1080/00014788.2000.9728935
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00014788.2000.9728935 [Google Scholar]
  36. Brennan, N. , & Conroy, P
    (2013) Executive hubris: The case of a bank CEO. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal26(2): 172-195. doi: 10.1108/09513571311303701
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09513571311303701 [Google Scholar]
  37. Brennan, N.M. , Daly, C. , & Harrington, C
    . (2010). Rhetoric, argument and impression management in hostile takeover defence documents. British Accounting Review42(4): 253-268. doi: 10.1016/j.bar.2010.07.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bar.2010.07.008 [Google Scholar]
  38. Brennan, N.M. , & Gray, S.J
    (2000) Rhetoric and argument in financial reporting. Disclosures in profit forecasts and takeover documents. Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) , London (United Kingdom).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Brennan M. , & Tamarowski, C
    (2000) Investor relations, liquidity, and stock prices. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance12(4): 26-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1745‑6622.2000.tb00017.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6622.2000.tb00017.x [Google Scholar]
  40. Brennan, N.M. , Guillamon-Saorin, E. , & Pierce, A
    (2009) Impression management: Developing and illustrating a scheme of analysis for narrative disclosures – a methodological note. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal22(5): 789-832. doi: 10.1108/09513570910966379
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570910966379 [Google Scholar]
  41. Bruner, R.F
    (2004) Applied mergers and acquisitions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2005) Deals from hell. M&A lessons that rise above the ashes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Burrough, B. , & Helyar, J
    (1989) Barbarians at the gate: The fall of RJR Nabisco. New York: Harper & Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Cantoni, L
    (2005) La comunicazione interna, fra miti, riti, e modelli: un approccio formativo. FOR.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Carruthers, B.G. , & Espeland, W.N
    (1991) Accounting for rationality: Double-entry bookkeeping and the rhetoric of economic rationality. American Journal of Sociology97(1): 31-69. doi: 10.1086/229739
    https://doi.org/10.1086/229739 [Google Scholar]
  46. Chatterjee, S
    (1986) Types of synergy and economic values: The impact of acquisitions on merging and rival firms. Strategic Management Journal7: 119-139. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250070203
    https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250070203 [Google Scholar]
  47. Clark, H.H
    (1996) Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  48. Clarkson, K.W . et al. (
    2009) West’s business law (11th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South Western Educational Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Clatworthy, M. , & Jones, M.J
    (2001) The effect of thematic structure on the variability of annual report readability. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal14(3): 311-326. doi: 10.1108/09513570110399890
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570110399890 [Google Scholar]
  50. Clinch, G. , & Verrecchia, R.E
    (1997) Competitive disadvantage and discretionary disclosure in industries. Australian Journal of Management22(2): 125-138. doi: 10.1177/031289629702200201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/031289629702200201 [Google Scholar]
  51. Comment, R. , & Schwert, G.W
    (1995) Poison or placebo? Evidence on the deterrence and wealth effects of modern antitakeover measures. Journal of Financial Economics39(1): 3-43. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(94)00823‑J
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(94)00823-J [Google Scholar]
  52. Cooke, T.E. , Luther, R.G. , & Pears, B.R
    (1998) The information content of defence documents in UK hostile takeover bids. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting25(1-2): 115-143. doi: 10.1111/1468‑5957.00180
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5957.00180 [Google Scholar]
  53. Cornett-Devito, M.M. , & Friedman, P.G
    (1995) Corporate processes and merger success. Management Communication Quarterly9(1): 46-77. doi: 10.1177/0893318995009001003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318995009001003 [Google Scholar]
  54. Corvi, E
    (1997) Economia e gestione della comunicazione economico-finanziaria d'impresa. Milano: Egea.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2000) Comunicazione d'impresa e investor relation: la gestione della comunicazione economico-finanziaria. Milano: Egea.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Cottier, B. , & Palmieri, R
    (2008) From trust to betrayal. Communication Director4(8): 80-83.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Council of the European Union
    (2007) Report on the implementation of the directive on takeover bids. ec.europa.eu/internal_market/company/takeoverbids [last visit: September 2013]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Courtis, J.K
    (2004) Colour as visual rhetoric in financial reporting. Accounting Forum28(3): 265-281. doi: 10.1016/j.accfor.2004.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2004.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  59. Covaleski, M. , Dirsmith, M. , & Samuel, S
    (1995) The use of accounting information in governmental regulation and public administration: the impact of John R. Commons and early institutional economists. The Accounting Historians Journal22: 1-33.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Craig, R. , & Amernic, J
    (2011) Detecting linguistic traces of destructive narcissism at-a-distance in a CEO's letter to shareholders. Journal of Business Ethics101(4): 563-575. doi: 10.1007/s10551‑011‑0738‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0738-8 [Google Scholar]
  61. Craig, R. , Mortensen, T. , & Iyer, S
    (2013) Exploring top management language for signals of possible deception: The words of satyam's chair Ramalinga Raju. Journal of Business Ethics113(2): 333-347. doi: 10.1007/s10551‑012‑1307‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1307-5 [Google Scholar]
  62. Damodaran, A
    (2001) The dark side of valuation: Valuing old tech, new tech, and new economy companies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Halls.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. (2008) Strategic risk taking: A framework for risk management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Dascal, M
    (2003) Interpretation and understanding. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.120
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.120 [Google Scholar]
  65. Dechow, P.M. , & Skinner, D.J
    (2000) Earnings management: Reconciling the views of accounting academics, practitioners, and regulators. Accounting Horizons14(2): 235-250. doi: 10.2308/acch.2000.14.2.235
