Volume 4, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Diglossia canonically refers to language situations with unequal attitudes towards a formal ‘H’ variety, connected to writing, and a colloquial ‘L’ variety, connected to everyday speech. This paper claims that variation that arises as a marker of diglossia can become dissociated from it and persist in the L variety, if it is sufficiently orthogonal to the writing system. With a sociolinguistic survey ( = 30), this paper examines five variables that were markers of quasi-diglossia in Eastern Cham in previous decades. Three of the variables continue to be stereotypes or shibboleths of diglossia, while the other two no longer exhibit any correlation with diglossia: the spirantization of and the labial coarticulation of . The latter were changes from below that decoupled from diglossia, because they were sufficiently opaque to Cham script.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alieva, Natalia
    (1991) Morphemes in contemporary spoken Cham: Qualitative and quantitative alternations. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 20, 219–229.10.3406/clao.1991.1347
    https://doi.org/10.3406/clao.1991.1347 [Google Scholar]
  2. (1994) The progress of monosyllabization in Cham as testified by field materials. In C. Ode & W. Stokhof (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics [ICAL] (pp.541–549). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aymonier, Etienne , & Cabaton, Antoine
    (1906) Dictionnaire cham-français [Cham-French Dictionary]. Publications de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 7 [Publications of the French School of Asian Studies 7]. Paris: Leroux.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baayen, R. Harald
    (2008) Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics using R. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511801686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801686 [Google Scholar]
  5. Babel, Anna
    (Ed.) (2016) Awareness and control in sociolinguistic research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139680448
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139680448 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bates, Douglas , Maechler, Martin , Bolker, Ben , & Walker, Steve
    (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48.10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  7. Blood, Doris
    (1961) Women’s speech characteristics in Cham. Asian Culture, 3(3–4), 139–143
    [Google Scholar]
  8. (1962) Reflexes of Proto-Malayo-Polynesian in Cham. Anthropological Linguistics, 4(9), 11–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blood, David
    (1967) Phonological units in Cham. Anthropological Linguistics, 9(8), 15–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bradley, David
    (2007) East and Southeast Asia. In Christopher Moseley (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, (pp.349–424). London; New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brezina, Vaclav , & Meyerhoff, Miriam
    (2014) Significant or random? A critical review of statistical analyses in corpus-based sociolinguistic studies. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 19(1), 1–28.10.1075/ijcl.19.1.01bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.19.1.01bre [Google Scholar]
  12. Brunelle, Marc
    (2005) Register in Eastern Cham: Phonological, phonetic and sociolinguistic approaches. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
  13. (2008) Diglossia, bilingualism, and the revitalization of written Eastern Cham. Language Documentation and Conservation, 2(1), 28–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2009) Diglossia and monosyllabization in Eastern Cham: A sociolinguistic study. In James N. Stanford & Dennis Preston (Eds.), Variation in indigenous minority languages, (pp.47–75). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/impact.25.04bru
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.25.04bru [Google Scholar]
  15. Brunelle, Marc , & Phú, Văn Hẳn
    (in press). Colloquial Eastern Cham. In Paul Sidwell & Matthias Jenny Eds. The Languages of Southeast Asia. Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bùi, Khánh Thế
    (1996) Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Chăm [Grammar of the Cham Language]. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Giáo Dục.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Champely, Stephane
    (2013) pwr: basic functions for power analysis (R package version 1.2–1). Available fromCRAN.R-project.org/package=pwr.
  18. Cohen, Jacob
    (1992) A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.10.1037/0033‑2909.112.1.155
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 [Google Scholar]
  19. Cœdès, Georges
    (1939) La plus ancienne inscription en langue cham [The oldest inscription in the Cham language]. In Sumitra Mangesh Katre & Parshuram Krishna Gode (Eds.), A volume of Eastern and Indian studies presented to Professor F.W. Thomas (pp.46–49). Bombay: Karnatak Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fasold, Ralph
    (1984) The sociolinguistics of society: Introduction to sociolinguistics, volume1. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ferguson, Charles
    (1959) Diglossia. Word, 15, 325–240.10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fishman, Joshua
    (1967) Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Sciences, 23(2), 29–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (1980) Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and as societal phenomena. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1, 3–15.10.1080/01434632.1980.9993995
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1980.9993995 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hajek, Jhon
    (2006) On doubly articulated labial-velar stops and nasals in Tibeto-Burman. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 29(2), 127–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Heath, Jeffrey
    (1989) From code-switching to borrowing: A case study of Moroccan Arabic. London; New York: Kegan Paul International.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hoàng, Thị Châu
    (1987) Hệ thống thanh điệu thếng Chàm và các kí hiệu [The tone system of the Cham language and its symbols]. Ngôn Ngữ, 1(2), 31–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (1989) Tiếng Việt trên các Miền Đất Nước [The Vietnamese Language in the Regions of the Country: A Dialect Study]. Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Khoa Học Xã Hội.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Jacques, Roland
