Volume 46, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigated levels of communicative anxiety (CA) among three generations of Korean immigrants (i.e., first, 1.5, and second generation) in Australia. A survey asking about their levels of CA in Korean (i.e., heritage language) and in English (i.e., majority language) was completed by 137 Korean immigrants. Some of the survey respondents participated in the open-ended questions and interviews, which asked about anxiety-arousing situations and coping strategies. Overall, all three generations of Koreans showed very low levels of CA in Korean. Regarding CA in English, the first-generation group showed a moderate level of anxiety whereas the second-generation group showed a very low level of anxiety. The 1.5-generation group revealed relatively low levels, but still ‘some’ degree of CA in both Korean and English. Among many contexts, public speaking provoked the most anxiety, both in Korean and English, and for all three generations. Various linguistic and socio-emotional reasons interplayed, and strategies similar to those used by successful foreign or second language learners were reported.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Birrell, R.
    (1995) Dynamics of multiculturalism in Australia. InD. W. Lovell, I. McAllister, W. Maley, & C. Kukathas (Eds.), The Australian political system. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brown, D. H.
    (2000) Principles of language learning & teaching (4th ed.). Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown, L.
    (2015) Honorifics and politeness. InL. Brown & J. Yeon (Eds.), The handbook of Korean linguistics (pp.303–319). Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118371008.ch17
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118371008.ch17 [Google Scholar]
  4. Colic-Peisker, V., & Hlavac, J.
    (2014) Anglo-Australian and non-Anglophone middle classes: ‘Foreign accent’ and social inclusion. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49(3), 349–371. 10.1002/j.1839‑4655.2014.tb00317.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1839-4655.2014.tb00317.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Derwing, T. M.
    (2010) Utopian goals for pronunciation teaching. InJ. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp.24–37). Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dewaele, J. -M.
    (2010) Multilingualism and affordances: Variation in self-perceived communicative competence and communicative anxiety in French L1, L2, L3, and L4. IRAL – International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 48(2–3), 105–129. 10.1515/iral.2010.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2010.006 [Google Scholar]
  7. Dewaele, J. -M., Petrides, K., & Furnham, A.
    (2008) Effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58(4), 911–960. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00482.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00482.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2003) Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dovchin, S.
    (2020) The psychological damages of linguistic racism and international students in Australia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(7), 804–818. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1759504
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1759504 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dryden, S., Tankosić, A., & Dovchin, S.
    (2021) Foreign language anxiety and translanguaging as an emotional safe space: Migrant English as a foreign language learners in Australia. System, 1011, 102593. 10.1016/j.system.2021.102593
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102593 [Google Scholar]
  11. Flege, J. E.
    (1984) The detection of French accent by American listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 761, 692–707. 10.1121/1.391256
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.391256 [Google Scholar]
  12. Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & MacKay, I. R. A.
    (1995) Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5, Pt. 1), 3125–3134. 10.1121/1.413041
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.413041 [Google Scholar]
  13. Garcia de Blakeley, M., Ford, R., & Casey, L.
    (2017) Second language anxiety among Latino American immigrants in Australia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(7), 759–772. 10.1080/13670050.2015.1083533
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1083533 [Google Scholar]
  14. Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J.
    (1986) Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 701, 125–132. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1986.tb05256.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Jee, M. J.
    (2018a) Four skill-based foreign language anxieties: Learners of Korean in Australia. Linguistic Research, 35(Special Issue), 23–45. 10.17250/khisli.35..201809.002
    https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.35..201809.002 [Google Scholar]
  16. (2018b) Foreign language anxiety in relation to affective variables: Learners of Korean as a foreign language in Australia. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 41(3), 328–348. 10.1075/aral.17068.jee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.17068.jee [Google Scholar]
  17. (2020) Heritage language anxiety and major language anxiety experienced by Korean immigrants in Australia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Advance online publication. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1799321
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1799321 [Google Scholar]
