Volume 35, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1461-0213
  • E-ISSN: 1570-5595
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Key findings, analysis and recommendations that have emerged from a research project, ‘Using Human Language Technology to enhance academic integrity, inclusivity, knowledge exchange, student diversity and retention’ at the University of South Australia conducted in 2019 are discussed in this article. The primary purpose of the project was to address some of the challenges and opportunities afforded by increasing student and teacher diversity at a predominantly English-medium Australian university through newly enhanced human language translation technology (HLT) also known as machine translation (MT). This technology is frequently used for the translation of human language, and it falls under the umbrella of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. From the institution’s perspective, key aims of the project were to contribute to the university’s Digital Learning Strategy priorities and core values embedded in a structural transformation of the university. These include integrity, accountability, diversity, social justice, engagement and collaboration. The researchers’ objectives focussed on multilingual pedagogies using HLT to support knowledge exchange (transknowledging), and translanguaging for all students. These disrupt inequitable hierarchies, and position bi-/multilingual students as valuable resources for monolingual staff and students.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Arkoudis, S., Yu, X., Baik, C., Borland, H., Chang, S., Lang, I., Lang, J., Pearce, A., & Watty, K.
    (2010) Finding common ground: Enhancing interaction between domestic and international student: Guide for academics. ALTC.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. AT Kearney Inc.
    AT Kearney Inc. (2015) Global economic outlook. Beyond the New Mediocre?AT Kearney Global Business Policy Council, AT Kearney.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chang, L-C.
    (2021) Bi-/multilingual students’ use of machine translation to facilitate English academic writing in the postgraduate study through English. Paper presented atUniSA Education Futures HDR Forum, 11 November.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (Forthcoming). Investigation of post-editing of machine translation (PEMT) in advancing reading and writing capability of English and Chinese language learners in higher education (PhD dissertation). University of South Australia.
  5. Cooper, B., & Morrell, R.
    (Eds.) (2014) Africa-centred knowledges: Crossing fields and worlds. James Currey, & Boydell & Brewer.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Division of Education, Arts and Social Sciences (Div-EAS)
    Division of Education, Arts and Social Sciences (Div-EAS) (2019) The English Language and Intercultural Learning and Teaching (ELILT) Framework. University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. El-Banna, A. I., & Naeem, M. A.
    (2016) Machine translation as a model for overcoming some common errors in English-into-Arabic translation among EFL University freshmen. Retrieved on16 June 2022fromhttps://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED580942.pdf
  8. Free University of Bozen/Bolzano
    Free University of Bozen/Bolzano (2018) Research Area: Human language technology – IM Service Lab. Retrieved on16 June 2022fromwww.imservicelab.com/files/getbyid/346
  9. French, M.
    (2016) Students’ multilingual resources and policy-in-action: An Australian case study. Language and Education, 30(4), 298–316. 10.1080/09500782.2015.1114628
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2015.1114628 [Google Scholar]
  10. French, M., & Armitage, J.
    (2020) Eroding the monolingual monolith. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 91–114. 10.29140/ajal.v3n1.302
    https://doi.org/10.29140/ajal.v3n1.302 [Google Scholar]
  11. Hammond, C. D., & Keating, A.
    (2018) Global citizens or global workers? Comparing university programmes for global citizenship education in Japan and the UK. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 48(6), 915–934. 10.1080/03057925.2017.1369393
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2017.1369393 [Google Scholar]
  12. Heugh, K.
    (2015) Epistemologies in multilingual education: Translanguaging and genre – Companions in conversation with policy and practice. Special issue ofLanguage and Education. 29(3), 280–285. 10.1080/09500782.2014.994529
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.994529 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2017) Translation and multilingual education. InR. K. Agnihotri, A. S. Gupta, & A. L. Khanna (Eds.), Trends in language teaching (pp.19–30). Orient BlackSwan.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2018) Multilingualism, diversity and equitable learning: Towards crossing the ‘abyss’. InP. Van Avermaet, S. Slembrouck, K. Van Gorp, S. Sierens, & K. Marijns (Eds.), The multilingual edge of education (pp.341–367). Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑54856‑6_15
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54856-6_15 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2021) Southern multilingualisms, translanguaging and transknowledging in inclusive and sustainable education. InP. Harding-Esch & H. Coleman (Eds.), Language and the sustainable development goals (pp.33–43). British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Heugh, K., French, M., Arya, V., Billinghurst, N., Pham, M., Tudini, E., Nichols, J., Viljoen, J-M., & Tippett, N.