    https://doi.org/10.2308/acch.2000.14.2.235 [Google Scholar]
  66. Degeorge F. , Patel, J. , & Zeckhauser, R
    (1999) Earnings management to exceed thresholds. Journal of Business72(1): 1-33. doi: 10.1086/209601
    https://doi.org/10.1086/209601 [Google Scholar]
  67. Demers, C. , Giroux, N. , & Chreim, S
    (2003) Merger and acquisition announcements as corporate wedding narratives. Journal of Organizational Change Management16(2): 223-242. doi: 10.1108/09534810310468170
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810310468170 [Google Scholar]
  68. Demski, J.S
    (2003) Corporate conflicts of interests. The Journal of Economic Perspectives17(2): 51-72. doi: 10.1257/089533003765888421
    https://doi.org/10.1257/089533003765888421 [Google Scholar]
  69. (2003) Corporate conflicts of interest. Journal of Economic Perspectives17(2): 51-72. doi: 10.1257/089533003765888421
    https://doi.org/10.1257/089533003765888421 [Google Scholar]
  70. Diamond, D.W. , & Verrecchia, R.E
    (1991) Disclosure, liquidity, and the cost of capital. The Journal of Finance46(4): 1325-1359. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑6261.1991.tb04620.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1991.tb04620.x [Google Scholar]
  71. Dodd, P. , & Ruback, R
    (1977) Tender offers and stockholder returns, and empirical analysis. Journal of Financial Economics5: 351-373. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(77)90043‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(77)90043-5 [Google Scholar]
  72. Donaldson, T. , & Preston, L
    (1995) The stakeholder theory of the modern corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review20: 65-91.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Drill, M
    (1995) Investor Relations. Funktion, Instrumentarium und Management der Beziehungspflege zwischen schweizerischen Publikums-Aktiengesellschaften und ihren Investoren. Bern, Stuttgart, Wien: Verlag Paul Haupt.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Drucker, P.F
    (1986) Corporate takeovers – What is to be done?The Public Interest82: 3-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Duhaime, I.M. , & C.R. Schwenk
    (1985) Conjectures on cognitive simplification in acquisition and divestment decision making. Academy of Management Review10: 287-295.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Easterbrook, F.H. , & D.R. Fischel
    (1981) The proper role of target’s management in responding to a tender offer. Harvard Law Review94: 1161-1204. doi: 10.2307/1340753
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1340753 [Google Scholar]
  77. Eddey, P.H. , & Taylor, S.L
    (1999) Directors’ recommendations on takeover bids and the management of earnings: Evidence from Australian takeovers. Abacus35(1): 29-45. doi: 10.1111/1467‑6281.00033
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6281.00033 [Google Scholar]
  78. van Eemeren, F.H
    (2010) Strategic maneuvering in argumentative discourse. Extending the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.2 [Google Scholar]
  79. (2013) Fallacies as derailments of argumentative discourse: Acceptance based on understanding and critical assessment. Journal of Pragmatics. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.06.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.06.006 [Google Scholar]
  80. van Eemeren, F.H. , & Garssen, B.J
    (Eds.) (2012) Exploring argumentative contexts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.4 [Google Scholar]
  81. van Eemeren, F.H. , & Grootendorst, R
    (1984) Speech acts in argumentative discussions. Dodrecht, NL/ Cinnamon, USA: Foris. doi: 10.1515/9783110846089
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110846089 [Google Scholar]
  82. (1992) Argumentation, communication, and fallacies. A pragma-dialectical perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. (2004) A systematic theory of argumentation: The pragma-dialectical account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. van Eemeren, F.H. , Grootendorst, R. , Jackson, S. , & Jacobs, S
    (1993) Reconstructing argumentative discourse. Tuscaloosa/London: The University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. van Eemeren, F.H. , & Houtlosser, P
    (1999) Strategic manoeuvring in argumentative discourse. Discourse Studies1(4): 479-497. doi: 10.1177/1461445699001004005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445699001004005 [Google Scholar]
  86. (2000) Rhetorical analysis within a pragma-dialectical framework. Argumentation14(3): 293-305. doi: 10.1023/A:1007857114100
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007857114100 [Google Scholar]
  87. (2002) Strategic maneuvering. Maintaining a delicate balance. In F.H. van Eemeren , & P. Houtlosser (Eds.), Dialectic and rhetoric: The warp and woof of argumentation analysis (pp. 131-159). Dordrecht: Kluver. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑015‑9948‑1_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9948-1_10 [Google Scholar]
  88. (2005) Theoretical construction and argumentative reality: An analytic model of critical discussion and conventionalised types of argumentative activity. In D. Hitchcock (Ed.), The uses of argument. OSSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. van Eemeren, F.H. , & Grootendorst, R. , & Snoeck Henkemans, A.F
    (2002) Argumentation. Analysis, evaluation, presentation. Manhaw, NJ: LEA.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. van Eemeren, F.H. , Houtlosser, P. , & Snoeck Henkemans, A.F
    (2007) Argumentative indicators in discourse: A pragma-dialectical study. Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑6244‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6244-5 [Google Scholar]
  91. Eisenberg, E.M
    (1984) Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication. Communication monographs, 51(3), 227-242. doi: 10.1080/03637758409390197
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758409390197 [Google Scholar]
  92. Eisenhardt, K.M
    (1989) Agency theory: An assessment and review. The Academy of Management Review14(1): 57-74.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Fama, E
    (1967) The behaviour of stock market prices. Journal of Business38: 34-105. doi: 10.1086/294743
    https://doi.org/10.1086/294743 [Google Scholar]
  94. (1970) Efficient capital markets. A review of theory and empirical work. The Journal of Finance25(2): 383-417. doi: 10.2307/2325486
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2325486 [Google Scholar]
  95. Fama, E. , & Jensen, M
    (1983) Separation of ownership and control. Journal of Law and Economics26: 301-325 doi: 10.1086/467037
    https://doi.org/10.1086/467037 [Google Scholar]
  96. Fama, E. , & Miller, M
    (1971) Information and capital markets. The Journal of Business44(3): 289-298. doi: 10.1086/295379
    https://doi.org/10.1086/295379 [Google Scholar]
  97. Fernandez, P
    (2001) Valuation using multiples: How do analysts reach their conclusions? SSRN .
