1887
Volume 7, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

As Indonesian becomes more dominant in Indonesia, regional heritage languages, such as Javanese, may be increasingly influenced by phonological transfer. The extent of these effects may depend upon a speaker’s region and social background, as well as age of acquisition and proficiency in various languages. This study investigates the impact of these factors on the Javanese production among multilingual children in East Java. Specifically, we analyze the distinction between dental and retroflex coronal stops (/t̪/ /d̪̥ /, /ʈ/, /ɖ̥/), which phonemically contrast in Javanese, but not in Indonesian. The data were elicited from 95 children in Malang, a large urban center, and Blitar, a smaller city. The findings indicate that Javanese is shifting to a two-way contrast comparable to that of Indonesian; female and Malang speakers lead in this change. These findings highlight the significance of social factors in children’s language acquisition, and illustrate ongoing changes in Javanese.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.20005.zen
2021-10-06
2021-12-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adelaar, Alexander
    (1983) Malay consonant-harmony: An internal reconstruction. InJames T. Collins (Ed.), Studies in Malay dialects (pp.57–67). Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA Universitas Atma Jaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adisasmito-Smith, Niken
    (2004) Phonetic and phonological influences of Javanese on Indonesian. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bates, Douglas, Maechler, Martin, Bolker, Ben, & Walker, Steve
    (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  4. BPS Kota Blitar
    BPS Kota Blitar (2020) Publikasi statistik [The publication of statistics]. RetrievedMarch 20, 2020, fromhttps://blitarkota.bps.go.id/
  5. BPS Kota Malang
    BPS Kota Malang (2020) Publikasi statistik [The publication of statistics]. RetrievedMarch 20, 2020, fromhttps://malangkota.bps.go.id/
  6. Budianta, Melani
    (2012) Malang mignon: Cultural expressions of the Chinese, 1940–1960. InJennifer Lindsay & Maya H. T. Liem (Eds.), Heirs to world culture: Being Indonesian 1950–1965 (pp.255–282). Leiden: KITLV Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chang, Charles B.
    (2009) Short-term phonetic drift in an L2 immersion environment. UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Report (2009), 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chang, Charles B., Yao, Yao, Haynes, Erin F., & Rhodes, Russell
    (2011) Production of phonetic and phonological contrast by heritage speakers of Mandarin. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(6), 3964–3980. 10.1121/1.3569736
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3569736 [Google Scholar]
  9. Coates, Jennifer
    (1993) Women, men and language (2nd ed.). Essex, UK: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dethorne, Laura S., Johnson, Bonnie W., & Loeb, Jane W.
    (2005) A closer look at MLU: What does it really measure?Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 19(8), 635–648. doi:  10.1080/02699200410001716165
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200410001716165 [Google Scholar]
  11. Dick, Howard W.
    (1985) The rise of a middle class and the changing concept of equity in Indonesia: An interpretation. Indonesia, 39, 71–92. 10.2307/3350987
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3350987 [Google Scholar]
  12. Eckert, Penelope
    (2011) Language and power in the preadolescent heterosexual market. American Speech, 86(1), 85–97. 10.1215/00031283‑1277528
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-1277528 [Google Scholar]
  13. Fagan, Joel L.
    (1988) Javanese intervocalic stop phonemes: The light/heavy distinction. InRichard McGinn (Ed.), Studies in Austronesian linguistics (pp.173–200). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fischer, John. L.
    (1964) Social influences on the choice of a linguistic variant. InDell Hymes (Ed.), Language in culture and society (pp.483–489). New York: Harper International.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Flege, James. E.
