1887
Volume 43, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study aims to exemplify how language teaching can benefit from learner corpus research (LCR). To this end, this study determines how L1 and L2 English speakers with diverse L1 backgrounds differ with respect to adjective amplification, based on the (ICLE) and the (LOCNESS). The study confirms trends reported in previous research, in that L1 speakers amplify adjectives more frequently than L2 English speakers. In addition, the analysis shows that L1 and L2 English speakers differ substantially with respect to the collocational profiles of specific amplifier types and with respect to awareness of genre-specific constraints on amplifier use, and that even advanced L2 speakers tend to be unaware of stylistic constraints on adjective amplification because they model their academic output based on patterns generalized from informal conversation. These findings are useful for language teaching in that the data can be used to target L1-specific difficulties experienced by L2 English speakers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.00032.sch
2020-07-03
2020-08-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bolinger, D.
    (1972) Degree words. The Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110877786
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110877786 [Google Scholar]
  2. Breban, T., & Davidse, K.
    (2016) The history of very: The directionality of functional shift and (inter)subjectification. English Language and Linguistics, 20(2), 221–249. 10.1017/S1360674315000428
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674315000428 [Google Scholar]
  3. Callies, M., & Paquot, M.
    (2015) Learner corpus research: An interdisciplinary field on the move. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 1(1), 1–6. 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.00edi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.00edi [Google Scholar]
  4. D’Arcy, A. F.
    (2015) Stability, stasis and change – the longue durée of intensification. Diachronica, 32(4), 449–493. 10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar [Google Scholar]
  5. Department of Education and Training of the Australian Government
    Department of Education and Training of the Australian Government (2019) Adult Migrant English Program. Retrieved fromhttps://www.education.gov.au/learn-english-for-migrants
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A.
    (2014) Your participation is greatly/highly appreciated: Amplifier collocations in L2 English. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 70(1), 76–102. 10.3138/cmlr.1704
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.1704 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ellis, E. M.
    (2004) The invisible multilingual teacher: The contribution of language background to Australian ESL teachers’ professional knowledge and beliefs. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1(2), 90–108. 10.1080/14790710408668181
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710408668181 [Google Scholar]
  8. Fallas Escobar, C., & Chaves Fernández, L.
    (2017) EFL learners’ development of voice in academic writing: Lexical bundles, boosters/hedges and stance-taking strategies. Education and Learning Research Journal, 15, 96–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Forsberg, F.
    (2010) Using conventional sequences in L2 French. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 48(1), 25–51. 10.1515/iral.2010.002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2010.002 [Google Scholar]
  10. Friginal, E., Lee, J. J., Polat, B., & Roberson, A.
    (2017) Exploring spoken English learner language using corpora: Learner talk. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑59900‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59900-7 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fuchs, R.
    (2017) Do women (still) use more intensifiers than men? Recent change in the sociolinguistics of intensifiers in British English. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 22(3), 345–374. 10.1075/ijcl.22.3.03fuc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.22.3.03fuc [Google Scholar]
  12. Granger, S.
    (1993) The international corpus of learner English. InJ. Aarts, P. de Haan, & N. Oostdijk (Eds.), English language corpora: Design, analysis and exploitation (pp.57–69). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1998a) Prefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing: Collocations and formulae. InA. P. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications (pp.145–160). Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (1998b) The computer learner corpus: A versatile new source of data for SLA research. InS. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on computer (pp.3–18). Addison Wesley Longman: London & New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2002) The international corpus of learner English (ICLE). Centre for English Corpus Linguistics, Université Catholique de Louvain. Retrieved fromhttps://uclouvain.be/en/research-institutes/ilc/cecl/icle.html
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (2009) The contribution of learner corpora to second language acquisition and language teaching: A critical evaluation. InK. Aijmer (Ed.), Corpora and language teaching (pp.13–32). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.33.04gra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.33.04gra [Google Scholar]
  17. (2015) The contribution of learner corpora to reference and instructional materials design. InS. Granger, G. Gilquin, & F. Meunier (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of learner corpus research (pp.485–510). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139649414.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139649414.022 [Google Scholar]
  18. Granger, S., & Rayson, P.
    (1998) Automatic profiling of learner texts. InS. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on computer (pp.119–141). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gries, S. T.
    (2018) On over- and underuse in learner corpus research and multifactoriality in corpus linguistics more generally. Journal of Second Language Studies, 1(2), 277–309. 10.1075/jsls.00005.gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jsls.00005.gri [Google Scholar]
  20. Gries, S. T., & Stefanowitsch, A.
    (2004) Extending collostructional analysis: A corpus-based perspectives on ‘alternations’. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 9(1), 97–129. 10.1075/ijcl.9.1.06gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.9.1.06gri [Google Scholar]
  21. Hasselgård, H.
    (1999) [Review of the book Learner English on computer, byS. Granger]. ICAME Journal, 23, 148–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hendrikx, I., Van Goethem, K., & Wulff, S.