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Filimon, I.A
    (2009) Kyosei—an example of cultural keyword argumentatively exploited in corporate reporting discourse. Studies in Communication Sciences9(2): 131-152.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Fiocca, R
    (1993) Relazioni, valore e comunicazione d’impresa: la comunicazione integrata nell’economia delle imprese. Milano: EGEA.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Fiocca, R. , & Corvi, E
    (1996) Comunicazione e valore nelle relazioni d’impresa. Milano: EGEA.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Fisher, A
    (1988) The logic of real arguments. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Fisher, R. , & Ury, W
    (1991) Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.). New York: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Fishman, M.J. , & Hagerty, K.M
    (2003) Mandatory versus voluntary disclosure in markets with informed and uninformed customers. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization19(1): 45-63. doi: 10.1093/jleo/19.1.45
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jleo/19.1.45 [Google Scholar]
  104. Frankel, R. , McNichols, M. , & Wilson, G.P
    (1995) Discretionary disclosure and external financing. The Accounting Review70(1): 135-150.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Freeman, R.E
    (1984) Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Friedman, M
    (1970) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. The New York Times Magazine. September13 1970.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Garssen, B
    (2001) Argument schemes. In F.H. van Eemeren (Ed.), Crucial concepts in argumentation theory (pp. 81-99). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  108. (2009) Comparing the incomparable: Figurative analogies in a dialectical testing procedure. In F.H. van Eemeren , & B.J. Garssen (Eds.), Pondering on problems of argumentation (pp. 133-140). Springer: New York. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑9165‑0_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9165-0_10 [Google Scholar]
  109. Gilson, R.J. , & Black, B.S
    (1995) The law and finance of corporate acquisitions (2nd ed.). Westbury/New York: The Foundation Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Gjesdal, F
    (1981) Accounting for stewardship. Journal of Accounting Research19(1): 208-231. doi: 10.2307/2490970
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2490970 [Google Scholar]
  111. Gobber, G. , & Palmieri, R
    (2014) Argumentation in institutional founding documents. The case of Switzerland’s Foedus Pactum. In G. Gobber , & A. Rocci (Eds.), Language, reason and education. Studies in honor of Eddo Rigotti by his students and colleagues. Bern: Peter Lang. doi: 10.3726/978‑3‑0352‑0268‑7
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-0352-0268-7 [Google Scholar]
  112. Goergen, M. , & Renneboog, L
    (2002) Shareholder wealth effects of large European takeover bids. SSRN .
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Goffman, E
    (1969) Strategic interaction. Philadeplhia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. (1981) Forms of talk. Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Gort, M
    (1969) An economic disturbance theory of mergers. Quarterly Journal of Economics83: 624-642. doi: 10.2307/1885453
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1885453 [Google Scholar]
  116. Govier, T
    (1987) Problems in argument analysis and evaluation. Dordrecht: Foris.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Grant, R.M
    (2010) Contemporary strategy analysis and cases: Text and cases. London: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Greco Morasso, S
    (2008) Argumentative and other communicative strategies of the mediation practice. Ph.D. Thesis, USI, Lugano.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. (2011) Argumentation in dispute mediation. A reasonable way to handle conflict. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.3 [Google Scholar]
  120. (2013) Multivoiced decisions: A study of migrants' inner dialogue and its connection to social argumentation. Pragmatics & Cognition21(1): 55-80. doi: 10.1075/pc.21.1.03mor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.21.1.03mor [Google Scholar]
  121. Green, S.E
    (2001) Rhetoric and the institutionalization of takeover defenses in the S&P 1500 from 1975-1998. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. (2004) A rhetorical theory of diffusion. Academy of Management Review29(4): 653-669.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Green, S.E. , Babb, M. , & Alpaslan, C.M
    (2008) Institutional field dynamics and the competition between institutional logics. The role of rhetoric in the evolving control of the modern corporation. Management Communication Quarterly22(1): 40-73. doi: 10.1177/0893318908318430
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318908318430 [Google Scholar]
  124. Grinblatt, M. , & Titman, S
    (1998) Financial markets and corporate strategy. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Grossman, S.J. , & Hart, O.D
    (1980) Takeover bids, the free-rider problem, and the theory of the corporation. The Bell Journal of Economics42-64. doi: 10.2307/3003400
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3003400 [Google Scholar]
  126. Grunig, J.E. , & Repper, F.C
    (1992) Strategic management, publics and issues. In J.E. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in public relations and communication management (pp.117-157). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Haan-Kamminga, A
    (2006) Supervision on takeover bids: A comparison of regulatory arrangements. Deventer: Kluwer.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Hakansson H. , & Snehota, I
    (1995) Developing relationships in business networks. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Hamblin, C.L
    (1970) Fallacies. London: Methuen.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Harford, J
    (2005) What drives merger waves?Journal of Financial Economics77(3): 529-560. doi: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2004.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfineco.2004.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  131. Hartelius, E.J. , & Browning, L.D
    (2008) The Application of Rhetorical Theory in Managerial Research A Literature Review. Management Communication Quarterly22(1): 13-39 doi: 10.1177/0893318908318513
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318908318513 [Google Scholar]
  132. Hastings, A.C
    (1962) A reformulation of the modes of reasoning in argumentation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Haunschild, P.R. , Davis-Blake, A. , & Fichman, M
    (1994) Managerial overcommitment in corporate acquisition processes. Organization Science5(4): 528-540. doi: 10.1287/orsc.5.4.528
    https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.5.4.528 [Google Scholar]
  134. Healy, P.M. , & Palepu, K.G
    (2001) Information asymmetry, corporate disclosure, and the capital markets: A review of the empirical disclosure literature. Journal of Accounting and Economics31: 405-440. doi: 10.1016/S0165‑4101(01)00018‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-4101(01)00018-0 [Google Scholar]
  135. Healy, P.M. , & Wahlen, J.M
    (1999) A review of the earnings management literature and its implications for standard setting. Accounting Horizons13(4): 365-383 doi: 10.2308/acch.1999.13.4.365
    https://doi.org/10.2308/acch.1999.13.4.365 [Google Scholar]
  136. Hendry, J
    (2005) Beyond self-interest: Agency theory and the board in a satisficing world. British Journal of Management16: 55-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑8551.2005.00447.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00447.x [Google Scholar]
  137. Hirshleifer, J
    (1958) The theory of optimal investment decisions. Journal of Political Economy66: 329-352. doi: 10.1086/258057
    https://doi.org/10.1086/258057 [Google Scholar]
  138. Hooghiemstra, R