    (2020) Using human language technology to enhance academic integrity, inclusivity, knowledge exchange, student diversity and retention: Report 2 Main Findings, Analysis and Recommendations. CRESI, UniSA Education Futures.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Heugh, K., Li, X., & Song, Y.
    (2015) The English language Project: Study 1 2014 ‘The English Language Project’. University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (2017) Multilingualism and translanguaging in the teaching of and through English: Rethinking linguistic boundaries in an Australian University. InB. Fenton-Smith, P. Humphries, & I. Walkinshaw (Eds.), English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific: Issues and challenges from policy to pedagogy (pp.259–279). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑51976‑0_14
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51976-0_14 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hu, R., & Trenkic, D.
    (2019) The effects of coaching and repeated test-taking on Chinese candidates’ IELTS scores, their English proficiency, and subsequent academic achievement. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(10), 1486–1501. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1691498
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1691498 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hurtado, S., & Ruiz Alvarado, A.
    (2013) Diversity in teaching and learning: Affirming students as empowered learners. Diversity and Democracy, 16(3), 127–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Introna, L. D., & Hayes, N.
    (2011) On sociomaterial imbrications: What plagiarism detection systems reveal and why it matters. Information and Organization, 21(2), 107–122. 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2011.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2011.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Leask, B., & Wallace, J.
    (2011) Learning and teaching across cultures. Good Practice Report. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Li, X., Heugh, K., O’Neill, F., Song, Y., Scarino, A., & Crichton, J.
    (2016) Developing English language and intercultural learning capabilities: Case Study 1 The English language project. Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Manzoor, M., & Vimarlund, V.
    (2018) Digital technologies for social inclusion of individuals with disabilities, Health Technology, 8, 377–390. 10.1007/s12553‑018‑0239‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12553-018-0239-1 [Google Scholar]
  25. McGann, J.
    (2015) 2014 Global go to think tank index report. Think tanks and civil societies program, International Relations Program, University of Pennsylvania. Reviewed on14 October 2015fromrepository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=think_tanks
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mundt, K., & Groves, M.
    (2016) A double-edged sword: The merits and the policy implications of Google Translate in higher education. European Journal of Higher Education, 6(4), 387–401. 10.1080/21568235.2016.1172248
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2016.1172248 [Google Scholar]
  27. Munkova, D., Hajek, P., Munk, M., & Skalka, J.
    (2020) Evaluation of machine translation quality through the metrics of error rate and accuracy. Procedia Computer Science, 171, 1327–1336. 10.1016/j.procs.2020.04.142
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.04.142 [Google Scholar]
  28. Nallaya, S., Heugh, K., Fazakerley, R., French, M., & O’Neill
    (2019) English language, intercultural learning and knowledge exchangeexecutive summary – Study 3. University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. O’Neill, F., Scarino, A., Crichton, J., Heugh, K., & Li, X.
    (2016) Developing English language and intercultural learning capabilities: Case Study 2 The intercultural learning project. Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Reding, V., & Figel, J.
    (2006) Preface. InG. Lazzari & V. Steinbiss, Human language technologies for Europe. ITC IRST/TC-Star project report. 10.2307/j.ctv11smwx2.5
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11smwx2.5 [Google Scholar]
  31. Rochecouste, J., Oliver, R., Mulligan, D., & Davies, M.
    (2010) Addressing the ongoing English language growth of international students. Final Report. Australian Learning and Teaching Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., & Ramia, G.
    (2008) Loneliness and international students: An Australian study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(2), 148–180. 10.1177/1028315307299699
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307299699 [Google Scholar]
  33. Stroud, C., & Heugh, K.
    (2011) Language education. InR. Mesthrie (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics (pp.413–429). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511997068.030
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997068.030 [Google Scholar]
  34. Trenkic, D.
    (2018) Language requirements for international students are too low. Times Higher Education, 10May. Retrieved on16 June 2022fromhttps://www.timeshighereducation.com/opinion/language-requirements-international-students-are-too-low
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Trenkic, D., & Warmington, M.
    (2019) Language and literacy skills of home and international university students: How different are they, and does it matter?Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(2), 349–365. 10.1017/S136672891700075X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891700075X [Google Scholar]
  36. Van Rensburg, A., Snyman, C., & Lotz, S.
    (2012) Applying Google Translate in a higher education environment: Translation products assessed. Southern African linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 30(4), 511–524. 10.2989/16073614.2012.750824
    https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2012.750824 [Google Scholar]
  37. Viljoen, J.-M., Arya, V., & Miller, E.
    (2020) An investigation of international undergraduate students’ wellbeing & sense of belonging at the University of South Australia: research report. University of South Australia.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error