1887
Volume 1, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2665-9336
  • E-ISSN: 2665-9344
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The case model of the syncretic case [xa] in the Gansu-Qinghai area came from non-Sinitic languages, while the phonetic form came from Sinitic languages (“Sinitic languages” are usually called “Chinese dialects” in the linguistic community). The paper shows that this marker [xa] may come from a topic marker and topic chain markers in Sinitic languages. The accusative/dative marker formation was motivated by pragmatic factors. This phenomenon is also found in other languages. The syncretic use of cases is commonplace in languages across the world, whereas the accusative/dative marker [xa] is one of the prominent features in Sinitic languages in the Gansu-Qinghai area. The accusative/dative case formation did not know an even speed in Sinitic languages. It seems that Wutun and Tangwang evolved rapidly while Linxia and Gangou changed with an intermediate rhythm. Qinghai languages are the closest to Tibetic languages, but paradoxically they seem to be more conservative and do not adopt dative markers in possessor and experiencer constructions which are seen overwhelmingly in Tibetic languages. However, other Sinitic languages have adopted this marking progressively and steadily. The language model of the syncretic marker [xa] is not from a single language. Amdo Tibetan as well as Mongolic languages have contributed to the case formation of [xa] in Sinitic languages. This paper proposes that an helped the spread of case formation in this zone. Languages of one group or of one language family have influenced each other at different periods. The results of case formation we note today constitute a net-like relationships connected to various languages, but not a neat and linear path.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/alal.20029.xu
2020-12-11
2021-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baerman, Matthew , Dunstan, Brown & Greville, G. Corbett
    (2001) Case syncretism in and out of Indo-European. CLS 37: The Panels. Papers from the 37th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 15–28. Edited by Mary, Andronis
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baerman, Matthew
    (2009) Case syncretism. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 219–230. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bossong, Georg
    (1985) Differentielle Objektmarkierung in den neuiranischen Sprachen. Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buhe & Liu, Zhaoxiong
    (1982) Bao’anyu jianzhi [Outline of the Bao’an grammar]. Nationalities Press.
  5. Chappell, Hilary & Verstraete, Jean-Christophe
    (2019) Optional and alternating case marking: Typology and diachrony. Wiley. Language and Linguistic Compass. 13: 3. 1–42. doi:  10.1111/lnc3.12311
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12311 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, Naixiong
    (1990a) Bao’an yu de yuyin he cihui [Phonology and lexicon of Bao’an]. Xibei Minzu Yanjiu [Northwestern minorities]. 1: 33–48 (32).
  7. (1990b) Bao’an yu de yanbian guiji [Tracing the evolution of Bao’an]. Minzu Yuwen [Minority languages of China] 3: 16–25.
  8. Cheng, Xianghui
    (1980) Qinghai kouyu yufa sanlun [An essay on Qinghai colloquial grammar]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language] 2: 143–149.
  9. Chulu, Ujiyediin ( Chaolu, Wu
    ) (1994) Introduction, Grammar, & Sample Sentences for Dongxiang. In Victor H. Mair . (ed.) Sino-Platonic Papers. 55, 1–34. University of Pennsylvania.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Creissels, Denis
    (2009) Spatial cases. In Andrej Malchukov and Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 609–625. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dalrymple, Mary & Irina Nikolaeva
    (2011) Objects and information structure. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511993473
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511993473 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dede, Keith
    (2007) The Origin of the Anti-ergative [xa] in Huangshui Chinese. Language and Linguistics. 8(4), 863–881.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Du, Xingzhou
    (2005) Yuan Chao Mishi zhong ‘hang’ de yongfa fenxi [Analysis of the particle ‘hang’ in the Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty ]. Qinghai Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao [Journal of the Institute of Qinghai Minorities] 1: 124–127.
  14. Dwyer, Arienne M.
    (1995) From the Northwestern Chinese Sprachbund: Xúnhuà Chinese Dialect Data. The Yuen Ren Society Treasury of Chinese Dialect Data. VolI: 143–182.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fu, Jingqi & Xu, Lin
    (2008) From locative to object markers: The parallel development of two postpositions in Bai. In Xu, Dan (ed.). Space in languages of China. Cross-linguitic, synchronic and diachronic perspectives, 119–141. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Georg, Stefan
    (2003) Mongghul. In Janhunen, Juha . (ed.). The Mongolic languages, 286–306. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Greenhill, Simon J.