    (2000) Corporate communication and impression management – new perspectives why companies engage in corporate social reporting. Journal of Business Ethics27: 55-68. doi: 10.1023/A:1006400707757
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006400707757 [Google Scholar]
  139. Hopmann, T.P
    (1996) The negotiation process and the resolution of international conflicts. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Höpner, M. , & Jackson, G
    (2001) An emerging market for corporate control? The Mannesmann takeover and German corporate governance. Discussion Paper 01/4. Max Planck institute for the Study of Societies, Cologne.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. (2006) Revisiting the Mannesmann takeover: How markets for corporate control emerge. European Management Review3: 142-155. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.emr.1500061
    https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.emr.1500061 [Google Scholar]
  142. Hubbard, R.G
    (1997) Money, the financial system, and the economy. Reading Mass: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Humphery-Jenner, M
    (2012) The impact of the EU takeover directive on takeover performance and empire building. Journal of Corporate Finance18(2): 254-272. doi: 10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2011.12.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2011.12.004 [Google Scholar]
  144. Hursti, K
    (2011) Management earnings forecasts. Could an investor reliably detect an Unduly positive bias on the basis of the strength of the argumentation?Journal of Business Communication48(4): 393-408. doi: 10.1177/0021943611414538
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943611414538 [Google Scholar]
  145. Jackson, S
    (1986) Building a case for claims about discourse structure. In D.G. Ellis , & W.A. Donohue (Eds.), Contemporary issues in language and discourse processes (pp. 169-186). Hillsdale, N.J./London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Jacobs, G
    (1999) Preformulating the news: An analysis of the metapragmatics of press releases. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.60
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.60 [Google Scholar]
  147. Jacobs, S
    (1986) How to make an argument from example in discourse analysis. In D.G. Ellis , & W.A. Donohue (Eds.), Contemporary issues in language and discourse processes (pp. 149-167). Hillsdale, N.J./London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. (2000) Rhetoric and dialectic from the standpoint of normative pragmatics. Argumentation14(3): 261-286. doi: 10.1023/A:1007853013191
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007853013191 [Google Scholar]
  149. Jameson, D.A
    (2000) Telling the investment story: A narrative analysis of shareholder reports. Journal of Business Communication37(1): 7-38. doi: 10.1177/002194360003700101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002194360003700101 [Google Scholar]
  150. (2004) Conceptualizing the writer-reader relationship in business prose. Journal of Business Communication41(3): 227-264. doi: 10.1177/0021943604265953
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943604265953 [Google Scholar]
  151. Jasinski, J
    (2001) Sourcebook on rhetoric. Key concepts in contemporary rhetorical studies. Thousand Oaks, CA/London/New Dehli: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781452233222
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452233222 [Google Scholar]
  152. Jensen, M.C
    (1986a) The takeover controversy: Analysis and evidence. Midland Corporate Finance Journal4(2): 6-27.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. (1986b) Agency costs of free cash flow, corporate finance, and takeovers. American Economic Review76: 323-329.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. (1988) Takeovers: Their causes and consequences. The Journal of Economic Perspectives2(1): 21-48. doi: 10.1257/jep.2.1.21
    https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.2.1.21 [Google Scholar]
  155. (1988) Takeovers: Their causes and consequences. The Journal of Economic Perspectives2(1): 21-48. doi: 10.1257/jep.2.1.21
    https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.2.1.21 [Google Scholar]
  156. Jensen, M. , & Meckling, W.H
    (1976) Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics3(4): 305-360. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(76)90026‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(76)90026-X [Google Scholar]
  157. Jensen, M.C. , & Meckling, W.H
    (1994) The nature of man. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance7(2): 4-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1745‑6622.1994.tb00401.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6622.1994.tb00401.x [Google Scholar]
  158. Jensen, M.C. , & Ruback, R.S
    (1983) The market for corporate control: The scientific evidence. Journal of Financial Economics11: 5-50. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(83)90004‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(83)90004-1 [Google Scholar]
  159. Johnson, R.H
    (2000) Manifest rationality: A pragmatic theory of argument. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Kaplan, S
    (1987) Management buyouts: Efficiency gains or value transfers. Harvard Business School Working Paper .
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Kauffeld, F.J
    (1986) Accusing, proposing, and advising: The strategic grounds for presumption and the assumption of probative responsibilities. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. (1995) The persuasive force of arguments on behalf of proposals. In F.H. van Eemeren , R. Grootendorst , J.A. Blair , & C.A. Willard (Eds.), Analysis and Evaluation: Proceedings of the Third ISSA Conference on Argumentation (Vol. II, pp. 79-90). Amsterdam: International Centre for the Study of Argumentation.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. (1998) Presumption and the distribution of argumentative burdens in acts of proposing and accusing. Argumentation12(2): 245-266. doi: 10.1023/A:1007704116379
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007704116379 [Google Scholar]
  164. (1999) Dialectical tier argumentation as structured by proposing and advising. OSSA Conference , St. Catherines, Ontario.
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Kienpointner, M
    (1992) Alltagslogik: Struktur und Funktion von Argumentationsmustern. Stuttgart, Germany: Fromman-Holzboog.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Kirzner, I
    (1973) Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chigaco Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Kitching, J
    (1967) Why do mergers miscarry?Harvard Business Review45(6): 84-101.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Knorr, A. , & Arndt, A
    (2004) Alliance strategy and the fall of Swissair: A comment. Journal of Air Transport Management10(2): 119-123. doi: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2003.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2003.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  169. Koestner, S.M
    (1977) Standard of materiality in the context of the proxy rules: TSC v. Northway. Ohio St. LJ38: 379.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Lambert, R. , Leuz, C. , & Verrecchia, R.E
    (2007) Accounting Information, Disclosure, and the Cost of Capital. Journal of Accounting Research45(2). doi: 10.1111/j.1475‑679X.2007.00238.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-679X.2007.00238.x [Google Scholar]
  171. Lambrecht. B.M
    (2005) Mergers and acquisitions as a response to economic change. Journal of Financial Transformation13: 73-76.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Laskin, A.V
    (2009) A descriptive account of the investor relations profession a national study. Journal of Business Communication46(2): 208-233. doi: 10.1177/0021943608328078
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943608328078 [Google Scholar]
  173. Law, W.A
    (1986) A corporation is more than its stock. Harvard Business Review3: 80-83.
