1887
Volume 35 Number 2
  • ISSN 1461-0213
  • E-ISSN: 1570-5595
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores issues of potential (in)equity in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs in bilingual secondary schools in the Madrid region (Spain). Based on their general L2 proficiency, students in grades 7 to 10 are streamed into either High Exposure (HE) or Low Exposure (LE) strands, with different degrees of exposure to CLIL. Although this system ensures that all students in a bilingual secondary school receive CLIL to a certain degree, recent voices have signaled the potential risk of fostering inequality among students by streaming within the program (Fernández-Agüero & Hidalgo-McCabe, 2020Hidalgo-McCabe, 2020). In this study, we explore classroom interactional practices by one science teacher teaching the same content in both groups (grade 7 HE and LE strands), and the effect of such interactional practices on enhancing (or not) students’ higher order thinking skills and the expression of academic content in the L2 or L1. For the analysis, we developed a multi-layered analytical model which incorporates the construct of cognitive discourse functions (CDFs) (Dalton-Puffer, 2013) and the semantic dimension of Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) (Maton, 20132020). We find significant differences across the two groups in the use of CDFs and ‘semantic codes’ for knowledge construction and meaning making. More specifically, the results show a more frequent use of the CDF and a higher rate of semantic density (abstractions) in classroom discourse in the HE strand.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aila.22026.evn
2023-06-30
2024-06-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Breeze, R., & Dafouz, E.
    (2017) Constructing complex cognitive discourse functions in higher education: An exploratory study of exam answers in Spanish- and English medium instruction settings. System, 701, 81–91. 10.1016/j.system.2017.09.024
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.09.024 [Google Scholar]
  2. Cervantes-Soon, C. G., Dorner, L., Palmer, D., Heiman, D., Schwerdtfeger, R., & Choi, J.
    (2017) Combating inequalities in two-way language immersion programs: Toward critical consciousness in bilingual education spaces. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 403–427. 10.3102/0091732X17690120
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X17690120 [Google Scholar]
  3. Codó, E., & Patiño-Santos, A.
    (2018) CLIL, unequal working conditions and neoliberal subjectivities in a state secondary school. Language Policy, 17(4), 479-499. 10.1007/s10993‑017‑9451‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-017-9451-5 [Google Scholar]
  4. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dalton-Puffer, C.
    (2013) A construct of cognitive discourse functions for conceptualising content-language integration in CLIL and multilingual education. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 216–253. 10.1515/eujal‑2013‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2013-0011 [Google Scholar]
  6. Dalton-Puffer, C., Hüttner, J., & Llinares, A.
    (2022) CLIL in the 21st Century: Retrospective and prospective challenges and opportunities. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 10(2), 182–206. 10.1075/jicb.21021.dal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.21021.dal [Google Scholar]
  7. Evnitskaya, N., & Dalton-Puffer, C.
    (2023) Cognitive discourse functions in CLIL classrooms: Eliciting and analysing students’ oral categorizations in science and history. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 26(3), 311–330. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1804824
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1804824 [Google Scholar]
  8. Fernández-Agüero, M., & Hidalgo-McCabe, E.
    (2020) CLIL students’ affectivity in the transition between education levels: The effect of streaming at the beginning of secondary education. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 21(6), 363–377. 10.1080/15348458.2020.1795864
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2020.1795864 [Google Scholar]
  9. Flores, N.
    (2013) Silencing the subaltern: Nation-state/colonial governmentality and bilingual education in the United States. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 10(4), 263–287. 10.1080/15427587.2013.846210
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2013.846210 [Google Scholar]
  10. Flores, N., & García, O.
    (2017) A critical review of bilingual education in the United States: From basements and pride to boutiques and profit. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 371, 14–29. 10.1017/S0267190517000162
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190517000162 [Google Scholar]
  11. Hidalgo-McCabe, E.
    (2020) Streaming in CLIL and its effects on students’ socialization in school (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. UAM Repository. https://repositorio.uam.es/bitstream/handle/10486/692813/hidalgo_mccabe_elisa.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  12. Llinares, A.
    (2015) Integration in CLIL: A proposal to inform research and successful pedagogy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 28(1), 58–73. 10.1080/07908318.2014.1000925
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2014.1000925 [Google Scholar]
  13. Llinares, A., & Dafouz, E.
    (2010) Content and language integrated programmes in the Madrid region: Overview and research findings. InD. Lasagabaster & Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, results and teacher training. Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Llinares, A., & Evnitskaya, N.
