1887
Volume 5, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The borrowing of words from one language into another is most likely as ancient as language itself. While ample linguistic attention has focused on various linguistic contact scenarios in which words from one language enter productive use into another, their aim has been largely restricted to documenting the words which are borrowed, their frequency, and other situation-specific information. In this paper, we propose new methods for studying loanwords, namely a combination of statistical testing techniques which can be used together to increase knowledge in this area. We illustrate these tools with a case-study of loanwords from an indigenous language (Māori) into a world dominant language (New Zealand English). Using a topic-constrained newspaper corpus in conjunction with quantitative methods, we explore the use of loanwords diachronically and analyse variation in loanword use across newspapers and across writers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.00003.cal
2020-03-02
2020-04-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bates, Douglas, Maechler, Martin, Bolker, Ben & Walker, Steve
    (2015) Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. doi:  10.18637/jss.v067.i01.
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell, Allan
    (1984) Language style as audience design. Language in Society, 13(2), 145–204. 10.1017/S004740450001037X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001037X [Google Scholar]
  3. Bennett, Jack A. W.
    (1943) English as it is spoken in New Zealand. American speech, 18(2), 81–95. 10.2307/486595
    https://doi.org/10.2307/486595 [Google Scholar]
  4. Benton, Richard
    (1991) The Māori language: Dying or reviving?Honolulu: East West right. (Reprinted byNew Zealand Council for Educational Researchin 1997).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. de Bres, Julia
    (2006) Maori lexical items in the mainstream television news in New Zealand. New Zealand English Journal, 20, 17–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (2009) The Behaviours of non-Māori New Zealanders towards the Māori Language. Te Reo, 52, 17–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Burgess, Anthony
    (1984) ‘Is translation possible?’ The Journal of Literary Translation, 12, 3–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Calude, Andreea, Pagel, Mark, & Miller, Steven
    (2017) Modelling borrowing success – a quantitative study of Māori loanwords in New Zealand English. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistics Theory, 15(2). doi:  10.1515/cllt‑2017‑0010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2017-0010 [Google Scholar]
  9. Coupland, Nicholas
    (2007) Style: Language variation and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511755064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511755064 [Google Scholar]
  10. Daly, Nicola
    (2017) Pākehā- Māori: European-Native. Ethnic labelling in the Dorothy Neal White collection. New Review of Children’s Literature and Librarianship, 23(1), 1–12. doi:  10.1080/13614541.2017.1280335
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13614541.2017.1280335 [Google Scholar]
  11. Degani, Marta
    (2010) The Pakeha myth of one New Zealand/Aoteroa: An exploration in the use of Maori loanwords in New Zealand English. InRoberta Facchinetti, David Crystal, & Barbara Seidlhofer (Eds.), From international to local English – and back again (pp.165–196). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2017) Cultural conceptualisations in stories of Māori-English bilinguals: The cultural schema of marae. InFarzad Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in cultural linguistics, Cultural Linguistics (pp.661–682). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_29
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_29 [Google Scholar]
  13. Degani, Marta, & Onysko, Alexander
    (2010) Hybrid compounding in New Zealand English. World Englishes, 29(2), 33–209. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2010.01639.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01639.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Deverson, Tony
    (1991) New Zealand English lexis: The Māori dimension. English Today, 28, 18–25. 10.1017/S0266078400005496
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400005496 [Google Scholar]
  15. Davies, Carolyn, & Maclagan, Margaret
    (2006) Maori Words – Read all about it: Testing the presence of 13 Maori words in 4 New Zealand newspapers from 1997 to 2004. Te Reo, 49, 73–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gordon, Ian
    (1957) Hunting New Zealandisms. Reprinted in New Zealand English Journal9:13–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hardy, Ann
    (2012) Re-designing the national imaginary: The development of Matariki as a contemporary festival. Australian Journal of Communication, 39(1), 103–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Harlow, Ray