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Lee, C.F. , & Lee, A.C
    (2006) Encyclopedia of Finance. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑26336‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-26336-6 [Google Scholar]
  175. Leland, H.E. , & Pyle, D.H
    (1977) Informational asymmetries, financial structure, and financial intermediation. Journal of Finance32(2): 371-387. doi: 10.2307/2326770
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2326770 [Google Scholar]
  176. Lev, B
    (1992) Information disclosure strategy. California Management Review34: 9-32. doi: 10.2307/41166701
    https://doi.org/10.2307/41166701 [Google Scholar]
  177. Levinson, S.C
    (1979/1992) Activity type and language. Linguistics17. Reprinted in: P. Drew, & J. Heritage (Eds.). Talk at work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-100. doi: 10.1515/ling.1979.17.5‑6.365
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1979.17.5-6.365 [Google Scholar]
  178. Lewicki, J.R. , Saunders, M.D. , & Minton, W.J
    (1996) Essentials of negotiation (older ed.). Irwin McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Lewiński, M
    (2010) Internet political discussion forums as an argumentative activity type: A pragma-dialectical analysis of online forms of strategic manoeuvring in reacting critically. Ph.D. dissertation, Rozenberg Publishers, Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Lipton, M
    (2006) Merger waves in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. The Davies Lecture , Osgoode Hall Law School, York University 14.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Lowenstein, L
    (1985) Management buyouts. Columbia Law Review85: 730-784. doi: 10.2307/1122333
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1122333 [Google Scholar]
  182. Mann, S
    (1997) Agency theory. In J. Garrett (Ed.), The Blackwell enclyclopedia of management (2nd ed.). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Manne, H.G
    (1965) Mergers and the market for corporate control. Journal of Political Economy73: 110-120. doi: 10.1086/259000
    https://doi.org/10.1086/259000 [Google Scholar]
  184. Marston, C
    (1996) Investor relations: Meeting the analysts. Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Mazzali-Lurati, S
    (2011) Genere e portatori di interesse: due nozioni-chiave per la scrittura nelle organizzazioni. Cultura e comunicazione4: 12-18.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Mazzali-Lurati S. & C. Pollaroli
    (2014) A Pragma-Semiotic Analysis of Advertisements as Multimodal Texts. A case study, In: A. Maiorani & C. Christie (Eds.), Multimodal Epistemologies: Towards an Integrated Framework (pp. 66-82). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. McCawley, J.D
    (1999) Participant roles, frames and speech acts. Linguistics and Philosophy22: 595-619 doi: 10.1023/A:1005563915544
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005563915544 [Google Scholar]
  188. McLaren, Y. , & Gurǎu, C
    (2005) Characterising the genre of the corporate press release. LSP and Professional Communication5(1): 10-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Merkl-Davies, D.M. , & Brennan, N.M
    (2007) Discretionary disclosure strategies in corporate narratives: Incremental information or impression management?Journal of Accounting Literature26: 116-196.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. (2011) A conceptual framework of impression management: New insights from psychology, sociology and critical perspectives. Accounting and Business Research41(5): 415-437. doi: 10.1080/00014788.2011.574222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00014788.2011.574222 [Google Scholar]
  191. Miller, C.R
    (1984) Genre as social action. Quarterly Journal of Speech70(2): 151-167. doi: 10.1080/00335638409383686
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00335638409383686 [Google Scholar]
  192. Mintzberg, H. , Ahlstrand, B. , & Lampel, J.B
    (2010) Management - It's not what you think. FT Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  193. von Mises, L
    (1949) Human action: A treatise on economics. Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  194. (1962) The ultimate foundation of economic science: An essay on method (2nd ed.). Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Mishkin, F.S. , & Eakins, S
    (2008) Financial markets and Institutions (6th ed.). Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Mitchell, M.L. , & Muhlerin, J.H
    (1996) The impact of industry shocks on takeover and restructuring activity. Journal of Financial Economics4: 193-229. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(95)00860‑H
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(95)00860-H [Google Scholar]
  197. Monks, R.A.G. , & Minow, N
    (2004) Corporate governance. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Morck, R. , Shleifer, A. , & Vishny, R.W
    (1988) Characteristics of targets of hostile and friendly takeovers. In A.J. Auerbach (Ed.), Corporate takeovers: Causes and consequences (pp. 101-136). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  199. (1990) Do managerial objectives drive bad acquisitions?The Journal of Finance45(1): 31-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑6261.1990.tb05079.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1990.tb05079.x [Google Scholar]
  200. Mueller, D.C
    (1969) A theory of conglomerate mergers. Quarterly Journal of Economics83: 643-659. doi: 10.2307/1885454
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1885454 [Google Scholar]
  201. Muller-Mirza, N. , & Perret-Clermont, A.-N
    (1999) Dimensions institutionnelles, interpersonnelles et culturelles d’un dispositif pour penser et apprendre. Cahiers de Psychologie35: 3-15.
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Myers, S.C
    (1976) Introduction: A framework for evaluating mergers. In S.C. Myers (Ed.), Modern developments in financial management (pp. 633-645). New York: Praeger.
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Myers, S.C. , & Majluf, N.S
    (1984) Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have. Journal of Financial Economics13(2): 187-221. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(84)90023‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(84)90023-0 [Google Scholar]
  204. Nelson, R.L
    (1959) Merger movements in American industry, 1895–1956., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press/NBER.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Nowak E
    (2001) Recent developments in German capital markets and corporate governance. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance14(3): 35-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1745‑6622.2001.tb00436.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6622.2001.tb00436.x [Google Scholar]
  206. Olson, K.M
    (2009) Rethinking loci communes and Burkean transcendence. rhetorical leadership while contesting change in the takeover struggle between AirTran and Midwest airlines. Journal of Business and Technical Communication23(1): 28-60. doi: 10.1177/1050651908324378
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1050651908324378 [Google Scholar]
  207. Palmieri, R
    (2004) La negoziazione: approcci fondamentali e strumenti bibliografici. Elaborato finale. Lugano: USI.
