1887
Volume 4, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2589-109X
  • E-ISSN: 2589-1103
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the development of pragmatic strategies in study abroad among a group of upper-intermediate to advanced second language (L2) learners studying in English as a lingua franca (ELF) context. For this purpose, their use of epistemic stance markers (EMs) was observed before, during, immediately after, and six months after their study abroad over a period of two years. An analysis of our qualitative results found significant inter-speaker variations in the use of EMs. This close analysis demonstrates that learners with lower-level speaking skills relied more on lexical verbs and adverbs when expressing their epistemic stance than those with higher-level speaking skills. This finding is in accordance with previous studies. Furthermore, our qualitative analysis of two learners demonstrates their pragmatic development through a more nuanced hedged assertion, as well as the non-linear and complex nature of their development. In addition, the pedagogical implications of this study are discussed from the ELF perspective.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ap.20007.kiz
2022-02-09
2022-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, K.
    (2002) Modality in advanced Swedish learners’ written interlanguage. InS. Granger, J. Hung, & ‎S. Petch-Tyson (Eds.), Computer learner corpora, second language acquisition, and foreign language teaching (pp.55–76). John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/lllt.6.07aij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.6.07aij [Google Scholar]
  2. Bardovi-Harlig, K.
    (2001) Evaluating the empirical evidence: Grounds for instruction in pragmatics?InK. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp.13–32). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524797.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.005 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford, B. S.
    (1993) Learning the rules of academic talk: A longitudinal study of pragmatic change. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15(3), 279–304. doi:  10.1017/S0272263100012122
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100012122 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Salsbury, T.
    (2004) The organization of turns in the disagreements of L2 learners: A longitudinal perspective. InD. Boxer & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Studying speaking to inform second language learning (pp.199–227). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baumgarten, N., & House, J.
    (2010) I think and I don’t know in English as lingua franca and native English discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 42(5), 1184–1200. doi:  10.1016/j.pragma.2009.09.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.09.018 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D.
    (2006) Stance in spoken and written university registers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(2), 97–116. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2006.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2006.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E.
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Caffi, C.
    (1999) On mitigation. Journal of Pragmatics, 31, 881–909. doi:  10.1016/S0378‑2166(98)00098‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(98)00098-8 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cook, H. M.
    (2008) Socializing identities through speech style: Learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691026
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691026 [Google Scholar]
  10. De Bot, K.
    (2008) Introduction: Second language development as a dynamic process. Modern Language Journal, 92(2), 166–178. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2008.00712.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00712.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Dings, A.
    (2014) Interactional competence and the development of alignment activity. Modern Language Journal, 98(3), 742–756. doi:  10.1111/modl.12120
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12120 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S.
    (2015) The psychology of the language learner revisited. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315779553
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315779553 [Google Scholar]
  14. Du Bois, J. W.
    (2007) The stance triangle. InR. Englebretson (Ed.), Stancetaking in discourse: Subjectivity, evaluation, interaction (pp.139–182). John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.164.07du
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.164.07du [Google Scholar]
  15. Fordyce, K.
    (2009) A comparative study of learner corpora of spoken and written discursive language: Focusing on the use of epistemic forms by Japanese EFL learners. Hiroshima Studies in Language and Language Education, 12(1), 135–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (2014) The differential effects of explicit and implicit instruction on EFL learners’ use of epistemic stance. Applied Linguistics, 35(1), 6–28. doi:  10.1093/applin/ams076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams076 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gablasova, D., & Brezina, V.
    (2015) Does speaker role affect the choice of epistemic adverbials in L2 speech? Evidence from the Trinity Lancaster Corpus. Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, 117–136. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑319‑17948‑3_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17948-3_6 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gablasova, D., Brezina, V., McEnery, T., & Boyd, E.
    (2017) Epistemic stance in spoken L2 English: The effect of task and speaker style. Applied Linguistics, 38(5), 613–637. doi:  10.1093/applin/amv055
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv055 [Google Scholar]
  19. Heritage, J.
    (2009) Conversation analysis as social theory. InB. S. Turner (Ed.), The new Blackwell companion to social theory (pp.300–320). Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444304992.ch15
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304992.ch15 [Google Scholar]
  20. House, J., & Kasper, G.
    (1981) Politeness markers in English and German. InF. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech. Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809145.157
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809145.157 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hyland, K.
    (1996) “I don’t quite follow”: Making sense of a modifier. Language Awareness, 5(2), 91–109. doi:  10.1080/09658416.1996.9959895
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.1996.9959895 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2005) Stance and engagement: A model of interaction in academic discourse. Discourse Studies, 7(2), 173–192. doi:  10.1177/1461445605050365
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605050365 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hyland, K., & Milton, J.
    (1997) Qualification and certainty in L1 and L2 students’ writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(2), 183–205. doi:  10.1016/S1060‑3743(97)90033‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(97)90033-3 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hyland, K., & Tse, P.
    (2005) Hooking the reader: A corpus study of evaluative that in abstracts. English for Specific Purposes, 24(2), 123–139. doi:  10.1016/j.esp.2004.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2004.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ishida, K.
    (2009) Indexing stance in interaction with the Japanese desu/masu and plain forms. InN. Taguchi (Ed.), Pragmatic competence (pp.41–67). Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Iwasaki, N.