    (2021) Classroom interaction in CLIL programs: Offering opportunities or fostering inequalities?TESOL Quarterly, 55(2), 366–397. 10.1002/tesq.607
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.607 [Google Scholar]
  15. Llinares, A., & Nikula, T.
    (2016) Teacher and student evaluative language in CLIL across contexts: Integrating SFL and pragmatic approaches. InT. Nikula, E. Dafouz, P. Moore & U. Smit (Eds.), Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783096145‑012
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096145-012 [Google Scholar]
  16. Lo, Y.Y., Lin, A.M., & Liu, Y.
    (2023) Exploring content and language co-construction in CLIL with semantic waves. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 26(3), 289–310. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1810203
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1810203 [Google Scholar]
  17. Lorenzo, F., Granados, A., & Rico, N.
    (2021) Equity in bilingual education: Socioeconomic status and Content and Language Integrated Learning in monolingual Southern Europe. Applied Linguistics, 42(3), 393–413. 10.1093/applin/amaa037
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amaa037 [Google Scholar]
  18. Martín Rojo, L.
    (2015) The social construction of inequality in and through interaction in multilingual classrooms. InN. Markee (Ed.), The handbook of classroom discourse and interaction (pp.490–505). John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Maton, K.
    (2013) Making semantic waves: A key to cumulative knowledge-building. Linguistics and Education, 241, 8–22. 10.1016/j.linged.2012.11.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2012.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2020) Semantic waves: Context, complexity and academic discourse. InJ. R. Martin, K. Maton, & Doran, Y. J. (Eds.), Accessing academic discourse: Systemic functional linguistics and Legitimation Code Theory (pp.59–85). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Moller, S., & Stearns, E.
    (2012) Tracking success: High school curricula and labor market outcomes by race and gender. Urban Education, 47(6), 1025–1054. 10.1177/0042085912454440
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085912454440 [Google Scholar]
  22. Morton, T.
    (2012) Teachers’ knowledge about language and classroom interaction in content and language integrated learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
  23. (2020) Cognitive discourse functions: A bridge between content, literacy and language for teaching and assessment in CLIL. CLIL Journal of Innovation and Research in Plurilingual and Pluricultural Education, 3(1), 7–17. 10.5565/rev/clil.33
    https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/clil.33 [Google Scholar]
  24. Morton, T., & Llinares, A.
    (forthcoming). Building teachers’ knowledge of cognitive discourse functions to integrate content and language: A semantic analysis. InS. Ballinger, R. Fielding, & D. Tedick Eds. International perspectives on teacher education for immersion and content-based contexts. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Nashaat-Sobhy, N., & Llinares, A.
    (2023) CLIL students’ definitions of historical terms. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 26(3), 331–344. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1798868
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1798868 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nikula, T., Skinnari, K., & Mård-Miettinen, K.
    (2022) Diversity in CLIL as experienced by Finnish CLIL teachers and students: Matters of equality and equity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 10.1080/13670050.2022.2028125
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2022.2028125 [Google Scholar]
  27. Oakes, J.
    (2005) Keeping track: How schools structure inequality (2nd ed.). Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. O’Donnell, M.
    (2008) Demonstration of the UAM CorpusTool for text and image annotation. InProceedings of the ACL-08: HLT Demo Session (Companion Volume) (pp.13–16). Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1564144.1564148
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1564144.1564148 [Google Scholar]
  29. Pérez Cañado, M. L.
    (2021) Inclusion and diversity in bilingual education: A European comparative study. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 10.1080/13670050.2021.2013770
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.2013770 [Google Scholar]
  30. Siepmann, P., Rumlich, D., Matz, F., & Römhild, R.
    (2021) Attention to diversity in German CLIL classrooms: Multi-perspective research on students’ and teachers’ perceptions. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 10.1080/13670050.2021.1981821
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.1981821 [Google Scholar]
  31. Somers, T., & Llinares, A.
    (2021) Students’ motivation for content and language integrated learning and the role of programme intensity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(6), 839–854. 10.1080/13670050.2018.1517722
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1517722 [Google Scholar]
  32. Tsuchiya, K., & Pérez Murillo, M. D.
    (2019) Content and Language Integrated Learning in Spanish and Japanese Contexts. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑27443‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27443-6 [Google Scholar]
  33. Whittaker, R., & McCabe, A.
    (2023) Expressing evaluation across disciplines in primary and secondary CLIL writing: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 26(3), 345–362. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1798869
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1798869 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aila.22026.evn
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aila.22026.evn
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): CLIL; cognitive discourse functions; equity; LOTS/HOTS; semantic codes
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error