    [Google Scholar]
  208. (2008a) Reconstructing argumentative interactions in M&A offers. Studies in Communication Sciences8(2): 279-302.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Palmieri R
    (2008b) Argumentative dialogues in Mergers & Acquisitions (M&As): Evidence from investors and analysts conference calls. In G. Gobber , S. Cantarini , S. Cigada , M.C. Gatti , & S. Gilardoni (Eds.), Word meaning in argumentative dialogue. Special issue of L’analisi linguistica e letterariaXVI(2): 859-872.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Palmieri, R
    (2009) Regaining trust through argumentation in the context of the current financial-economic crisis. Studies in Communication Sciences9(2): 59-78.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. (2012a) « Acte de Dieu » ou « Erreur humaine » ? – Analyse argumentative du débat relative à la crise de l’automobile de Détroit (2008). ILCEA15.
    [Google Scholar]
  212. (2012b) The diversifying of contextual constraints and argumentative strategies in friendly and hostile takeover bids. In F.H. van Eemeren , & B. Garssen (Eds.), Exploring argumentative contexts (pp. 341-376). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.4.20pal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.4.20pal [Google Scholar]
  213. Palmieri R. , & Palmieri, C
    . (2012). Text types, activity types and the genre system of financial communication. In L. Gautier (Ed.) Les discoures de la bourse et de la finance [Forum Für Fachsprachen-Forschung]. (pp.85-105Berlin: Frank und Timme (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Pastena, V. , & Ruland, W
    (1986) The merger/bankruptcy alternative. The Accounting Review61(2): 288-301
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Patton, B
    2005 Negotiation. In M.L Moffit , & R.C. Bordone (Eds.), The handbook of dispute resolution (pp. 279-303). Harvard: PON.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Perelman, C. , & Olbrechts-Tyteca, L
    (1958) La nouvelle rhétorique. Traité de l’argumentation. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Pinto, R.C
    (2001) Argument, inference and dialectic: Collected papers on informal logic (Vol. 4). Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑017‑0783‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0783-1 [Google Scholar]
  218. Porter, M.E
    (1987) From competitive advantage to corporate strategy. Harvard Business Review65(3): 43-59.
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Porter, J. , & Singh, H
    (2010) What factors drive takeovers in Australia?. International Journal of Business and Economics9(2): 87-103.
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Post, J.E. , Preston, L.E. , & Sauter-Sachs, S
    (2002) Redefining the corporation: Stakeholder management and organizational wealth. Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Pound, J
    (1987) The effects of antitakeover amendments on takeover activity: Some direct evidence. Journal of Law and Economics30(2): 353-367. doi: 10.1086/467140
    https://doi.org/10.1086/467140 [Google Scholar]
  222. (1988) The information effects of takeover bids and resistance. Journal of Financial Economics22: 207-227. doi: 10.1016/0304‑405X(88)90069‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(88)90069-4 [Google Scholar]
  223. Ravenscraft, D.J. , & Scherer, F.M
    (1987) Mergers, sell-offs, and economic efficiency. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    [Google Scholar]
  224. van Rees, A.M. , & Rigotti, E
    (2011) The analysis of the strategic function of presentational techniques. In E. Feteris , B Garssen , & F. Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.), Keeping in touch with pragma-dialectics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1007/s10503‑012‑9270‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-012-9270-y [Google Scholar]
  225. Rhoades, S.A
    (1983) Power, empire building, and mergers. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Rhodes-Kropf, M. , & Viswanathan, S
    (2004) Market valuation and merger waves. The Journal of Finance59(6): 2685-2718. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑6261.2004.00713.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2004.00713.x [Google Scholar]
  227. Rigotti, E
    (1993) La sequenza testuale. L’analisi linguistica e letteraria1: 43-148.
    [Google Scholar]
  228. (2003) La linguistica tra le scienze della comunicazione. In A. Giacalone-Ramat , E. Rigotti , & A. Rocci (Eds.), Linguistica e nuove professioni. Milano: Franco Angeli.
    [Google Scholar]
  229. (2005) Towards a typology of manipulative processes. In L. Saussure , & P. Schulz (Eds.), Manipulation and ideologies in the twenthieth century (pp. 61-84). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/dapsac.17.05rig
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.17.05rig [Google Scholar]
  230. (2006) Relevance of context-bound loci to topical potential in the argumentation stage. Argumentation20(4): 519-540. doi: 10.1007/s10503‑007‑9034‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-007-9034-2 [Google Scholar]
  231. (2008) Locus a causa finali. In G. Gobber , S. Cantarini , S. Cigada , M.C. Gatti , & S. Gilardoni (Eds), Word meaning in argumentative dialogue. Special issue of L’analisi linguistica e letterariaXVI(2): 559-576.
    [Google Scholar]
  232. (2009a) Whether and how classical topics can be revived in the contemporary theory of argumentation. In F.H. van Eemeren , & B.J. Garssen (Eds.), Pondering on problems of argumentation (pp. 157-178). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑9165‑0_12
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9165-0_12 [Google Scholar]
  233. (2009b) Gli agganci *forici nella struttura dei connettivi testuali. In F. Venier (Ed.), Tra pragmatica e linguistica testuale (pp. 421-440). Alessandria: Edizioni dell'Orso.
    [Google Scholar]
  234. (2010) Tradition and innovation in Rudolph Agricola. In F.H. van Eemeren , B. Garssen , D. Godden , G. Mitchell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th ISSA Conference (pp. 1687-1699). Amsterdam: Rozemberg & Sic Sat.
    [Google Scholar]
  235. (2014) The nature and functions of loci in Agricola’s De Inuentione Dialectica . Argumentation28(1): 19-37). doi: 10.1007/s10503‑013‑9303‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-013-9303-1 [Google Scholar]
  236. Rigotti, E. , & Cicada, S
    (2004) La comunicazione verbale. Milano: Apogeo
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Rigotti, E. , & Greco Morasso, S
    (2005) Topics: The argument generator. Argumentum eLearning module. www.argumentum.ch.
