1887
Volume 3, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1354
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1362
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This study reveals the existence of a Voice Onset Time shift in the Korean spoken by native speakers residing in northeast China, a shift parallel to those reported in other Korean varieties in Korea, the USA, and Canada. The VOT pattern observed in the Chinese Korean community is argued to represent a change that cannot be simply explained in terms of diffusion via recent dialect contact, or as a feature directly inherited from the source language when it was transplanted into China over a century ago. We suggest that behind the parallel VOT shifts is the power of “drift” that drives the different Korean varieties along similar journeys of language evolution. This study presents an intriguing case where internal changes driven by “drift” may actually be initiated and further supported by language/dialect contact.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.3.1.03jin
2017-09-19
2019-10-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ahn, H.
    (1999) Post-release phonatory processes in English and Korean: Acoustic correlates and implications for Korean phonology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahn, Jeong Khn
    (1987) The social stratification of Umlaut. Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bailey, Charles-James N.
    (1973) Variation and linguistic theory. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boersma, Paul , & Weenink, David
    (2007) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program] (Version 4.6). RetrievedJuly 7, 2007, fromwww.praat.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chae, Seo-Young
    (1995) External constraints on sound change: The raising of /o/ in Seoul Korean. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Che, Zhejiu
    (1998) The formation and change of the ethnic Korean in China. Journal of Yanbian University, 31(3), 137–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cho, Taehong
    (1996) Vowel correlates to consonant phonation: An acoustic-perceptual study of Korean obstruents. Masters’ thesis, University of Texas, Arlington.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cho, Taehong , Jun, Sun-Ah , & Ladefoged, Peter
    (2002) Acoustic and aerodynamic correlates of Korean stops and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics, 30(2), 193–228. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0153
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0153 [Google Scholar]
  9. Choi, Woo-Gil
    (2001) The Korean minority in China: The change of its identity. Development and Society, 30(1), 119–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Coates, Jennifer
    (1998) Language and gender: A reader. Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cui, Qingzhi
    (2004) Thinking under the global background: China’s ethnic policy and ethnic Korean history, present and future. Doctoral dissertation, Central Minzu University, Beijing, China.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Current Status of Overseas Compatriots (재외동포현황)
    Current Status of Overseas Compatriots (재외동포현황) (2013) South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MOFAT) [A report]. RetrievedMarch 30, 2014, fromwww.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd=1682
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eckert, Penelope
    (1989) The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change, 1(3), 245–267. doi: 10.1017/S095439450000017X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000017X [Google Scholar]
  14. Flege, James Emil
    (1987) The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15(1), 47–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fortescue, Michael
    (2006) Drift and the grammaticalization divide between northern and southern Wakashan. International Journal of American Linguistics, 72(3), 295–324. doi: 10.1086/509488
    https://doi.org/10.1086/509488 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fox, Susan
    (2008) Reversing “drift”: Innovation and diffusion in the London diphthong system. Language Variation and Change, 20(3), 451–491. doi: 10.1017/S0954394508000148
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394508000148 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gao, Yongyi
    (1989) Studies on the history of the ethnic Koreans in China. Yanbian, China: Yanbian Education Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guy, Gregory R.
    (2003) Variationist approaches to phonological change. In Brian D. Joseph & Richard D. Janda (Ed.), The handbook of historical linguistics (pp.367–400). Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Han, Jeong-Im
    (1996) The phonetics and phonology of ‘tense’ and ‘plain’ consonants in Korean. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Han, Mieko S. , & Weitzman, Raymond S.
    (1965) Studies in the phonology of Asian languages III: Acoustic characteristics of Korean stop consonants [A report]. Los Angeles: Acoustic Phonetics Research Laboratory, University of Southern California.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1970) Acoustic Features of Korean /P, T, K/, /p, t, k/ and /ph, th, kh/. Phonetica, 22(2), 112–128. doi: 10.1159/000259311
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000259311 [Google Scholar]
  22. Haudricourt, André Georges
    (1972) Two-way and three-way splitting of tonal systems in some far-eastern languages. In Jimmy G. Harris & Richard B. Noss (Eds.), Tai phonetics and phonology (pp.58–86). Bangkok: Central Institute of English Language, Mahidol University.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Holmes, Janet
    (1992) An introduction to sociolinguistics. London: Longman Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hombert, J. -M.