    (1991) Age of learning affects the authenticity of voice-onset time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(1), 395–411. doi:  10.1121/1.400473
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.400473 [Google Scholar]
  16. (1995) Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. InWinifred Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp.233–272). Timonium, MD: York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Godson, Linda
    (2004) Vowel production in the speech of Western Armenian heritage speakers. Heritage Language Journal, 2(1), 45–70. 10.46538/hlj.2.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.46538/hlj.2.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gumilar, Teija
    (2015) Regional languages in Indonesian educational system: A comparison study of Javanese, Sundanese and Dayak languages teaching programs. Investigationes Linguisticae, 33, 29–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gut, Ulrike
    (2010) Cross-linguistic influence in L3 phonological acquisition. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7(1), 19–38. 10.1080/14790710902972248
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710902972248 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hadiatmaja, Sarjana, Padmopuspito, Asia, Prawiradisastra, Sandiyo, & Sukimin
    (1987) Pengajaran bahasa Jawa di sekolah dasar [The teaching of Javanese in primary schools]. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departmen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Handono, Suryo
    (2004) Tinggal 26,16% warga Semarang yang masih setia menggunakan Bahasa Jawa [Only 26,16% of Semarang residents are still loyal to using Javanese]. InDendy Sugono, Rustono, & Widada (Eds.), Seranta Bahasa and Sastra 2004 (pp.1–29). Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Harwati, Neti L.
    (2018) Javanese language preservation in the global era: Determining effective teaching methods for elementary school students. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9(4), 37–42. doi:  10.7575/aiac.alls.v.9n.4p.37
    https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.9n.4p.37 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hayward, Katrina, & Muljono
    (1991) The dental/alveolar contrast in Javanese. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 54(1), 126–144. 10.1017/S0041977X00009642
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00009642 [Google Scholar]
  24. Irvine, Judith T., & Gal, Suzanne
    (2000) Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. InPaul Kroskrity (Ed.), Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities (pp.35–83). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jarvis, Scott, & Pavlenko, Aneta
    (2008) Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203935927
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203935927 [Google Scholar]
  26. Jeffries, Ella
    (2019) Preschool children’s categorization of speakers by regional accent. Language Variation and Change, 31(3), 329–352. 10.1017/S0954394519000176
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394519000176 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kornhaber, Mila, & Marcos, Haydee
    (2000) Young children’s communication with mothers and fathers: Functions and contents. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 187–210. 10.1348/026151000165643
    https://doi.org/10.1348/026151000165643 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kurniasih, Yacinta
    (2005) Gender, class and language preference: A case study in Yogyakarta. Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society, 1–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Labov, William
    (1970) Stages in the acquisition of Standard English. InHarold Hungerford, Jay Robinson, & James Sledd (Eds.), English linguistics (pp.275–302). Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1972) Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ladefoged, Peter, & Johnson, Keith
    (2011) A course in phonetics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lapoliwa, Hans
    (1981) A generative approach to the phonology of Bahasa Indonesia. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Litosseliti, Lia
    (2006) Gender and language: Theory and practice. London, UK: Hodder Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Major, Roy C.
    (2008) Transfer in second language phonology: A review. InJette G. Hansen Edwards & Mary L. Zampini (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp.63–94). New York: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.36.05maj
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.36.05maj [Google Scholar]
  35. Mougeon, Raymond, Nadasdi, Terry, & Rehner, Katherine
    (2010) The sociolinguistic competence of immersion students. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692405
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692405 [Google Scholar]
  36. Nababan, P. W. J.
    (1985) Bilingualism in Indonesia: Ethnic language maintenance and the spread of national language. Asian Journal of Social Science, 13(1), 1–18. 10.1163/080382485X00020
    https://doi.org/10.1163/080382485X00020 [Google Scholar]
  37. Nothofer, Bernd
    (2006) Javanese. InKeith Brown (Ed). Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, volume 6, (pp.113–115). Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/02127‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02127-1 [Google Scholar]
  38. Nove, Chaya
    (2020) Bilingual effects on New York Hasidic Yiddish vowels. Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, New Orleans, Louisiana.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Odlin, Terence
    (1989) Language transfer: Cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524537
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524537 [Google Scholar]
  40. Parker, Matthew. D., & Brorson, Kent
    (2005) A comparative study between mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLUm) and mean length of utterance in words (MLUw). First Language, 25(3), 365–376. doi:  10.1177/0142723705059114
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723705059114 [Google Scholar]
  41. Pemerintah Kota Malang
    Pemerintah Kota Malang (2020) Sejarah Malang [The history of Malang]. RetrievedJuly 8, 2020, fromhttps://malangkota.go.id/sekilas-malang/sejarah-malang/
  42. Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria
    (1993) Uses of phonation type in Javanese. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, 24, 123–131.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2006) The effect of Bahasa Indonesia as a lingua franca on the Javanese system of speech levels and their functions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 177(1), 111–121. doi:  10.1515/IJSL.2006.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2006.007 [Google Scholar]
  44. Poedjosoedarmo, Soepomo
    (1982) Javanese influence on Indonesian. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Pyata, Ravali, & Banik, Arun
    (2016) Phonological development profile in typically developing Hindi speaking children. Language in India, 16(3), 149–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ravindranath, Maya, & Cohn, Abigail. C.