    [Google Scholar]
  238. (2009a) Argumentation as an object of interest and as a social and cultural resource. In N. Muller-Mirza , & A.N. Perret-Clermont (Eds.), Argumentation and education (pp. 9-66). New York: Springer, doi: 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑98125‑3_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-98125-3_2 [Google Scholar]
  239. (2009b) Editorial & guest editors’ introduction: Argumentative processes and communication contexts. Studies in Communication Sciences9(2): 5-18.
    [Google Scholar]
  240. (2010) Comparing the argumentum-model of topics with other contemporary approaches to argument schemes: The procedural and the material components. Argumentation24(4): 489-512. doi: 10.1007/s10503‑010‑9190‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-010-9190-7 [Google Scholar]
  241. Rigotti, E. , Greco Morasso, S. , & Palmieri, R
    (2008) Financial argumentation. Argumentum elearning module. www.argumentum.ch.
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Rigotti, E. , & Palmieri, R
    (2010) Analyzing and evaluating complex argumentation in an economic-financial context. In C. Reed , & C.W. Tindale (Eds.), Dialectics, dialogue and argumentation. An examination of Douglas Walton's theories of reasoning (pp. 85-99). London: College.
    [Google Scholar]
  243. (2014) Reasonable suspicion as an argumentative move. Semantic analysis of a pivotal concept in anti-money laundering procedures.
  244. Rigotti, E. , & Rocci, A
    (2001) Sens–non-sens–contresens. Studies in Communication Sciences1: 45-80.
    [Google Scholar]
  245. (2006): Towards a definition of communication context. Foundations of an interdisciplinary approach to communication. Studies in Communication Sciences (special issue): 155-180.
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Rocci, A
    (2006) Pragmatic inference and argumentation in intercultural communication. Intercultural Pragmatics3(4): 409-442. doi: 10.1515/IP.2006.026
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IP.2006.026 [Google Scholar]
  247. (2009) Manoeuvring with voices: The polyphonic framing of arguments in an institutional advertisement. In F.H. van Eemeren (Ed.), Examining argumentation in context. Fifteen studies on strategic manoeuvring (pp. 257-283). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.1.15roc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.1.15roc [Google Scholar]
  248. Roll, R
    (1986) The Hubris hypothesis of corporate takeovers. The Journal of Business59(2): 197-216. doi: 10.1086/296325
    https://doi.org/10.1086/296325 [Google Scholar]
  249. Rosenbaum, V.K
    (2006) Corporate takeover defenses. Washington, D.C.: Responsibility Research Center Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  250. Ross, S.A
    (1973) The economic theory of agency: The principal’s problem. The American Economic Review63(2): 134-139.
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Ross, S.A. , Westerfield, R.W. , & Jaffe, J
    (2003) Corporate finance (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  252. Ross, W.D
    (Ed.) (1958) Aristotelis Topica et Sophistici Elenchi. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  253. (Ed.) (1959) Aristotelis Ars Rhetorica. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Ruback, R.S
    (1988) An overview of takeover defenses. In A.J. Auerback (Ed.), Mergers and acquisitions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Rutherford, B.A
    (2003) The social construction of financial statement elements under private finance initiative schemes. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal16(3): 372-396. doi: 10.1108/09513570310482336
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570310482336 [Google Scholar]
  256. Ryder, N. , & Regester, M
    (1989) Investor relations. London: Hutchinson Business Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Schipper, K
    (1989) Commentary on earnings management. Accounting Horizon3: 91-102.
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Schlenker, B.R
    (1980) Impression management: The self-concept, social identity, and interpersonal relations. Montery: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Schweiger, D.M. , & DeNisi, A.S
    (1991) Communication with employees following a merger: A longitudinal field experiment. The Academy of Management Journal34/1: 110-135. doi: 10.2307/256304
    https://doi.org/10.2307/256304 [Google Scholar]
  260. Searle, J.R
    (1995) The construction of social reality. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  261. (2005) What is an institution?Journal of Institutional Economics1(1): 1-22. doi: 10.1017/S1744137405000020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744137405000020 [Google Scholar]
  262. Segall, J
    (1968) Merging for fun and profit. Industrial Management Review9(2): 17-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  263. Shleifer, A. , & Summers, L.H
    (1988) Breach of trust in hostile takeovers. In A.J. Auerbach (Ed.), Corporate takeovers: Causes and consequences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Shleifer, A. , & Vishny, R.W
    (2003) Stock market driven acquisitions. Journal of Financial Economics70(3): 295-311. doi: 10.1016/S0304‑405X(03)00211‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-405X(03)00211-3 [Google Scholar]
  265. Shrieves, R.E. , & Stevens, D.L
    (1979) Bankruptcy avoidance as a motive for merger. The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis14(3): 501-515. doi: 10.2307/2330183
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2330183 [Google Scholar]
  266. Sirower, M.L
    (1997) The synergy trap: How lose the acquisition game. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Sirower, M.L. , & Lipin, S
    (2003) Investor communications: New rules for M&A success. Financial Executive19: 26-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Smith, H.J
    (2003) The shareholders vs. stakeholders debate. Sloan Management Review44(4): 85-90.
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Smith, M
    (2004) Corporate financial communication and voluntary disclosure. Accounting Forum28(3): 201-203. doi: 10.1016/j.accfor.2004.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2004.08.004 [Google Scholar]
  270. Snehota I
    (1993) Market as network and the nature of the market process. In D. Sharma , & T.S. Cavusgil (Eds.), Advances in marketing (pp. 31-41). Greenwich: JAI Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Snehota, I
    (2004) Perspectives and theories of market. In H. Hakansson , D. Harrison , & A. Waluszewski (Eds.), Rethinking marketing. Developing a new understanding of markets (pp. 15-32). London: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  272. Snoeck Henkemans, A.F
    (1997) Analyzing complex argumentation. The reconstruction of multiple and coordinatively compound argumentation in a critical discussion. Amsterdam: Sic Sat.