  18. Kao, P., & Craigie, P.
    (2013) Coping strategies of Taiwanese university students as predictors of English language learning anxiety. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(3), 411–420. 10.2224/sbp.2013.41.3.411
    https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2013.41.3.411 [Google Scholar]
  19. Kondo, D. S., & Yang, Y. L.
    (2004) Strategies for coping with language anxiety: The case of students of English in Japan. ELT Journal, 58(3), 258–265. 10.1093/elt/58.3.258
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/58.3.258 [Google Scholar]
  20. MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C.
    (1989) Anxiety and second language learning: Towards a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 391, 251–275. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1989.tb00423.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00423.x [Google Scholar]
  21. Morin, R.
    (2007) A neglected aspect of the standards: Preparing foreign language Spanish teachers to teach pronunciation. Foreign Language Annals, 342–360. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2007.tb03206.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2007.tb03206.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Neufeld, G. G.
    (1980) On the adult’s ability to acquire phonology. TESOL Quarterly, 141, 285–298. 10.2307/3586595
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586595 [Google Scholar]
  23. O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo, R. P., & Küpper, L.
    (1985) Learning strategy application with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 191, 557–584. 10.2307/3586278
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586278 [Google Scholar]
  24. Pappamihiel, N. E.
    (2002) English as a second language students and English language anxiety: Issues in the mainstream classroom. Research in the Teaching of English, 361, 327–355.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rafieyan, V., & Yamanshi, K.
    (2016) Discovering factors of foreign language speaking anxiety and coping strategies. Journal for the Study of English Linguistics, 4(1), 111–125. 10.5296/jsel.v4i1.9668
    https://doi.org/10.5296/jsel.v4i1.9668 [Google Scholar]
  26. Ramjattan, V.
    (2019) Racializing the problem of and solution to foreign accent in business. Applied Linguistics Review (Advance online publication). 10.1515/applirev‑2019‑0058
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2019-0058 [Google Scholar]
  27. Rumbaut, R. G.
    (1991) The agony of exile: A study of the migration and adaptation of Indochinese refugee adults and children. InJ. F. L. Ahearn & J. Athey (Eds.), In refugee children: Theory, research and practice (pp.53–91). Johns Hopkins University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2004) Ages, life stages, and generational cohorts: Decomposing the immigrant first and second generations in the United States. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1160–1205. 10.1111/j.1747‑7379.2004.tb00232.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00232.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Santos, A., Gorter, D., & Cenoz, J.
    (2017) Communicative anxiety in the second and third language. International Journal of Multilingualism, 14(1), 23–37. 10.1080/14790718.2017.1258980
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1258980 [Google Scholar]
  30. Sevinç, Y.
    (2018) Language anxiety in the immigrant context: Sweaty palms?International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(6), 717–730. 10.1177/1367006917690914
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006917690914 [Google Scholar]
  31. Sevinç, Y., & Backus, A.
    (2019) Anxiety, language use and linguistic competence in an immigrant context: A vicious circle?International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(6), 706–724. 10.1080/13670050.2017.1306021
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1306021 [Google Scholar]
  32. Sevinç, Y., & Dewaele, J. M.
    (2018) Heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(2), 159–179. 10.1177/1367006916661635
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916661635 [Google Scholar]
  33. Sohn, H.
    (2001) The Korean language. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tankosić, A., & Dovchin, S.
    (2021) (C)overt linguistic racism: Eastern-European background immigrant women in the Australian workplace. Ethnicities. Advance online publication. 10.1177/14687968211005104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/14687968211005104 [Google Scholar]
  35. Thompson, I.
    (1991) Foreign accents revisited: The English pronunciation of Russian immigrants. Language Learning, 41(2), 177–204. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00683.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00683.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Thompson, A. S., & Khawaja, A.
    (2016) Foreign language anxiety in Turkey: The role of multilingualism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(2), 115–130. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1031136
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1031136 [Google Scholar]
  37. Yasuda, T., & Nabei, L.
    (2018) Effects of coping strategies on language anxiety of Japanese EFL learners: Investigating willingness to communicate. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(5), 905–915. 10.17507/jltr.0905.03
    https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0905.03 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error