    (2010) Style shifts among Japanese learners before and after study abroad in Japan: Becoming active social agents in Japanese. Applied Linguistics, 31(1), 45–71. doi:  10.1093/applin/amn047
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amn047 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2011) Learning L2 Japanese “politeness” and “impoliteness”: Young American men’s dilemmas during study abroad. Japanese Language and Literature, 45, 67–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kaltenböck, G.
    (2010) Pragmatic functions of parenthetical I think. InG. Kaltenböck, W. Mihatsch, & S. Schneider (Eds.), New approaches to hedging (pp.237–266). Emerald. 10.1163/9789004253247_012
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004253247_012 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kärkkäinen, E.
    (2003) Epistemic stance in English conversation: A description of its interactional functions, with a focus on ‘I think.’ John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.115
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.115 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kizu, M., Pizziconi, B., & Gyogi, E.
    (2019) The particle ne in the development of interactional positioning in L2 Japanese. East Asian Pragmatics, 4(1), 113–143. doi:  10.1558/eap.38217
    https://doi.org/10.1558/eap.38217 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kizu, M., Pizziconi, B., & Iwasaki, N.
    (2013) Modal markers in Japanese: A study of learners’ use before and after study abroad. Japanese Language and Literature, 47, 93–133.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lakoff, G.
    (1973) Hedges: A study in meaning criteria and the logic of fuzzy concepts. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 2, 458–508. doi:  10.1007/BF00262952
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00262952 [Google Scholar]
  33. Masuda, K.
    (2011) Acquiring interactional competence in a study abroad context: Japanese language learners’ use of the interactional particle ne. Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 519–540. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01256.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01256.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Matsumura, S.
    (2003) Modelling the relationships among interlanguage pragmatic development, L2 proficiency, and exposure to L2. Applied Linguistics, 24(4), 465–491. doi:  10.1093/applin/24.4.465
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.4.465 [Google Scholar]
  35. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J.
    (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Salsbury, T., & Bardovi-Harlig, K.
    (2000) Oppositional talk and the acquisition of modality in L2 English. InB. Swierzbin, F. Morris, M. E. Anderson, C. A. Klee, & E. Tarone (Eds.), Social and cognitive factors in second language acquisition: Selected proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum (pp.57–76). Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sawyer, M.
    (1992) The development of pragmatics in Japanese as a second language: The sentence-final particle ne. InG. Kasper (Ed.), Pragmatics of Japanese as a native and target language (pp.83–125). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Schauer, G. A.
    (2006) The development of ESL learners’ pragmatic competence: A longitudinal investigation of awareness and production. Pragmatics and Language Learning, 11, 135–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2009) Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context. Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Shively, R. L.
    (2011) L2 pragmatic development in study abroad: A longitudinal study of Spanish service encounters. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(6), 1818–1835. doi:  10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.030
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.030 [Google Scholar]
  41. Siegal, M.
    (1996) The role of learner subjectivity in second language sociolinguistic competency: Western women learning Japanese. Applied Linguistics, 17(3), 356–382. doi:  10.1093/applin/17.3.356
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.3.356 [Google Scholar]
  42. Taguchi, N.
    (2008) Cognition, language contact, and the development of pragmatic comprehension in a study-abroad context. Language Learning, 58(1), 33–71. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2007.00434.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00434.x [Google Scholar]
  43. (2011) The effect of L2 proficiency and study-abroad experience on pragmatic comprehension. Language Learning, 61(3), 904–939. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00633.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00633.x [Google Scholar]
  44. (2014) Pragmatic socialization in an English-medium university in Japan. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 52(2), 157–181. doi:  10.1515/iral‑2014‑0007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2014-0007 [Google Scholar]
  45. (2015) Developing interactional competence in a Japanese study abroad context. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783093731
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783093731 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2018) Contexts and pragmatics learning: Findings and implications of study abroad research. Language Teaching, 51(1), 124–137. doi:  10.1017/S0261444815000440
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444815000440 [Google Scholar]
  47. Taguchi, N., & Ishihara, N.
    (2018) The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca: Research and pedagogy in the era of globalization. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 38, 80–101. doi:  10.1017/S0267190518000028
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190518000028 [Google Scholar]
  48. Taguchi, N., & Roever, C.
    (2017) Second language pragmatics. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Thomas, J.
    (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91–112. doi:  10.1093/applin/4.2.91
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91 [Google Scholar]
  50. Verspoor, M. H., de Bot, K., & Lowie, W.
    (Eds.) (2011) A dynamic approach to second language development: Methods and techniques. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.29
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.29 [Google Scholar]
  51. Xiao-Desai, Y., & Wong, K. F.
    (2017) Epistemic stance in Chinese heritage language writing – A developmental view. Chinese as a Second Language Research, 6(1), 73–102. doi:  10.1515/caslar‑2017‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/caslar-2017-0004 [Google Scholar]
  52. Zalaltdinova, L.
    (2018) “Stop doing this at once!”: The preferred use of modality for advice-giving by English language learners. Intercultural Pragmatics, 15(3), 349–372. doi:  10.1515/ip‑2018‑0010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2018-0010 [Google Scholar]
  53. Zhang, G. Q., & Sabet, P. G. P.
    (2016) Elastic “I think”: Stretching over L1 and L2. Applied Linguistics, 37(3), 334–353. doi:  10.1093/applin/amu020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu020 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ap.20007.kiz
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ap.20007.kiz
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error