    (1978) Consonant types, vowel quality, and tone. In Victoria A. Fromkin (Ed.), Tone: A linguistic survey (pp.77–111). New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hombert, Jean-Marie , Ohala, John J. , & Ewan, William G.
    (1979) Phonetic explanations for the development of tones. Language, 55(1), 37–58. doi: 10.2307/412518
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412518 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hong, Yunsook
    (1991) A sociolinguistic study of Seoul Korean (Korean Unification Studies Series 12). Research center for peace and unification of Korea. Seoul Computer Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hutlerer, Claus J.
    (1982) Sprachinselforschung als prüfstand für dialcktologischce Arbeitsprinzi pien. [Research of Language Islands as Test Bench for Dialectological Operation Methods]. In Werner Besch , Ulrich Knoop , Wolfgang Putschke , & Herbert Ernst Wiegand (Eds.), Dialektologie: ein handbuch zur deutschen und allgemeinen Dialektforschung [Dialectology: A Handbook for German and General Dialect Research] (pp.178–189). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Jin, Wenhua
    (2012) Variation and Change in Chinese Korean: The case of vowel /y/. Journal of Language Variation and Change, 24(1), 79–106. doi: 10.1017/S0954394512000038
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000038 [Google Scholar]
  29. Jin, Yuanshi
    (1996) A review of the history of Korean immigration to China. Journal of Yanbian University, 29(3), 59–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2003) On the connotation of ethnic Koreans in China. China’s borderland history and geography studies, 13(4), 35–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jin, Wenhua
    (2008) Sounds of Chinese Korean: A variationist approach. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Arlington.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Joseph, Brian D.
    (1992) Diachronic explanation: Putting speakers back into the picture. In Garry W. Davis & Gregory K. Iverson (Eds.), Explanation in historical linguistics (pp.123–144). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.84.09jos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.84.09jos [Google Scholar]
  33. Kang, Hyeon-Seok
    (1997) Phonological variation in glides and diphthongs of Seoul Korean: Its synchrony and diachrony. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kang, Kyoung-Ho , & Guion, Susan G.
    (2006) Phonological systems in bilinguals: Age of learning effects on the stop consonant systems of Korean-English bilinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(3), 1672–1683. doi: 10.1121/1.2166607
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2166607 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kang, Yoonjung
    (2014) Voice onset time merger and development of tonal contrast in Seoul Korean stops: A corpus study. Journal of Phonetics, 45, 76–90. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2014.03.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2014.03.005 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kang, Yoonjung , & Nagy, Naomi
    (2016) VOT merger in Heritage Korean in Toronto. Language Variation and Change, 28(2), 249–272. doi: 10.1017/S095439451600003X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439451600003X [Google Scholar]
  37. Keiser, Steven Hartman
    (2009) When “speech islands” aren’t islands: Parallel independent development, drift, and minimal levels of contact for diffusion. Diachronica, 26(1), 1–35. doi: 10.1075/dia.26.1.01kei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.26.1.01kei [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim, Chin-W.
    (1965) On the autonomy of the tensity feature in stop classification (with special reference to Korean stops). Word, 21(3), 339–359. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1965.11435434
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1965.11435434 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kim, M. -R.
