Volume 14, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This paper examines approaches to the analysis of speech reporting, finding that these approaches fall into two broad categories: traditional approaches which emphasize the syntactic dimension of speech reporting and are informed by an autonomous model of language and discourse pragmatic approaches which emphasize the interaction of syntactic, pragmatic and stylistic factors in discourse. A model for speech reporting strategies in discourse is proposed, involving direct and indirect speech reporting strategies and a ‘lexicalization strategy’. Using this model, a number of approaches to the function of direct speech reporting strategies in the early stages of SLA are reviewed, which analyze the function of direct speech reporting as a ‘compensatory discourse strategy’, not as stylistic variation. It is argued that this analysis is informed by the traditional approach to speech reporting and does not take into account the ‘lexicalization strategy’. When the lexicalization strategy is considered, direct speech is found to function both referentially and stylistically in learner discourse. The argument is illustrated via an analysis of speech reporting in narrative in learner varieties of English and German.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Banfield, A.
    (1982) Unspeakable sentences: Narration and representation in the language of fiction. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauman, R.
    (1977) Verbal art as performance. Rowley, Mass, Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baynham, M.J.
    (1988) Narrative and narrativity in the English of a first generation migrant community. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Reading.
  4. Colin, G.S.
    (1939) Chrestomathie Marocaine. Paris, Publications de l’Institut des Hautes Etudes Marocaines.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coulmas, F.
    (1985) Direct and indirect speech: general problems and problems of Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics9: 41–63. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(85)90047‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(85)90047-5 [Google Scholar]
  6. Eco, U.
    (1979) The role of the reader: Explorations in the semiotics of texts. London, Hutchinson.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Faerch, K. & G. Kasper
    (1983) Strategies in interlanguage communication. London, Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Genette, G.
    (1980) Narrative discourse. Oxford, Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Givon, T.
    (1979) From discourse to syntax: grammar as a processing strategy. In T. Givon (ed.) Syntax and semantics, vol.12, Discourse and syntax. New York, Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Godfrey, D.L.
    (1980) A discourse analysis of tense in adult ESL monologues. In D. Larsen-Freeman (ed.) Discourse analysis and second language research. Rowley, Mass, Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Goffman, E.
    (1981) Forms of talk. Oxford, Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gumperz, J.J.
    (1982) Discourse strategies. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  13. Halliday, M.A.K.
    (1985) An Introduction to functional grammar. London, Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hymes, D.
    (1972) Editorial introduction to Language in Society. Language in Society1,1: 1–14. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500006515
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006515 [Google Scholar]
  15. Klein, W.
    (1986) Second language acquisition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511815058
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815058 [Google Scholar]
  16. Klein, W. and N. Dittmar
    (1979) Developing grammars: the acquisition of German syntax by foreign workers. Berlin, Springer Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑67385‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-67385-6 [Google Scholar]
  17. Labov, W. & J. Waletzky
    (1967) Narrative analysis: oral versions of personal experience. In J. Helm (ed.) Essays on the verbal and visual arts. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Levelt, W.
    (1981) The speaker’s linearization problem. Philological Transactions of the Royal Society of London, SeriesB: 295, 305–315. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1981.0142
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1981.0142 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lyons, J.
    (1968) Theoretical linguistics. London, Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. McHale, B.
    (1978) Free indirect discourse: a survey of recent accounts. Poetics and Theory of Literature3: 249–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mittner, M.
    (1984) About temporal reference in a Spanish speaking migrant worker’s personal narratives. InSecond language acquisition by adult immigrants, European Science Foundation. London, National Centre for Industrial Language Training.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Page, N.
    (1973) Speech in the English novel. London, Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Partee, B.
    (1973) The syntax and semantics of quotations. In P. Kiparsky and S. Anderson (eds) A Festschrift for Morris Halle. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rimmon-Kenan, S.
    (1983) Narrative fiction: Contemporary poetics. London, Methuen. doi: 10.4324/9780203426111
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203426111 [Google Scholar]
  25. Rosen, H.
    (1979) The dramatic mode. In P. Salmon (ed.) Coming to know. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Schumann, J.
    (1979) The pidginization process: a model for second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass., Newbury House,
    [Google Scholar]
  27. von Stutterheim, C.
    (1984) Temporality in learner varieties. Linguistische Berichte82: 31–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. von Stutterheim, C. and W. Klein
    (1984) A concept-oriented approach to second language studies. In R.W. Andersen (ed.) First and second language acquisition processes. Rowley, Mass., Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Volosinov, V.N.
    (1978) Reported speech. In L. Matjeka and K. Pomorska (eds) Readings in Russian poetics. Ann Arbor, Mich., Michigan Slavic Contributions.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Wiggen, G.
    (1981) Spontaneous dramatization in semi-formal conversation. Oslo, TAUS Skrift No. 9.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wolfson, N.
    (1982a) CHP: The conversational historical present in American English narrative. Dordrecht, Foris. doi: 10.1515/9783110851694
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110851694 [Google Scholar]
  32. (1982b) On tense alternation and the need for analysis of native speaker usage in second language acquisition. Language Learning32, 53–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1982.tb00518.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1982.tb00518.x [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error