    (2002) Portuguese pioneers of Vietnamese linguistics. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kirby, James
    (2011) Vietnamese (Hanoi Vietnamese). Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41(3), 381–392.10.1017/S0025100311000181
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100311000181 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kirby, James , & Sonderegger, Morgan
    (2018) Model Selection and Phonological Argumentation. In Diane Brentari & Jackson Lee (Eds.), Shaping Phonology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Labov, William
    (2001) Principles of linguistic change, volume 3: Social factors. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lee, Ernest Wilson
    (1974) Southeast Asian areal features in Austronesian strata of the Chamic languages. Oceanic Linguistics, 13(1–2), 643–668.10.2307/3622755
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3622755 [Google Scholar]
  33. Marrison, Geoffrey
    (1975) The early Cham language and its relationship to Malay. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 48, 52–59.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Maspero, Henri
    (1912) Études sur la phonétique historique de la langue annamite. Les initiales [Studies on the historical phonetics of the Annamese (Vietnamese) language: The initials]. Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient [Bulletin of the French School of Asian Studies], 12, 1–124.10.3406/befeo.1912.2713
    https://doi.org/10.3406/befeo.1912.2713 [Google Scholar]
  35. Moran, Steven , McCloy, Daniel , & Wright, Richard
    (Eds.) (2014) PHOIBLE Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available fromphoible.org.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Moseley, Christopher
    (Ed.) (2010) Atlas of the world’s languages in danger (3rd edition). UNESCO Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Moussay, Fr. Gérard
    (1971) Dictionnaire cam-vietnamien-français [Cham-Vietnamese-French Dictionary]. Phan Rang: Centre Culturel Cam.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Moussay, Fr. Gérard
    (2006) Grammaire de la langue Cam. Les Indes Savant [Grammar of the Cham Language]. Mission Étrangères de Paris [Foreign Missions of Paris]. Paris: Les Indes Savant.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Padgett, Jaye
    (2008) Glides, vowels, and features. Lingua, 118, 1937–1955.10.1016/j.lingua.2007.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  40. Phú, Văn Hẳn , Edmondson, Jerold , & Gregerson, Kenneth
    (1992) Eastern Cham as a tone language. Mon Khmer Studies, 20, 31–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Platt, John T.
    (1977) A model for polyglossia and multilingualism (with special reference to Singapore and Malaysia). Language in Society, 6, 361–378.10.1017/S0047404500005066
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500005066 [Google Scholar]
  42. Po, Dharma
    (1991) Le déclin du Campa entre le XVIe et le XIXe siècle [The decline of the Champa between the 16th and the 18th century]. Le Campā et le Monde Malais: actes de la Conférence internationale sur le Campā et le monde malais [The Champā and the Malay World: Proceedings of the International Conference on Campā and the Malay World] (pp.47–64). Paris: Publications du Centre d’histoire et Civilisations de la Péninsule Indochinoise.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Poplack, Shana , Zentz, Lauren , & Dion, Nathalie
    (2012) Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(2), 203–225.10.1017/S1366728911000204
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000204 [Google Scholar]
  44. PTB *səw SHEEP
    PTB *səw SHEEP (2015) In James A. Matisoff (Ed.), The Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus. Retrieved fromstedt.berkeley.edu/~stedt-cgi/rootcanal.pl/etymon/6080
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Quang, Can D.
    (2012) The mother language teaching program addressing the language, culture, and identity rights of the Cham minority in Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam. Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
  46. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available fromhttps://www.R-project.org/.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sayahi, Lotfi
    (2014) Diglossia and language contact: Language variation and change in North Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139035576
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139035576 [Google Scholar]
  48. Schweyer, Anne Valérie
    (1999 Chronologie des inscriptions publiées du Campā: Études d’épigraphie cam – I [Chronology of the published inscriptions of the Champā: Studies on Cham epigraphy – 1]. Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient, 86, 321–344.10.3406/befeo.1999.3415
    https://doi.org/10.3406/befeo.1999.3415 [Google Scholar]
  49. Scotton, Carol
    (1986) Diglossia and code-switching. In Joshua Fishman (Ed.), The Fergusonian impact, Vol. 2: Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language (pp.403–415). Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Stanford, James N. , Severance, Nathan , & Baclawski Jr, Kenneth
    (2014) Multiple vectors of unidirectional dialect change in Eastern New England. Language Variation and Change, 26(1), 103–140.10.1017/S0954394513000227
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394513000227 [Google Scholar]
  51. Thompson, Laurence
    (1991) A Vietnamese reference grammar. Seattle: University of Washington Press. (Original work published 1965).
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Thurgood, Graham
    (1993) Phan Rang Cham and Utsat: Tonogenetic themes and variants. In Jerold Edmondson & Kenneth Gregerson (Eds.), Tonality in Austronesian Languages (pp.91–106). Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (1996) Language contact and the directionality of internal drift:The development of tones and registers in Chamic. Language, 72(1), 1–31.10.2307/416792
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416792 [Google Scholar]
  54. (1999) From Ancient Cham to modern dialects: Two thousand years of language contact and change. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2005) A preliminary sketch of Phan Rang Cham. In K. Alexander Adelaar & Nikolaus Himmelmann (Eds.), The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar (pp.489–512). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error