    (2017) Evolutionary dynamics of language systems. PNAS, 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gronbech, Kaare & John, R. Krueger
    (1993) An Introduction to Classical (Literary) Mongolian. Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Heine, Bernd
    (2009) Grammaticalization of cases. In Malchukov & Spencer (eds.). The Oxford handbook of case, 458–469. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ibrahim, A. ( Chen, Yuanlong
    ) (1985) Gansu jingnei Tangwanghua jilüe [Sketch of Tangwang in Gansu province]. Minzu Yuwen [Minority languages of China]. 6, 33–47.
  21. Iemmolo, Giorgio
    (2010) Topicality and differential object marking. Studies in Language, 34, 239–272. 10.1075/sl.34.2.01iem
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.34.2.01iem [Google Scholar]
  22. Janhunen, Juha
    (2008) Wutun. Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Janhunen, Juha
    (2004) On the Hierarchy of Structural Convergence in the Amdo Sprachbund. In The Typology of Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations. LENCA 2. Proceedings, 72–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2006) Sinitic and non-Sinitic phonology in the languages of Amdo Qinghai. In Christoph Anderl & Halvor, Eifring . Studies in Chinese language and culture, 261–268. Hermes Academic Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Johanson, Lars
    (2009) Case and contact linguistics. In Malchukov & Spencer (eds.). The Oxford handbook of case, 494–501. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kittilä, Seppo & Andrej, Malchukov
    (2009) Varieties of accusative. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 549–561. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lanzhou Daxue zhongwenxi Linxia fangyan diaocha yanjiuzu, Gansu sheng Linxiazhou wenlian [the Linxia dialect research group of the department of Chinese at Lanzhou University and the Federation of Arts and Literature in Linxia, Gansu Province] (1996) Linxia fangyan [Dialects of Linxia]. Lanzhou University Press.
  28. Lazard, Gilbert
    (2001) Le marquage différentiel de l’objet. In Hspelmath (eds.). Language typology and language universals. 873–885. Walter de Gruyter.
  29. Li, Charles N. & Thompson, Sandra A.
    (1976) Subject and Topic: A New Typology of Language. In Charles N. Li (ed.). Subject and Topic. 457–489. Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Li, Keyu
    (1987) Qinghai hanyu zhong de mouxie Aertai yuyan chengfen [Altaic elements in Qinghai dialect]. Minzu Yuwen [Minority languages of China]. 3, 27–31.
  31. Lin, Gan & Gao, Zihou
    (1994) Huihe shi [History of the Old Uyghurs]. Inner Mongolia People’s Publishing House.
  32. Liu, Danqing
    (2012) Hanyu de ruogan xianhe fanchou: yuyan kucang leixingxue shijiao [Some prominent categories in Chinese: a linguistic typology perspective]. Shijie Hanyu Jiaoxue [Chinese Teaching in the world]. 3, 291–305.
  33. Luraghi, Silvia
    (2009) Case in cognitive grammar. In Malchukov & Spencer (eds.). The Oxford handbook of case, 136–150. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ma, Shujun
    (1985) Tan Xunhuahua zhong mingciyu yuqi houfu yusu de zuhe-zhun gewei fanchou [About combination between nominal group and suffix-pseudo case markers]. Qinghai Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao [Journal of the Institute of Qinghai Minorities], 2, 96–100.
  35. Matras, Yaron & Jeanette Sakel
    (2007) Investigating the mechanisms of pattern replication in language convergence. Studies in Language, 31 (4), 829–865. 10.1075/sl.31.4.05mat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.31.4.05mat [Google Scholar]
  36. McGregor, W.
    (1998) Optional Case-Marking in Gooniyandi revisited: Implications to a theory of marking. Leuvense Bijdragen. 87. 491–534.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Min, Shengzhi
    (1989) Hanyu Qinghai fangyan yu zangyu Anduo fangyan [Qinghai dialect and Amdo Tibetan]. Qinghai minzu xueyuan xuebao [Journal of the Institute of Qinghai Minorities]. 3, 78–87.