    (2014) Can a language with millions of speakers be endangered?Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 7(August), 64–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Regan, Vera, Howard, Martin, & Lemée, Isabelle
    (2009) The Acquisition of sociolinguistic competence in a study abroad context. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691583
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691583 [Google Scholar]
  48. Romaine, Suzanne
    (1984) The language of children and adolescents: The acquisition of communicative competence. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Setiawan, Slamet
    (2001) Language shift in a bilingual community: The case of Javanese in Surabaya, East Java. Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of Auckland.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (2013) Children’s language in a bilingual community in East Java. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Western Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Seyfarth, Scott, Vander Klok, Jozina, & Garelleck, Marc
    (2017) Acoustics of the tense-lax stop contrast in Semarang Javanese. Poster presented at theAcoustic Society of America. RetrievedFebruary 12, 2021, fromidiom.ucsd.edu/~mgarellek/files/Javanese_ASA_F2017.pdf. 10.1121/1.5014441
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5014441 [Google Scholar]
  52. Simonet, Miquel
    (2014) Phonetic consequences of dynamic cross-linguistic interference in proficient bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 43, 26–37. 10.1016/j.wocn.2014.01.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2014.01.004 [Google Scholar]
  53. Smith-Hefner, Nancy J.
    (1983) Language and social identity: Speaking Javanese in Tengger. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (2009) Language shift, gender, and ideologies of modernity in Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 19(1), 57–77. doi:  10.1111/j.1548‑1395.2009.01019.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1395.2009.01019.x [Google Scholar]
  55. Smith, Jennifer, Durham, Mercedes, & Fortune, Liane
    (2007) “Mam, my trousers is fa’in doon!”: Community, caregiver, and child in the acquisition of variation in a Scottish dialect. Language Variation and Change, 19(1), 63–99. 10.1017/S0954394507070044
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394507070044 [Google Scholar]
  56. Smith, Jennifer, & Durham, Mercedes
    (2019) Sociolinguistic variation in children’s language: Acquiring community norms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316779248
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316779248 [Google Scholar]
  57. Snodgrass, Joan G., & Vanderwart, Mary
    (1980) A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(2), 174–215. doi:  10.1037/0278‑7393.6.2.174
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.6.2.174 [Google Scholar]
  58. Starr, Rebecca L.
    (2017) Sociolinguistic variation and acquisition in two-way language immersion. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Sukamto, Katharina. E., & Purwo, Bambang. K.
    (2016) Oral narrative and descriptive proficiency in bilingual children: A case study of Javanese-Indonesian children. Linguistik Indonesia, 34(1), 85–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Sundara, Mega, Polka, Linda, & Baum, Shari
    (2006) Production of coronal stops by simultaneous bilingual adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9(1), 97–114. 10.1017/S1366728905002403
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002403 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tse, Holman
    (2017) Contact-induced splits in Toronto Heritage Cantonese mid-vowels. Linguistica Atlantica, 35(2), 133–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Wahyuni, Siti, Subiyantoro, Slamet, & Fadhilah, Siti S.
    (2017) Obstacles level of learning Javanese speech: A phenomenology study in elementary school. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 173(Icei 2017), 298–301. doi:  10.2991/icei‑17.2018.78
    https://doi.org/10.2991/icei-17.2018.78 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.20005.zen
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.20005.zen
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error