1887
Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This paper presents the first sociophonetic study of Cantonese vowels using sociolinguistic interview data from the Heritage Language Variation and Change in Toronto Corpus. It focuses on four allophones [iː], [ɪk/ɪŋ], [uː], and [ʊk/ʊŋ] of two contrastive vowels /iː/ and /uː/ across two generations of speakers. The F1 and F2 of 30 vowel tokens were analyzed for these four allophones from each of 20 speakers ( = 600 vowel tokens). Results show inter-generational maintenance of allophonic conditioning for /iː/ and /uː/ as well as an interaction between generation and sex such that second-generation female speakers have the most retracted variants of [ɪk/ɪŋ] and the most fronted variants of [iː]. This paper will discuss three possible explanations based on internal motivation, phonetic assimilation, and phonological influence. This will illustrate the importance of multiple comparisons (including inter-generational, cross-linguistic, and cross-community) in the relatively new field of heritage language phonology research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.2.2.02tse
2017-03-24
2019-08-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bauer, Robert S. , & Benedict, Paul K.
    (1997) Modern Cantonese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauer, Robert S. , Cheung, Kwan-hin , & Cheung, Pak-man
    (2003) Variation and merger of the rising tones in Hong Kong Cantonese. Language Variation and Change, 15(2), 211–225.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boersma, Paul , & Weenink, David
    (2014) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.4.02) [Computer program]. RetrievedDecember 14, 2014fromwww.praat.org/
  4. Chang, Charles B. , Yao, Yao , Haynes, Erin F. , & Rhodes, Russell
    (2011) Production of phonetic and phonological contrast by heritage speakers of Mandarin. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(6), 3964–3980. doi: 10.1121/1.3569736
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3569736 [Google Scholar]
  5. Clarke, Sandra , Elms, Ford , & Youssef, Amani
    (1995) The third dialect of English: Some Canadian evidence. Language Variation and Change, 7(2), 209–228. doi: 10.1017/S0954394500000995
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000995 [Google Scholar]
  6. Godson, Linda
    (2004) Vowel production in the speech of western Armenian heritage speakers. Heritage Language Journal, 2(1), 1–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hoffman, Michol F.
    (2010) The role of social factors in the Canadian vowel shift: Evidence from Toronto. American Speech, 85(2), 121–140. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑2010‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2010-007 [Google Scholar]
  8. Hoffman, Michol F. , & Walker, James A.
    (2010) Ethnolects and the city: Ethnic orientation and linguistic variation in Toronto English. Language Variation and Change, 22(1), 37–67. doi: 10.1017/S0954394509990238
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394509990238 [Google Scholar]
  9. Hsu, Madeline Y.
    (2000) Dreaming of gold, dreaming of home: Transnationalism and migration between the United States and South China, 1882–1943. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Johnson, Daniel E.
    (2009) Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing Rbrul for mixed-effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3(1), 359–383.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kang, Yoonjung , & Nagy, Naomi
    (2012) VOT merger in heritage Korean in Toronto. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association. Available fromwww.yoonjungkang.com/uploads/1/1/6/2/11625099/kangnagy_2012_vot_cla.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Labov, William
    (1994) Principles of linguistic change, volume 1: Internal factors. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Labov, William , Ash, Sharon , & Boberg, Charles
    (2006) The atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology and sound change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lau, Chun-fat
    (2003) Labovian principles of vowel shifting revisited: The short vowel shift in New Zealand English and Southern Chinese. InBarry J. Blake & Kate Burridge (Eds.), Historical Linguistics 2001: Selected Papers from the 15th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Melbourne, 13–17 August 2001 (pp.293–301). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.237
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.237 [Google Scholar]
  15. Lee, Thomas
    (1983) The vowel system in two varieties of Cantonese. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 57, 97–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Li, Peter S.
    (2005) The rise and fall of Chinese immigration to Canada: Newcomers from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China and mainland China, 1980–2000. International Migration, 43(3), 9–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Man, Evelyn Y.
    (2006) First language use and language behavior of Chinese students in Toronto, Canada. InKimi Kondo-Brown (Ed.), Heritage language development: Focus on East Asian immigrants (pp.209–241). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Matthews, Stephen , & Yip, Virginia
    (2011) Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mok, Peggy K. , Zuo, Donghui , & Wong, Peggy W. Y.
    (2013) Production and perception of a sound change in progress: Tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese. Language Variation and Change, 25(3), 341–370.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Montrul, Silvina A.
    (2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nagy, Naomi
    (2011) A multilingual corpus to explore variation in language contact situations. Rassegna Italiana Di Linguistica Applicata, 43(1–2), 65–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Polinsky, Maria
    (2011) Heritage languages. InMark Aronoff (Ed.), Oxford bibliographies in linguistics [online resource]. doi: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810‑0067
    https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0067 [Google Scholar]
  23. Polinsky, Maria , & Kagan, Olga
    (2007) Heritage languages: In the “Wild” and in the classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(5), 368–395. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00022.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00022.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Roeder, Rebecca , & Jarmasz, Lidia-Gabriela
    (2010) The Canadian shift in Toronto. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 55(3), 387–404. doi: 10.1353/cjl.2010.0013
    https://doi.org/10.1353/cjl.2010.0013 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ronquest, Rebecca E.
    (2013) An acoustic examination of unstressed vowel reduction in Heritage Spanish. InChad Howe, Sarah E. Blackwell, & Margaret Lubbers Quesada (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 15th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp.157–171). Available fromwww.lingref.com/cpp/hls/15/paper2882.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Siemiatycki, Myer , Rees, Tim , Ng, Roxana , & Rahi, Khan
    (2003) Integrating community diversity in Toronto: On whose terms?InPaul Anisef & C. Michael Lanphier (Eds.), The world in a city (pp.373–456). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sloetjes, Han , & Wittenburg, Peter
    (2008) Annotation by category – ELAN and ISO DCR. InProceedings of the sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2008), 816–820. Available fromwww.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2008/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Statistics Canada
    (2012) Visual Census 2011, Ottawa. RetrievedJanuary 1, 2015, fromwww12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/vc-rv/index.cfm?Lang=eng
  29. Stevens, Kenneth N. , & House, Arthur S.
    (1963) Perturbation of vowel articulations by consonantal context: An acoustical study. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 6(2), 111–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Taylor, Bill
    (2007, December30). The language quilt: From irregular stitching, an ongoing work of art. The Toronto Star, p. ID06.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Thomas, Erik , & Kendall, Tyler
    (2007) NORM: The vowel normalization and plotting suite (Version 1.1) [Computer program]. RetrievedDecember 14, 2014fromncslaap.lib.ncsu.edu/tools/norm/
  32. Thompson, Richard H.
    (1989) Toronto’s Chinatown: The changing social organization of an ethnic community. New York: AMS Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Yue-Hashimoto, Oi-kan
    (1972) Phonology of Cantonese. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Zee, Eric
    (2003) Frequency analysis of the vowels in Cantonese from 50 male and 50 female speakers. InM. J. Solé, D. Recasens, & J. Romero (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp.1117–1120). Available fromhttps://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphsproceedings/ICPhS2003/papers/p15_1117.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.2.2.02tse
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.2.2.02tse
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error