1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

A language’s endangerment is said to be typified by variation accompanied by some degree of unpredictability. This paper examines if this characterization is appropriate of Baba Malay, an endangered creole, as it is spoken in Singapore. Recent work suggests that the language is much less variable than one expects of a creole. A comparison between historical Baba Malay material and newer Baba Malay material, focusing on the language’s pronominal system, and aspectual and tense system, demonstrates that this is indeed the case. Such variation or an increasing lack of it is not unpredictable, stemming not only from natural language change, but also from changes in the language’s socio-environment. Increasing lack of proficiency in the component languages and a desire among speakers to distinguish themselves from speakers of the lexifier variety may explain some loss in Baba Malay’s variability.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.22003.lee
2023-07-24
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ansaldo, Umberto, Lim, Lisa, & Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    (2007) The sociolinguistic history of the Peranakans: What it tells us about “creolization.” InUmberto Ansaldo, Stephen Matthews, & Lisa Lim (Eds.), Deconstructing Creole. Typological Studies in Language, 731 (pp. 203–226). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.73.11ans
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.73.11ans [Google Scholar]
  2. Ansaldo, Umberto, & Matthews, Stephens
    (1999) The Minnan substrate and creolization in Baba Malay. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 27(1), 38–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bavin, Edith L., & Shopen, Tim
    (1991) Walpiri in the 1980s: An overview of research in language variation and child language. InSuzanne Romaine (Ed.), Language in Australia (pp. 104–117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620881.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620881.008 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bickerton, Derek
    (1973) The nature of a creole continuum. Language, 491, 640–669. 10.2307/412355
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412355 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bleaman, Isaac L.
    (2022) Minority language maintenance and the production-prescription interface: Number agreement in New York Yiddish. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 26(2), 221–245. 10.1111/josl.12539
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12539 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bodman, Nicholas C.
    (1955) Spoken Amoy Hokkien, Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: The Government of the Federation of Malaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1958) Spoken Amoy Hokkien, Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: The Government of the Federation of Malaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Campbell, Lyle
    (2020) Historical Linguistics: An introduction (Fourth edition). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Campbell, Lyle, & Muntzel, Martha C.
    (1989) The structural consequences of language death. InNancy Dorian (Ed.), Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death (pp. 181–196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620997.016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620997.016 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chan, Kenneth
    (2018) Mari Chakap Baba: A comprehensive guide to the Baba Nyonya language. Singapore: Gunong Sayang Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chan, Philip
    (2007) Speak Baba Malay: The easy way. Singapore: Baba Nyonya Sayang.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Corcoran, Chris, & Mufwene, Salikoko
    (1998) Sam Matthew’s Kittinian. What is it evidence of?InPhilip Baker & Adrienne Bruyn (Eds.), St Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles: The texts of Samuel Augustus Mathews in perspective (pp. 75–102). London: University of Westminister Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. DeCamp, David
    (1971) Toward a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. InDell Hymes (Ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (pp. 349–370). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Department of Statistics Singapore
    Department of Statistics Singapore (2020) Singapore Census of Population 2020, Statistical Release 1: Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion. Retrieved fromwww.singstat.gov.sg/publications/reference/cop2020/cop2020-sr1/census20_stat_release1
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Donohue, Mark, & Smith, John C.
    (1998) What’s Happened to Us? Some Developments in the Malay Pronoun System. Oceanic Linguistics, 37(1), 65–84. 10.2307/3623280
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3623280 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dorian, Nancy C.
    (1977) The problem of the semi-speaker in language death. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 121, 23–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dressler, Wolfgang U.
    (1972) On the phonology of language death. Chicago Linguistic Society Papers, 81, 448–457.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dressler, Wolfgang U., & Wodak-Leodolter, Ruth
    (1977) Language preservation and language death in Brittany. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 121, 33–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. England, Nora C.
