Volume 35, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1461-0213
  • E-ISSN: 1570-5595



Despite decades of research supporting the pedagogic value of learners’ plurilingual resources to their linguistic and academic development, pre-service teachers frequently arrive at university inculcated in ‘target language only’ practices underpinned by monoglossic ideologies. The challenge for teacher education is to productively disrupt quotidian beliefs about language beliefs and prompt reconsideration of future classroom practices. Drawing on the work of the Douglas Fir Group (2016), this paper explores the identities, beliefs and values of two student-teachers as they emerged over the length of an innovative English-German pedagogic project on plurilingualism. The project involved German student-teachers developing a language portrait project for Grade 6 students; student-teachers using project data for undergraduate assignments; and English MA students interviewing young learners about their language portraits via videoconference. The videoconference provided young learners further opportunities to use their plurilingual resources and MA students with data for assignments on identity and investment. Working with DFG’s framework (2016), we examine the interplay of the meso- and macro-dimensions of the larger project’s design and the sometimes contradictory indexing of values and identities within and across activities. Analysis reveals that design choices sometimes unintentionally reinforced linguistic ideologies inconsistent with the project’s objectives, though these conflicts also led student-teachers to unexpected insights. We close with personal reflections on the implications of the first iteration of this design-based research project for the advancement of plurilingual pedagogies in teacher education.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Akbari, R.
    (2007) Reflections on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practices in L2 teacher education. System, 35(2), 192–207. 10.1016/j.system.2006.12.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.12.008 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arslan, E.
    (2018) Migration, habitus and symbolic order: Reflecting on a multilingualism project at a German university. Power and Education, 10 (1), 71–91. 10.1177/1757743817749913
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1757743817749913 [Google Scholar]
  3. Battiste, M.
    (2013) Decolonizing education: Nourishing the learning spirit. Purich Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D.
    (2019) Multilingualism, translanguaging, and minority languages in SLA. The Modern Language Journal, 103, 130–135. 10.1111/modl.12529
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12529 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2020) Teaching English through pedagogical translanguaging. World Englishes, 39(2), 300–311. 10.1111/weng.12462
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12462 [Google Scholar]
  6. Coffey, S.
    (2015) Reframing teachers’ language knowledge through metaphor analysis of language portraits. The Modern Language Journal, 99(3), 500–514. 10.1111/modl.12235
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12235 [Google Scholar]
  7. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2022) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment: Companion volume. Council of Europe Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cummins, J.
    (2007) Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics/Revue Canadienne de Linguistique Appliquée10(2), 221–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cummins, J., & Early, M.
    (Eds.) (2011) Identity texts: The collaborative creation of power in multilingual schools. Trentham Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cutrim Schmid, E. & Schmidt, T.
    (2017) Migration-based multilingualism in the English as a foreign language classroom: Learners’ and teachers’ perspectives. Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung, 28(1), 29–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dagenais, D., Armand, F., Walsh, N., & Maraillet, E.
    (2007) L’ éveil aux langues et la co-construction de connaissances sur la diversité linguistique [Language awareness and the co-construction of knowledge about language diversity]. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 197–219.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dahm, R.
    (2017) Can pluralistic approaches based upon unknown languages enhance learner engagement and lead to active social inclusion?International Review of Education, 63(4), 521–543. 10.1007/s11159‑017‑9636‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-017-9636-3 [Google Scholar]
  14. De Angelis, G.
    (2011) Teachers’ beliefs about the role of prior language knowledge in learning and how this influences teaching practices. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(3), 216–234. 10.1080/14790718.2011.560669
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2011.560669 [Google Scholar]
  15. De Costa, P. I., & Norton, B.
    (2017) Introduction: Identity, transdisciplinarity, and the good language teacher. The Modern Language Journal, 101(S1), 3–14. 10.1111/modl.12368
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12368 [Google Scholar]
  16. Douglas Fir Group
    Douglas Fir Group (2016) A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world. The Modern Language Journal, 100(S1), 19–47. 10.1111/modl.12301
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12301 [Google Scholar]