    (2019) Intensifying constructions in French speaking L2 learners of English and Dutch: Cross-linguistic influence and exposure effects. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 5(1), 63–103. 10.1075/ijlcr.18002.hen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijlcr.18002.hen [Google Scholar]
  23. Hilpert, M.
    (2006) Discussion note: Distinctive collexeme analysis and diachrony. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 2(2), 243–256. 10.1515/CLLT.2006.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/CLLT.2006.012 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hinkel, E.
    (2003) Adverbial markers and tone in L1 and L2 students’ writing. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(7), 1049–1068. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00133‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00133-9 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hornik, K.
    (2016) openNLP: Apache OpenNLP Tools Interface. Version 0.2–6. Retrieved fromhttps://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/openNLP/openNLP.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ito, R. & Tagliamonte, S.
    (2003) Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers. Language in Society, 32, 257–279. 10.1017/S0047404503322055
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503322055 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kaszubski, P.
    (1998) Enhancing a written textbook: National perspective. InS. Granger (Ed.), Learners English on computer (pp.172–185). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Krauth, J., & Lienert, G. A.
    (1973) Die Konfigurationsfrequenzanalyse und ihre Anwendung in Psychologie und Medizin. Freiburg: Alber.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Labov, W.
    (1972) Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia PA: University of Philadelphia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1985) Intensification. InD. Schiffirn (Ed.), Meaning, form and use in context: Linguistic applications (pp.43–70). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lorenz, G. R.
    (1998) Overstatement in advanced learners’ writing: Stylistic aspects of adjective intensification. InS. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on computer (pp.53–66). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1999) Adjective intensification – learners versus native speakers: A corpus study of argumentative writing. Amsterdam: Rudopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Maddeaux, R., & Dinkin, A.
    (2017) Is like like like? Evaluating the same variant across multiple variables. Linguistics Vanguard, 3(1). doi:  10.1515/lingvan‑2015‑0032
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2015-0032 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mathews-Aydinli, J.
    (2008) Overlooked and understudied? A survey of current trends in research on adult English language learners. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198–213. 10.1177/0741713608314089
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713608314089 [Google Scholar]
  35. Méndez-Naya, B., & Pahta, P.
    (2010) Intensifiers in competition: The picture from early English medical writing. InI. Taavitsainen & P. Pahta (Eds.), Early modern English medical texts: Corpus description and studies (pp.191–214). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Myles, F.
    (2005) Interlanguage corpora and second language acquisition research. Second Language Research, 21(4), 373–391. 10.1191/0267658305sr252oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658305sr252oa [Google Scholar]
  37. (2015) Second language acquisition theory and learner corpus research. InS. Granger, G. Gilquin, & F. Meunier (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of learner corpus research (pp.309–332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139649414.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139649414.014 [Google Scholar]
  38. Nevalainen, T., & Rissanen, M.
    (2002) Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalization of English downtoners. Language Sciences, 24, 359–380. 10.1016/S0388‑0001(01)00038‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(01)00038-9 [Google Scholar]
  39. Paradis, C.
    (2008) Configurations, construals and change: Expressions of DEGREE. English Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 317–343. 10.1017/S1360674308002645
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002645 [Google Scholar]
  40. Partington, A.
    (1993) Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers. InM. Baker, G. Francis, & E. Tognini-Bonelli (Eds.), Text and technology: In honour of John Sinclair (pp.177–192). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.64.12par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.64.12par [Google Scholar]
  41. Pertejo, P. N., & Martínez, I. M. P.
    (2014) That’s absolutely crap, totally rubbish. The use of intensifiers absolutely and totally in the spoken language of British adults and teenagers. Functions of Language, 21(2), 210–237. 10.1075/fol.21.2.03pal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.21.2.03pal [Google Scholar]
  42. Peters, H.
    (1994) Degree adverbs in early modern English. InD. Kastovsky (Ed.), Studies in early modern English (pp.269–288). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110879599.269
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879599.269 [Google Scholar]
  43. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2008) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved fromhttps://www.r-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Simon-Davies, J.
    (2018) Population and migration statistics in Australia. Canberra: Parliament of Australia. Retrieved fromhttps://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/6377182/upload_binary/6377182.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Stefanowitsch, A., & Gries, S. T.
    (2003) Collostructions: Investigating the interaction between words and constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 8(2), 209–243. 10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste [Google Scholar]
  46. (2005) Covarying collexemes. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 1(1), 1–43. 10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  47. Tagliamonte, S.
    (2008) So different and pretty cool! Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada. English Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 361–394. 10.1017/S1360674308002669
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002669 [Google Scholar]
  48. (2012) Variationist sociolinguistics: Change, observation, interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tagliamonte, S., & Denis, D.
    (2014) Expanding the transmission/diffusion dichotomy: Evidence from Canada. Language, 90(1), 90–136. 10.1353/lan.2014.0016
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2014.0016 [Google Scholar]
  50. Turcic, S.
    (2008) Needs assessment of international students in the City of Sydney. Project report. Sydney: The City of Sydney. Retrieved fromhttps://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/71428/Needs-Assessment-International-Students.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wagner, S.
    (2017) Totally new and pretty awesome: Amplifier-adjective bigrams in GloWbE. Lingua, 200, 63–83. 10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.00032.sch
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/aral.00032.sch
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error