Multilingualism and Minority Languages: Achievements and challenges in education. AILA Review, Volume 21
  • ISSN 1461-0213
  • E-ISSN: 1570-5595
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This paper focuses on the position and development of the Frisian language in the educational system in Friesland. It discusses the achievements and the research results of special projects in bilingual and trilingual schools. It gives an overview of the language proficiency, attitudes and the new challenges of the education system. The Frisian language has obtained a presence on all levels of education, although marginal in most cases. Language policy by the government has emphasised the teaching of Frisian in primary schools. The developments over the last decades have not been as remarkable as in other regions. The overall attitudes seem moderately positive, more among the public at large and parents than among teachers and school directors. Research has shown repeatedly that school achievement in Dutch is not affected by bilingual programs and the outcomes for Frisian are more positive. The experiment with trilingual education was received positively, although the outcomes for Frisian and English were not as persuasive as expected. It is concluded that the position of Frisian is rather weak compared to the other cases in this volume, although the point of departure is relatively favourable in terms of the proportion of speakers in society.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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