    (2005) Covert attitudes to Māori. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 172, 133-147.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kennedy, Graham
    (2001) Lexical Borrowing from Maori in New Zealand English. InBruce Moore (Ed.), Who’s centric now? The present state of Post-Colonial Englishes (pp.59–81). Canberra, Australia: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Levendis, Katie, & Calude, Andreea
    (2019) Perception and Flagging of Loanwords – A diachronic case-study of Māori loanwords in New Zealand English. Ampersand, 6. 10.1016/j.ampter.2019.100056
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ampter.2019.100056 [Google Scholar]
  21. Macalister, John
    (2006) The Maori Presence in the English Lexicon, 1850–2000. English World-Wide, 27(1), 1–24. 10.1075/eww.27.1.02mac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.1.02mac [Google Scholar]
  22. (2007a) Weka or woodhen? Nativization through lexical choice in New Zealand English. World Englishes, 26, 492–506. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2007.00524.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00524.x [Google Scholar]
  23. (2007b) Revisiting Weka and Waiata: Familiarity with Maori words among older speakers of New Zealand English. New Zealand English Journal, 21, 34–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2008) Tracking changes in familiarity with borrowings from Te Reo Māori. Te Reo, 51, 75–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2009) Investigating the changing use of Te Reo. NZ Words, 13, 3–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2001) Writing Maori English: Voices in Pounamu, Pounamu. Kotare, 4(1), 46–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Macdonald, Daryl, & Daly, Nicola
    (2013) Kiwi, Kapai, and Kuia: Māori loanwords in New Zealand English children’s picture books published between 1995 and 2005. InB. Carrington & P. Pinsent (Eds.), The final chapters: Concluding papers of the Journal of Children’s Literature Studies (pp.44–56). London: Wizard’s Tower Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Matamua, Rangi
    (2017) Matariki: The Star of the Year. Huia Publishers: Wellington.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nielsen CMI
    Nielsen CMI (2017) Fused database. AP10+. Based on unduplicated weekly reach of NZME newspapers and radio stations, and monthly domestic unique audience for NZME digital channels. Retrieved on8March 2018 from: www.nzme.co.nz/about-us/
  30. Poplack, S., Wheeler, S., & Westwood, A.
    (1989) Distinguishing language contact phenomena: Evidence from Finnish–English bilingualism. World Englishes, 8(3), 389–406. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1989.tb00677.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1989.tb00677.x [Google Scholar]
  31. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2017) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing [Computer Software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sharp, Harriet
    (2007) Swedish–English language mixing. World Englishes, 26(2), 224–240. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2007.00503.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00503.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Speas, Margaret
    (2013) Language ownership and language ideologies. InLa Follette (Ed.), retrieved on10May 2018 frompeople.umass.edu/pspeas/lgownership.pdf
  34. Statistics New Zealand
    Statistics New Zealand (n.d.). Profile of New Zealand 2013 Census – Māori Language, retrieved on2February 2018, fromgoo.gl/tWG3YW.
  35. Whaanga, Hēmi, & Matamua, Rangi
    (2016) Matariki tāpuapua: Pools of traditional knowledge and currents of change. InMargaret Robertson, & Po Keung Eric Tsang (Eds.), Everyday knowledge, education and sustainable futures: Transdisciplinary research in the Asia/Pacific Region (pp.59–70). Singapore: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Zenner, Eline, Speelman, Dirk, & Geeraerts, Dirk
    (2013) What makes a catchphrase catchy? Possible determinants in the borrowability of English catchphrases in Dutch. InEline Zenner & Gitte Kristiansen (Eds.), New perspectives on lexical borrowing (pp.41–64). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614514305.41
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514305.41 [Google Scholar]
  37. “Why RNZ is dedicated to the use of Te Reo” (17December 2017), RNZ Website, Retrieved on2February 2018, fromhttps://www.radionz.co.nz/news/on-the-inside/345170/why-rnz-is-dedicated-to-the-use-of-te-reo
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Zipf, George
    (1935) The psycho-biology of language. MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.00003.cal
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.00003.cal
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): corpus linguistics , diachronic analysis , loanwords , Māori and New Zealand English
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error