  17. Durus, N., & Ziegler, G.
    (2013) Plurilingual repertoires in the ESL classroom: The case of the European School. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 643–650. 10.1002/tesq.123
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.123 [Google Scholar]
  18. Faneca, R. M., Araujo e Sa, M. H. & Melo-Pfeifer, S.
    (2016) Is there a place for heritage languages in the promotion of an intercultural and multilingual education in the Portuguese schools?Language and Intercultural Communication, 16(1), 44–68. 10.1080/14708477.2015.1113751
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1113751 [Google Scholar]
  19. Farrell, T. S. C.
    (2022) Reflective practice in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009028783
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009028783 [Google Scholar]
  20. Firth, A., & Wagner, J.
    (1997) On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research. The Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 285–300. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1997.tb05480.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1997.tb05480.x [Google Scholar]
  21. Gao, X.
    (2019) The Douglas Fir Group framework as a resource map for language teacher education, 161–166. The Modern Language Journal103(Supplement 2019) 10.1111/modl.12526
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12526 [Google Scholar]
  22. Haukås, Å.
    (2016) Teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism and a multilingual pedagogical approach. International Journal of Multilingualism, 13(1), 1–18. 10.1080/14790718.2015.1041960
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2015.1041960 [Google Scholar]
  23. Jakisch, J.
    (2015) Mehrsprachigkeit und Englischunterricht: Fachdidaktische Perspektiven, schulpraktische Sichtweisen. Fremdsprachendidaktik inhalts- und lernorientiert. Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑653‑05999‑1
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-05999-1 [Google Scholar]
  24. Jaspers, J.
    (2019) The deliberative teacher: Wavering between linguistic uniformity and diversity. InJ. Jaspers & L. M. Madsen (Eds.), Critical perspectives on linguistic fixity and fluidity: Languagised lives (pp.217–240). Routledge. 10.4324/9780429469312
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429469312 [Google Scholar]
  25. Jessner, U., & Mayr-Keiler, K.
    (2017) Why context matters: Social inclusion and multilingualism in an Austrian school setting. Social Inclusion, 5(4), 87–97. 10.17645/si.v5i4.1139
    https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v5i4.1139 [Google Scholar]
  26. Johnson, K.
    (2019) The relevance of a transdisciplinary framework for SLA in language teacher education. Modern Language Journal103(Supplement 2019), 167–174. 10.1111/modl.12524
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12524 [Google Scholar]
  27. Johnson, K., & Golombuk, P. R.
    (2020) Informing and transforming language teacher education pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 24(1), 116–127. 10.1177/1362168818777539
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818777539 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kramsch, C.
    (2014) Language and culture. AILA Review, 27(1), 30–55. 10.1075/aila.27.02kra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.27.02kra [Google Scholar]
  29. Krause, L.
    (2022) Relanguaging language from a South African township school. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781800412132
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800412132 [Google Scholar]
  30. Larsen–Freeman, D.
    (2007) Reflecting on the cognitive–social debate in second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 773–787. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00668.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00668.x [Google Scholar]
  31. Little, D. & Kirwan, D.
    (2018) Translanguaging as a key to educational success: The experience of one Irish primary school. InP. van Avermaet, S. Slembrouck, K. van Gorp, S. Sierens & K. Maryns (Eds.), The Multilingual Edge of Education (pp.313–340). Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑54856‑6_14
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54856-6_14 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lotherington, H.