    (1996) The role of language standardization in revitalization. InEdward F. Fischer & R. McKenna Brown (Eds.), Maya Cultural Activism in Guatemala (pp. 178–194). Texas: University of Texas Press. 10.7560/708501‑013
    https://doi.org/10.7560/708501-013 [Google Scholar]
  20. Fei, Hsin
    (1436) Hsing-ch’a sheng-lan: The overall survey of the Star Raft. (Republished in South China and Maritime Asia. 4. Translated by John Vivian Gottlieb Mills. Edited and annotated by Roderich Ptak.). Wiedsbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gwee, William T. H.
    (2006) A Baba Malay Dictionary: The First Comprehensive Compendium of Straits Chinese Terms and Expressions. Singapore: Tuttle Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kasstan, Jonathan
    (2017) New speakers: Challenges and opportunities for variationist sociolinguistics. Language and Linguistic Compass, 11(8), e12249. 10.1111/lnc3.12249
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12249 [Google Scholar]
  23. (2019) Emergent sociolinguistic variation in severe language endangerment. Language in Society, 48(5), 685–720. 10.1017/S0047404519000472
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404519000472 [Google Scholar]
  24. Le Page, Robert
    (1960) Jamaican Creole. London: Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee, Gwyneth A. M.-E.
    (1999) A descriptive grammar of spoken Peranakan (Honour’s thesis). National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee, Nala H.
    (2014) A grammar of Baba Malay with sociophonetic considerations (PhD dissertation). University of Hawai’i, Manoa.
  27. (2019) Peranakans in Singapore: Responses to language endangerment and documentation. Language Documentation & Conservation. Special Issue on Documentation and Conservation of Contact Languages in Southeast Asia and East Asia: Current Issues and Ongoing Initiatives, 191, 123–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2020) Utilizing the matched-guise as a method of examining perceptual change in an endangered creole. Applied Linguistics, 42(2), 207–229. 10.1093/applin/amaa011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amaa011 [Google Scholar]
  29. (2022) A grammar of modern Baba Malay. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110745061
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110745061 [Google Scholar]
  30. (forthcoming). The early Baba Malay continuum. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lim, Boon-Keng
    (1899) Straits Chinese Reform IV: Religion. The Straits Chinese Magazine, 3(12), 163–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1917) The Chinese in Malaya. InW. Feldwick (Ed.), Present day impressions of the Far East and prominent and progressive Chinese at home and abroad; the history, people, commerce, industries and resources of China, Hong Kong, Indo-China, Malaya and Netherlands India (pp. 875–882). London: Globe Encyclopedia Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lim, Joo-Hock
    (1967) Chinese female immigration into the Straits Settlements 1860–1901. Journal of the South Seas Society, 221, 58–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lim, Lisa
    (2016) Multilingual mediators: The role of the Peranakans in the contact dynamics of Singapore. InWei, Li (Ed.), Multilingualism in the Chinese diaspora world-wide (pp. 216–236). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ma, Huan
    (1416) Ying-yai sheng-lan: The overall survey of the ocean’s shores. Republished by the Hakluty Society, London in 1970, and reprinted by the White Lotus Press in 1997. Translated byJ. V. G. Mills.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    (2015, October22). Keeping a foot in the door: Variation and language documentation. Presented at theNew Ways of Analyzing Variation 44.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nagy, Naomi
    (2009) The challenges of less commonly studied languages: Writing a sociogrammar of Faetar. InJames N. Stanford & Dennis R. Preston (Eds.), Variation in indigenous minority languages (pp. 397–417). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.25.20nag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.25.20nag [Google Scholar]
  38. Nance, Claire, McLeod, Wilson, O’Rourke, Bernadette, & Dunmore, Stuart
    (2016) Identity, accent aim, and motivation in second language users: New Scottish Gaelic speakers’ use of phonetic variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 20(2), 164–191. 10.1111/josl.12173
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12173 [Google Scholar]
  39. Nathan, J.
    (1922) The Census of British Malaysia. London: Waterloo & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Pakir, Anne
    (1986) A linguistic investigation of Baba Malay (PhD dissertation). University of Hawai’i, Manoa.
  41. (1994) Educational linguistics: Looking to the East. InJames Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (pp. 370–383). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Paliwala, Adam A. H. B.