    (2000) Segmental and tonal interactions in English and Korean: A phonetic and phonological study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kim, Minjung , & Stoel-Gammon, Carol
    (2009) The acquisition of Korean word-initial stops. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(6), 3950–3961. doi: 10.1121/1.3123402
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3123402 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kim, Mi-Ryoung , Beddor, Patrice Speeter , & Horrocks, Julie
    (2002) “The contribution of consonantal and vocalic information to the perception of Korean initial stops”, Journal of Phonetics, 30(1), 77–100. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0152
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0152 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kim, Si Joong
    (2003) The economic status and role of ethnic Koreans in China. In C. Fred Bergsten & Inbom Choi (Eds.), The Korean diaspora in the world economy (pp.101–127). Peterson Institute, Washington DC.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Labov, William
    (1982) Building on empirical foundations. In Winfred P. Lehmann & Yakov Malkiel (Eds.), Perspectives on Historical Linguistics (pp.17–92). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins doi: 10.1075/cilt.24.06lab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.24.06lab [Google Scholar]
  44. (1994) Principles of language change: Internal factors, volume1. Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. (2001) Principles of language change: Social factors, volume2. Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2007) Transmission and diffusion. Language, 83(2), 344–387. doi: 10.1353/lan.2007.0082
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0082 [Google Scholar]
  47. LaPolla, Randy
    (1994) Parallel grammaticalizations in Tibeto-Burman languages: Evidence of Sapir’s ‘drift’. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 17(1), 61–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lewis, M. Paul , Simons, Gary F. , & Fennig, Charles D.
    (Eds.) (2016) Ethnologue: Languages of the World (19th edition). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. RetrievedJuly 29, 2016, fromwww.ethnologue.com
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lisker, Leigh , & Abramson, Arthur S.
    (1964) A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word, 20(3), 384–422. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830 [Google Scholar]
  50. Malkiel, Yakov
    (1981) Drift, slope, slant: Background of, and variations upon, a Sapirian theme. Language, 57(3), 535–570. doi: 10.2307/414340
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414340 [Google Scholar]
  51. Maran, La Raw
    (1973) On becoming a tone language: A Tibeto-Burman model of tonogenesis. In Larry M. Hyman (Ed.), Consonant types and tone. Southern California occasional papers in linguistics1(1) (pp.98–114). Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Matisoff, James A.
    (1973) Tonogenesis in Southeast Asia. In Larry M. Hyman (Ed.), Consonant types and tone. Southern California occasional papers in linguistics1 (1) (pp.73–95). Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Mattheier, Klaus J.
    (1994) Theorie der sprachinsel voraussetzungen und strukturierungen [Theory of the language Island: Premises and structures]. In Nina Berrend & Klaus J. Mattheier (Eds.), Sprachinselforschung: eine gedenkschrift für Hugo Jedig [Research on language islands: In memoriam of Hugo Jedig] (pp.333–348). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Milroy, James , & Milroy, Lesley
    (1985) Linguistic change, social network and speaker innovation. Journal of Linguistics, 21(2), 339–384. doi: 10.1017/S0022226700010306
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010306 [Google Scholar]
  55. Milroy, Lesley
    (2005) Social networks. In J. K. Chamber , Peter Trudgill , & Natalie Schilling-Estes (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (pp.549–572). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Newman, Paul
    (1992) The drift from the coda into the syllable nucleus in Hausa. Diachronica, 9(2), 227–238. doi: 10.1075/dia.9.2.04new
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.9.2.04new [Google Scholar]
  57. Oh, Eunjin
    (2011) Effects of speaker gender on voice onset time in Korean stops. Journal of Phonetics, 39(1), 59–67. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2010.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2010.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  58. Park, Haeil , & Iverson, Gregory K.
    (2008) First and second language patterns of brain activation in Korean laryngeal contrasts. Korean Linguistics, 14, 1–20. doi: 10.1075/kl.14.01hp
    https://doi.org/10.1075/kl.14.01hp [Google Scholar]
  59. Piao, Changyu
    (1995) Studies on the history of ethnic Koreans in China. Yanbian University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Rosenberg, Peter
    (2005) Dialect convergence in the German language islands (Sprachinseln). In Peter Auer , Frans Hinskens , & Paul Kerswill (Eds.), Dialect change: Convergence and divergence in European languages (pp.221–234). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Sancier, Michele L. , & Fowler, Carol A.
