Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The purpose of this article is to examine whether and how reading strategies can be successfully taught in second or foreign language reading instruction. A number of researchers agree that it is important for second or foreign language readers to become ‘strategic’ readers. Yet, there is disagreement among these same researchers as to how to accomplish this goal. Part of the problem is that there are no inherently ‘good’ or ‘bad’ reading strategies. What is a good strategy in one situation for one reader, may be a bad strategy in a different situation or for a different reader. Successful and unsuccessful strategy use is apparently context and text dependent. In this article I present a comprehensive survey of the research which has been done on reading strategy training, and confront the critical issue of how to make reading strategy instruction appropriately text and context sensitive rather than the mindless teaching of lists of strategies.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Baumann, J. F.
    (1984) The effectiveness of a direct instruction paradigm for teaching main idea comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly20:93-115. doi: 10.2307/747654
    https://doi.org/10.2307/747654 [Google Scholar]
  2. Hare, V. C , and K. M. Borchardt
    (1984) Direct instruction in summarization skills. Reading Research Quarterly20:62-78. doi: 10.2307/747652
    https://doi.org/10.2307/747652 [Google Scholar]
  3. Meyer, B. J. F.
    (1977a) What is remembered from prose: A function of passage structure. In R. O. Freedle (ed.) Discourse production and comprehension.Norwood, NJ, Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (1977b) Organization of prose and memory: Research with application to reading comprehension. In P. D. Pearson (ed.) Reading: Theory, research and practice.Clemson, SC, National Reading Conference.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (1977c) The structure of prose: Effects on learning and memory and implications for educational practice. In R. C. Anderson , R. J. Spiro , & W. E. Montague (eds.) Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge.Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Myers, I. B. , and N. H. McCaulley
    (1985) Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA, Consulting Psychologists Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Robinson, R. P.
    (1941) Effective study.New York, Harper and Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Anderson, N. J.
    (1991) Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. Modern Language Journal75:460-472. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1991.tb05384.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1991.tb05384.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Auerbach, E. R. and D. Paxton
    (1997) ‘It’s not the English Thing:’ Bringing reading research into the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly31:237-261. doi: 10.2307/3588046
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588046 [Google Scholar]
  10. Baker, L. and A. L. Brown
    (1984) Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. D. Pearson (ed.) Handbook of reading research.New York, Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Block, E.
    (1986) The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly20:463-494. doi: 10.2307/3586295
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586295 [Google Scholar]
  12. Carrell, L.
    (1985) Facilitating ESL reading by teaching text structure. TESOLQuarterly19:727-752. doi: 10.2307/3586673
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586673 [Google Scholar]
  13. (1989) Metacognitive awareness and second language reading. Modern Language Journal73:120-134. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1989.tb02534.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1989.tb02534.x [Google Scholar]
  14. (1991) Strategic reading. In J. E. Alatis (ed.) Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1991: Linguistics and language pedagogy: The state of the art. Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (1992) Awareness of text structure: Effects on recall. Language Learning42:1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1992.tb00698.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00698.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Carrell, L. , B. G. Pharis and J. C. Liberto
    (1989) Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly23:647-678. doi: 10.2307/3587536
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587536 [Google Scholar]
  17. Devine, J.
    (1984) ESL readers’ internalized models of the reading process. In J. Handscombe , R. Orem and B. P. Taylor (eds) On TESOL ‘83.Washington, DC, TESOL.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Flavell, J.H.
    (1978) Metacognitive development. In J. M. Scandura and C. J. Brainerd (eds.) Structural/process theories of complex human behaviour. The Netherlands, Sijthoff and Noordhoff.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hamp-Lyons, L.
    (1985) Two approaches to teaching reading: A classroom-based study. Reading in a Foreign Language3:363-373.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hauptman, C.
    (1979) A comparison of first and second language reading strategies among English-speaking university students. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin4:173-201.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hosenfeld, C.
    (1977) A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and nonsuccessful second language learners. System5:110-123. doi: 10.1016/0346‑251X(77)90087‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(77)90087-2 [Google Scholar]
  22. Jimenez, R. T.
    (1997) The strategic reading abilities and potential of five low-literacy Latina/o readers in middle school. Reading Research Quarterly32:224-243. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.32.3.1
    https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.32.3.1 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kern, R. G.
    (1989) Second language reading strategy instruction: Its effects on comprehension and word inference ability. Modern Language Journal73:135-149. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1989.tb02535.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1989.tb02535.x [Google Scholar]
  24. (1997) L2 reading strategy training: A critical perspective. Paper presented at theAAAL Conference, Orlando, Florida, March 10 1997.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Knight, S. L. , Padron, Y. N. and Waxman, H. C.
    (1985) The cognitive reading strategies of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly19:789-792. doi: 10.2307/3586677
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586677 [Google Scholar]
  26. O’Malley, J. M. , A. U. Chamot , G. Stewner-Mazanares , R. Russo and L. Kupper
    (1985) Learning strategies applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly19:285-296.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Paris, S. G. , B. A. Wasik and J. C. Turner
    (1991) The development of strategic readers. In R. Barr , M. L. Kamil , B. Mosenthal and P. D. Pearson (eds.) Handbook of reading researchVol.2. New York, Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Paris, S. G. , D. R. Cross and M. Y. Lipson
    (1984) Informed strategies for learning: A program to improve children’s reading awareness and comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology6:1239-1252. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.76.6.1239
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.6.1239 [Google Scholar]
  29. Paris, S. G. , M. Y. Lipson and K. K. Wixson
    (1983) Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology8:293-316. doi: 10.1016/0361‑476X(83)90018‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-476X(83)90018-8 [Google Scholar]
  30. Pressley, M. and P. Afflerbach
    (1995) Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Pressley, M.>, B. Snyder and B. Cariglia-Bull
    (1987) How can good strategy use be taught to children? Evaluation of six alternative approaches. In S. Cormier and J. Hagman (eds.) Transfer of learning: Contemporary research and application. Orlando, FL, Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑188950‑0.50010‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-188950-0.50010-2 [Google Scholar]
  32. Raymond, M.
    (1993) The effects of structure strategy training on the recall of expository prose for university students reading French as a second language. Modern Language Journal77:445-458. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1993.tb01992.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1993.tb01992.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Roehler, L. R. and G. G. Duffy
    (1984) Direct explanation of comprehension processes. In G. G. Duffy , L. R. Roehler and J. Mason (eds.) Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. New York, Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sarig, G.
    (1987) High-level reading in the first and in the foreign language: Some comparative process data. In J. Devine , L. Carrell and D. E. Eskey (eds.) Research in reading in English as a second language. Washington, DC, TESOL.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sarig, G. and Folman, S.
    (1987) Metacognitive awareness and theoretical knowledge in coherence production. Paper presented at theCommunication and Cognition International Congress, Ghent, Beglium.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Winograd, P. and V. C. Hare
    (1988) Direct instruction of reading comprehension strategies: The nature of teacher explanation. In C. E. Weinstein , E. T. Goetz and P. A. Alexander (eds.) Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment instruction and evaluation. San Diego, Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑742460‑6.50014‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-742460-6.50014-1 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error