  38. Montaut, Annie
    (2017) The rise of differential object marking in Hindi and related languages. In Ilja A. Seržant & Alena, Witzlack-Makarevich (eds.), Diachronic typology of differential argument marking, 251–280. Language Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Næss, Åshild
    (2008) Varieties of dative. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 572–580. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Palancar, Enrique
    (2009) Varieties of ergative. In Andrej Malchukov and Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 562–571. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Pensado, Carmen
    (1995) La creación del objeto directo preposicional y la flexión de los pronombres personales en las lenguas romànicas. In Carmen Pensado (ed.), El complemento directo preposicional, 179–233. Visor Libros.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Qi, Deshun
    (2011) Gusiluo jiazu shixi shi [Family lineage of Gusiluo]. Nationalities Press.
  43. Qie, Pai
    (2009) Hexi zoulang duo minzu heping zaju yu fazhan taishi yanjiu [Studies of peaceful cohabitation of multiple ethnicities and their trends of development]. Nationalities Press.
  44. Ren, Bisheng
    (2004) Xining fangyan de qianzhi binyuju [Preverbal object structures in the Xining dialect]. Fangyan [Dialect]. 4, 338–346.
  45. Robin, Françoise
    . (To appear). Parlons Amdo.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sandman
    Sandman (2016) A Grammar of Wuntun. University of Helsinki (Doctoral dissertation).
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Shou, Weihua
    (2010) Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of Western Eurasians. Journal of Human Genetics. 55(5), 314–22. 10.1038/jhg.2010.30
    https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2010.30 [Google Scholar]
  48. Slater, Keith W.
    (2003) A Grammar of Mangghuer: A Mongolic language of China’s Qinghai-Gansu Sprachbund. Routledge Curzon.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Thomason, Sarah G. and Kaufman Terrence
    (1988) Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Todaeva, B. H. [托达叶娃]
    (1957) Yanjiu Zhongguo ge mengguyu he fangyan de chubu zongjie [A preliminary summary of the studies of Mongolic languages and dialects in China]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language]. 9, 32–40.
  51. Tournadre, Nicolas & Sangda, Dorje
    (2003) Manuel de Tibétain standard. l’Asiathèque.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tserenpil, Dandii-Yadam and Rita Kullmann
    (2008) (fourth edition). Mongolian Grammar. Mongolia.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wang, Peiji & Wu Xinhua
    (1981) Guanyu Qinghai kouyu yufa de jige wenti [Some problems on the vernacular grammar of Qinghai dialect]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language]. 1, 50–53.
  54. Wang, Sen
    (1993) Gansu Linxia fangyan de liangzhong yuxu [Two word orders in Linxia dialect in Gansu]. Fangyan [Dialect]. 3, 191–194.
  55. Wang, Shuangcheng
    (2009) Xining fangyan de chabiju [Comparative constructions in the Xining dialect]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language]. 3, 241–247.
  56. Wang, Zhongqiang
    (1984) Tantan Qinghai fangyan de teshu yuxu [About special word order in Qinghai]. Qinghai shehui kexue [Social Sciences in Qinghai] 3, 16–21.
  57. Weinreich, Uriel
    (1968 [1953]) Languages in contact-findings and problems. Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Wen, Shaoqing
    (2013) Jiechu yu hunhe: cong Y ranseti de jiaodu kan Dongxiang renqun jiqi yuyan de guanxi [Contact and admixture: Using Y chromosomes to study the relationship between the Santa people and their language]. Yichuan [Genetics]. 35, 761–770. 10.3724/SP.J.1005.2013.00761
    https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1005.2013.00761
  59. Wu, Hugjiltu
    (2003) Bonan. In Janhunen, Juha . (ed.) (2003) The Mongolic languages, 325–345. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Xie, Xiaodong & Shan, Xuemei
    (2002) Huizu qiyuan de DNA zhengju [DNA evidence of the origin of Hui]. Huizu Yanjiu [Studies of the Hui nationality] 3, 75–78.