    (1997) Gestural drift in a bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese and English. Journal of Phonetics, 25(4), 421–436. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1997.0051
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1997.0051 [Google Scholar]
  62. Sapir, Edward
    (1921) Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. (1933) Language. In Edwin R. A. Seligman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Volume9) (pp.155–169). New York: MacMillian.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Shen, Xixu , & Cui, yunjia
    (1985) A report on the investigation of current status of Chinese Korean. Minzu Press and People’s Press of Liaoning.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Silva, David James
    (1992) The phonetics and phonology of stop lenition in Korean. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. (2006) Acoustic evidence for the emergence of tonal contrast in contemporary Korean. Phonology, 23(2), 287–308. doi: 10.1017/S0952675706000911
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675706000911 [Google Scholar]
  67. (2011) Out of one, many: The emergence of world Korean(s). In James Hye-Suk Yoon , Yongsoon Kang , Jae-Young Han , & Chung-Kon Shi (Eds.), Inquiries into Korean linguistics, volumeIV (pp.9–37). Seoul: Taehaksa.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Silva, David James , Choi, Younjeoung , & Kim, Ji Eun
    (2004) Evidence for a diachronic shift in the VOT values of Korean stop consonants. In Susumu Kuno , Ik-Hwan Lee , John Whitman , Young-Se Kang , Joan Maling , Young-joo Kim (Eds.), Harvard studies in Korean linguistics X (pp.173–185). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Silva, David James , & Jin, Wenhua
    (2008) The merger of non-high front vowels in Korean: Mission accomplished. Paper presented at theSixteenth Meeting of the International Circle of Korean Linguistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sneddon, James N.
    (1993) The drift towards final open syllables in Sulawesi languages. Oceanic Linguistics, 32(1), 1–44. doi: 10.2307/3623095
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3623095 [Google Scholar]
  71. Thurgood, Graham
    (2002) Vietnamese and tonogenesis. Diachronica, 19(2), 333–363. doi: 10.1075/dia.19.2.04thu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.19.2.04thu [Google Scholar]
  72. Trudgill, Peter J.
    (1972) Sex, covert prestige, and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society, 1(2), 179–195. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500000488
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000488 [Google Scholar]
  73. (1974) Linguistic change and diffusion: Description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography. Language in Society, 3(2), 215–246. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500004358
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500004358 [Google Scholar]
  74. (2004) New dialect formation: The inevitability of colonial Englishes. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Trudgill, Peter , Gordon, Elizabeth , Lewis, Gillian , & MacLagan, Margaret
    (2000) The role of drift in the formation of native-speaker southern hemisphere Englishes: Some New Zealand evidence. Diachronica, XVII(1), 111–138. doi: 10.1075/dia.17.1.06tru
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.17.1.06tru [Google Scholar]
  76. Whalen, Douglas. H. , & Levitt, Andrea G.
    (1995) The universality of intrinsic F0 of vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 23(3), 349–366. doi: 10.1016/S0095‑4470(95)80165‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80165-0 [Google Scholar]
  77. Wright, Jonathan D.
    (2007) Laryngeal contrast in Seoul Korean. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Wu, Zongji , & Lin, Maocan
    (1989) Overview of experimental phonetics. Beijng: Higher Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Xu, Mingxun
    (1985) Preliminary investigation of the Korean immigration process to Northeast. Heilongjiang ethnic series, 1(3), 68–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Yang, Jun , & Wang, Qiubin
    (2006) History of the relationship between China and the Korean Peninsula. Beijing, China: Social Science Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Yao, Yao , & Chang, Charles B.
    (in press). On the cognitive basis of contact-induced sound change: Vowel merger reversal in Shanghainese. Language.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Zhao, Yinglan
    (2004) Socio-economic and cultural survey of the Korean immigrants in the Northeast. Northeast Asia Forum, 13(5), 48–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Zheng, Panlong
    (2000) The turn of the century: Review and prospect of the ethnic Korean in China. Journal of Yanbian University, 33(1), 67–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Zheng, Xianri , & Li, Yinghao
    (2005) A contrastive study of VOT of English and Korean stops. Journal of Yanbian University, 38(4), 99–102.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.3.1.03jin
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aplv.3.1.03jin
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Chinese Korean , drift , language change , parallel shift and Voice onset time (VOT)
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error