    (2013) Creating third spaces in the linguistically heterogeneous classroom for the advancement of plurilingualism. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 619–625. 10.1002/tesq.117
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.117 [Google Scholar]
  33. Marshall, S., & Moore, D.
    (2018) Plurilingualism amid the panoply of lingualisms: Addressing critiques and misconceptions in education. International Journal of Multilingualism, 15(1), 19–34. 10.1080/14790718.2016.1253699
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2016.1253699 [Google Scholar]
  34. McKinney, C.
    (2022) Delinking from coloniality and increasing participation in early literacy education. InC. McKinney & P. Christie (Eds.), Decoloniality, language and literacy: Conversations with teacher educators (pp.155–172). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781788929257‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781788929257-013 [Google Scholar]
  35. McKinney, C., & Christie, P.
    (Eds.) (2022) Decoloniality, language and literacy: Conversations with teacher educators. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781788929257
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781788929257 [Google Scholar]
  36. Melo-Pfeifer, S.
    (2015) Multilingual awareness and heritage language education: children’s multimodal representations of their multilingualism, Language Awareness, 24(3), 197–215. 10.1080/09658416.2015.1072208
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2015.1072208 [Google Scholar]
  37. Moore, D., & Gajo, L.
    (2009) Introduction – French voices on plurilingualism and pluriculturalism: Theory, significance and perspectives. International Journal of Multilingualism6(2), 137–153. 10.1080/14790710902846707
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710902846707 [Google Scholar]
  38. Moore, D., Lau, S. M. C., & Van Viegen, S.
    (2020) Mise en écho des perspectives on plurilingual competence and pluralistic pedagogies: A conversation with Danièle Moore. InS. M. C. Lau & S. Van Viegen (Eds.), Plurilingual pedagogies. Critical and creative endeavors for equitable language in education (pp.23–45). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑36983‑5_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36983-5_2 [Google Scholar]
  39. Norton, B.
    (2019) Identity and language learning: A 2019 retrospective account. Canadian Modern Language Review, 75(4), 299–307. 10.3138/cmlr.2019‑0287
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2019-0287 [Google Scholar]
  40. Peirce, B. N.
    (1995) Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 9–31. 10.2307/3587803
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587803 [Google Scholar]
  41. Piccardo, E.
    (2013) Plurilingualism and curriculum design: Toward a synergic vision. TESOL Quarterly47(3), 600–614. 10.1002/tesq.110
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.110 [Google Scholar]
  42. Potts, D., & Moran, M. J.
    (2013) Mediating multilingual children’s language resources. Language and Education, 27(5), 451–468. 10.1080/09500782.2012.720688
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2012.720688 [Google Scholar]
  43. Prasad, G. L.
    (2014) Portraits of plurilingualism in a French international school in Toronto: Exploring the role of visual methods to access students’ representations of their linguistically diverse identities. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics17(1), 51–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Scaglione, S. & Caruna, S.
    (2018) Migration and plurilingualism in southern European homes and schools. InP. van Avermaet, S. Slembrouck, K. van Gorp, S. Sierens, & K. Maryns (Eds.), The multilingual edge of education (pp.115–138). Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑54856‑6_7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54856-6_7 [Google Scholar]
  45. Smith, L. T.
    (2012) Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples (2nd ed.). Zed Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Van Viegen, S., & Zappa-Hollman, S.
    (2020) Plurilingual pedagogies at the post-secondary level: Possibilities for intentional engagement with students’ diverse linguistic repertoires. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 33(2), 172–187. 10.1080/07908318.2019.1686512
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2019.1686512 [Google Scholar]
  47. Wei, L.
    (2013) Who’s teaching whom? Co-learning in multilingual classrooms. InS. May (Ed.), The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and bilingual education (pp.167–190). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Welply, O.
    (2017) ‘My language … I don’t know how to talk about it’: Children’s views on language diversity in primary schools in France and England. Language and Intercultural Communication, 17(4), 437–454. 10.1080/14708477.2017.1368145
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2017.1368145 [Google Scholar]
  49. Yuan, R., & Mak, P.
    (2018) Reflective learning and identity construction in practice, discourse and activity: Experiences of pre-service language teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 205–214. 10.1016/j.tate.2018.05.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.05.009 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error