  61. Xu, Dan & Li Hui
    (2017) (eds.). Languages and genes in Northwestern China and adjacent regions. Springer Nature. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4169‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4169-3 [Google Scholar]
  62. Xu, Dan & Wen, Shaoqing
    (2017) The Silk Road: Languages and population admixture and replacement. In Xu, Dan , Li, Hui (eds.). Language and gene in Northwestern China and adjacent regions, 55–78. Springer Nature.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Xu, Dan and Ran, Qibin
    (2019) Gansu Dongxiang Tangwanghua [The Tangwang language in Dongxiang, Gansu]. Shangwu yinshuguan.
  64. Xu, Dan & Alain Peyraube (贝罗贝)
    (2018) Xu, Dan. Zhongguo jingnei Gansu Qinghai yidai de yuyan quyu [Linguistic area of Gansu-Qinghai in China] Hanyu Xuebao [Chinese Linguistics] 3, 2–15.
  65. Xu, Dan
    (2014) Tanwang hua yanjiu [Studies of Tangwang]. Nationalities Press.
  66. (2015) Sinitic languages of Northwest China: Where did their case marking come from?In Cao, Guangshun , Redouane, Djamouri , Alain, Peyraube (eds.). Language in contact in North China-Historical and synchronic studies, 217–243. Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. (2017) The Tangwang language- An Interdisciplinary case study in Northwest China. Springer Nature.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. (2018) Zhongguo jingnei de hunheyu ji yuyan hunhe de jizhi [Mixed languages in China and language mixing mechanism]. Yuyan zhanlue yanjiu [Language Strategy Research] 2, 59–79.
  69. . (forthcoming). Intertwined model of syntactic borrowing in Gansu-Qinghai linguistic area.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Yang, Yajun and Xu, Haidong
    (2008) Jiyin fenxi shiye xia de Bao’anzu yuanliu tanwei [Exploration of the origin of the Bao’an from a genetic perspective] in Ma Shiren (ed.). Zai tianye zhong faxian lishi [Historic discoveries in fieldwork]. 332–351. China Social Sciences Press.
  71. Yang, Yonglong
    (2014) Qinghai Minhe Gangouhua de duogongneng gebiaoji ‘ha’ [Multiple functions of ‘ha’ in Gangou spoken in Minhe, Qinghai]. Fangyan [Dialect]. 3, 230–241.
  72. Yin, Long
    (1985) Xunhua zhong rencheng daici de biange fanchou [Case categories of personal pronouns]. Qinghai Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao [Journal of the Institute of Qinghai Minorities]. 4, 106–111.
  73. Yixiweisa, Acuo ( Yeshes Vodgsal Atshogs
    ) (2003) Zang, Han yuyan zai Daohua zhong de hunhe ji yuyan shendu jiechu yanjiu [Research on mixing of Tibetan and Chinese in Daohua and relative languages deep-contact study]. Nankai University (Doctoral dissertation).
  74. Yixiweisa, Acuo . ( Yeshes Vodgsal Atshogs
    ) (2004) Daohua yanjiu. [Studies of Daohua]. Nationalities Press.
  75. Zhaonasitu
    Zhaonasitu (1981) Tuyu jianzhi [Outline of the Tu grammar]. Nationalities Press.
  76. Zhong, Jinwen
    (1997) Gan-Qing diqu teyou minzu yuyan wenhua de quyu tezheng [Area features of languages and cultures of ethnicities in Gansu and Qinghai]. China Minzu University Press.
  77. Zhou, Chenlei
    (2019) Gan Qing fangyan gebiaoji ‘ha’ de laiyuan [The origin of the case marker ‘ha’ in Gansu-Qinghai dialects]. Language and Linguistics. 20:3, 494–514.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Zhou, Weizhou
    (2004) Xibei shaoshu minzu duoyuan wenhua de lishi yu xianzhuang [The past and present of Northwest China’s minority multicultures]. Xibei Minzu Luncong [Studies of Northwestern minorities]. 3, 1–45.
  79. Zhu, Yongzhong , Üjiyediin Chuluu, Keith Slater , and Kevin Stuart
    (1997) Gangou Chinese dialect-A Comparative study of a strongly altaicized Chinese dialect and its Mongolic neighbor. Anthropos. 92, 433–450.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/alal.20029.xu
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): accusative/dative; non-Han languages; syncretic case; topic
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error