    (2020) Language contact and Tok Pisin. InAnthony P. Grant (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Contact (pp. 606–626). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Palosaari, Naomi, & Campbell, Lyle
    (2012) Structural aspects of language endangerment. InPeter K. Austin & Julia Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages (pp. 100–119).
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Purcell, Victor
    (1980) The Chinese in Southeast Asia. Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs [by] Oxford University Press. Retrieved frombooks.google.com.sg/books?id=yZmTnQEACAAJ
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rickford, John R.
    (1987) Dimensions of a Creole Continuum. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Salmon, Claudine
    (1977) La littérature en malais romanisé des Chinois de Malaisie, première enquête. Archipel, 14(1), 79–109. 10.3406/arch.1977.1359
    https://doi.org/10.3406/arch.1977.1359 [Google Scholar]
  47. Shellabear, William G.
    (1913) Baba Malay: An introduction to the language of the Straits-born Chinese. Attached as appendix in John R. Clammer (1980). InStraits Chinese Society (pp. 153–165). Singapore: Singapore University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Siah, U-Chin
    (1848) General sketch of the numbers, tribes and avocations of the Chinese in Singapore. Journal of the Indian Archipelago, 21, 283–289.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Skinner, G. W.
    (1996) Creolized Chinese Societies in Southeast Asia. InAnthony Reid & Kristine Aililunas-Rodgers (Eds.), Sojourners and settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese (pp. 51–93). Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Soh, Poh-Thong
    (1907) Concerning Our Girls. The Straits Chinese Magazine, 11(4), 139–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Song, Ong-Siang
    (1967) One hundred years’ history of the Chinese in Singapore. First published in 1923. Singapore: University of Malaya Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tan, Bonny
    (2007) A Baba Malay Bibliography: A select annotated listing of sources on the Peranakan Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: National Library Board.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Tan, Chee-Beng
    (1979) Baba and Nyonya: A study of the ethnic identity of the Chinese Peranakan in Malacca. Cornell University, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (1988) The Baba of Melaka: Culture and identity of a Chinese Peranakan Community in Malaysia. Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Thurgood, Elzbieta
    (1998) A description of nineteenth century Baba Malay: A Malay variety influenced by language shift. University of Hawai’i, Hawai’i.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Vaughan, J. D.
    (1879) Manners and customs of the Chinese in the Straits Settlements. Singapore: The Mission Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wade, Geoff
    (2015) Chinese Engagement with the Indian Ocean during the Song, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties (Tenth to Sixteenth Centuries). InMichael Pearson (Ed.), Trade, Circulation, and Flow in the Indian Ocean World. Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies (pp. 55–81). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑56624‑9_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-56624-9_4 [Google Scholar]
  58. Wang, Gungwu
    (1964) The opening of relations between China and Malacca, 1403–5. InJohn Bastin & R. Roolvink (Eds.), Malayan and Indonesian Studies: Essays presented to Sir Richard Windstedt on his 85th birthday (pp. 87–104). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Whaley, Lindsay J.
    (2011) Some ways to endanger an endangered language project. Language and Education, 25(4), 339–348. 10.1080/09500782.2011.577221
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2011.577221 [Google Scholar]
  60. Widodo, Johannes
    (2002) A celebration of diversity: Zheng He and the origins of the pre-colonial coastal urban pattern in Southeast Asia. Journal of Southeast Asian Architecture, 61, 11–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Wu, Degang, Li, Peter Y., Bangfen, Pan, Tiang, Zenia, Dou, Jinzhuang, Williantarra, Ivanna, … Chaolong, Wang
    (2021) Genetic Admixture in the Culturally Unique Peranakan Chinese Population in Southeast Asia. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(10), 4463–4474. 10.1093/molbev/msab187
    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab187 [Google Scholar]
  62. Yoong, S. K., & Zainab, A. N.
    (2002) Chinese literary works translated into Baba Malay: A bibliometric study. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 7(2), 1–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Yusoff, Radiah
    (2007) Translating kinship terms to Malay. Language and Communication Translation Journal, 11(3).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.22003.lee
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.22003.lee
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): creole; language endangerment; lexicon; lexifier; substrate; syntax; variation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error