    [Google Scholar]
  273. (1999) Argument or explanation? Propositional relations as clues for distinguishing arguments from explanations. Proceedings of the IV ISSA Conference , 757-760.
    [Google Scholar]
  274. (2000) State-of-the-art. The structure of argumentation. Argumentation14(4): 447-473. doi: 10.1023/A:1007800305762
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007800305762 [Google Scholar]
  275. (2001) Argumentation structures. In F.H. van Eemeren (Ed.), Crucial concepts in argumentation theory (pp. 101-134). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  276. (2001) Argumentation, explanation and causality: An exploration of current linguistic approaches to textual relations. In T. Sanders , J. Schilperoord , & W. Spooren (Eds.), Text representation: Linguistic and psycholinguistic aspects (pp. 231-246). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/hcp.8.12hen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.8.12hen [Google Scholar]
  277. Sudarsanam, P.S
    (1995) The role of defensive strategies and ownership structure of target firms: Evidence from UK hostile takeover bids. European Financial Management1(3): 223-240. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑036X.1995.tb00018.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-036X.1995.tb00018.x [Google Scholar]
  278. Sycara, K
    (1990) Persuasive argumentation in negotiation. Theory and Decision28(3): 203-242. doi: 10.1007/BF00162699
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00162699 [Google Scholar]
  279. Thompson, G
    (1991) Is accounting rhetorical? Methodology, Luca Pacioli and printing. Accounting, Organizations and Society16(5-6): 572-599. doi: 10.1016/0361‑3682(91)90042‑D
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682(91)90042-D [Google Scholar]
  280. Tindale, C.W
    (2004) Rhetorical argumentation: Principles of theory and practice. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Toulmin, S.E
    (1958) The uses of argument. Cambridge: At the University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Trautwein, F
    (1990) Merger motives and merger prescriptions. Strategic Management Journal11: 283-295. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250110404
    https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250110404 [Google Scholar]
  283. Vaara, E. , & Monin, P
    (2010) A recursive perspective on discursive legitimation and organizational action in mergers and acquisitions. Organization Science21(1): 3-22. doi: 10.1287/orsc.1080.0394
    https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1080.0394 [Google Scholar]
  284. Verrecchia, R.E
    (1983) Discretionary disclosure. Journal of Accounting and Economics5: 179-194. doi: 10.1016/0165‑4101(83)90011‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-4101(83)90011-3 [Google Scholar]
  285. Walkling, R.A. , & Long, M.S
    (1984) Agency theory, managerial welfare, and takeover bid resistance. The Rand Journal of Economics15: 54-68. doi: 10.2307/3003669
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3003669 [Google Scholar]
  286. Walton, D.N
    (1990) Practical reasoning: Goal-driven,knowledge-based, action-guiding argumentation. Savage.
    [Google Scholar]
  287. (1997) Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments from authority. University Park, Pa.: PennState Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  288. (2006) Fundamentals of critical argumentation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  289. (2008) Witness testimony evidence: Argumentation, artificial intelligence and law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  290. (2009) Explanations and arguments based on practical reasoning. Proceedings of Workshop W10: Explanation-Aware Computing, Twenty-First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence , 72-83, Pasadena.
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Walton, D.N. , & Krabbe, E.C.W
    (1995) Commitment in dialogue. Basic concepts of interpersonal reasoning. Albany: StateUniversity of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Walton, D.N. , & Macagno, F
    (2009) Argument from analogy in law, the classical tradition, and recent theories. Philosophy and Rhetoric42(2): 154-182. doi: 10.1353/par.0.0034
    https://doi.org/10.1353/par.0.0034 [Google Scholar]
  293. Walton, D.N. , Reed, C. , & Macagno, F
    (2008) Argumentation schemes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511802034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511802034 [Google Scholar]
  294. von Werder, A
    (1999) Argumentation rationality of management decisions. Organization Science10(5): 672-690. doi: 10.1287/orsc.10.5.672
    https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.5.672 [Google Scholar]
  295. von Werder, A. , & Talaulicar, T
    (2006) Managerial reasoning in takeover battles: The case of Sanofi-Synthélabo and aventis. In C.A. Mallin (Eds.), International corporate governance: A case study approach (pp. 104-141). Cheltenham, UK/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Weaver, S.C. , & Weston, J.F
    (2001) Mergers and acquisitions. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Weston, J.F. , Chung, K.S. , & Siu, J.A
    (1998) Takeovers, restructuring, and corporate governance (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Williams, C.C
    (2008) Toward a taxonomy of corporate reporting strategies. Journal of Business Communication45(3): 232-264. doi: 10.1177/0021943608317520
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943608317520 [Google Scholar]
  299. Woods, J. , & Walton, D.N
    (1989) Fallacies: Selected papers 1972-1982. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Yook, K.C
    (2003) Larger return to cash acquisitions: Signaling effect or leverage effect?The Journal of Business 76(3): 477-498. doi: 10.1086/375255
    https://doi.org/10.1086/375255 [Google Scholar]
  301. You, V. , Caves, R. , Smith, M. , & Henry, J
    (1986) Mergers and bidders’ wealth: Managerial and strategic factors. In L.G. Thomas (Ed.), The economics of strategic planning. Essays in honor of Joel Dean (pp. 201-221). Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Young, J.J
    (2003) Constructing, persuading and silencing: The rhetoric of accounting standards. Accounting, Organizations and Society28(6): 621-638. doi: 10.1016/S0361‑3682(02)00016‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-3682(02)00016-8 [Google Scholar]
  303. Yuthas, K. , Rogers, R. , & Dillard, J.F
    (2002) Communicative action and corporate annual reports. Journal of Business Ethics41(1-2): 141-157. doi: 10.1023/A:1021314626311
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021314626311 [Google Scholar]
  304. Zlatkova, G
    (2012) Reported argumentation in financial news articles. In F.H. van Eemeren , & B. Garssen , (Eds.), Exploring argumentative contexts (pp. 377-391). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aic.4.21zla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aic.4.21zla [Google Scholar]
-contentType:Journal -contentType:Chapter
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error