1887
Volume 24, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This paper adopts the view that bilingualism is a result of numerous societal forces. In this paper, the data collected from five Japanese immigrant families residing in Toronto, Canada are dynamically represented within the framework of Engeström’s (1999) Activity Model. Results identify family bonding as the most significant reason for L1 maintenance. Other important social factors include the information disseminated by professionals in the field, stories shared among immigrant families, the availability of school programmes, access to technology and resources, availability of caregivers who speak the target language, teachers well-versed in language learning mechanisms, frequent visits to the country of origin, multicultural surroundings, and the clear division of labour between school and home. However, the paper calls for a more co-operative education system that bridges the schism between homes and schools. A new model is proposed which is thought to be conducive to bilingualism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.24.2.04sak
2001-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baker, C.
    (2000) The care and education of young bilinguals: an introduction for professionals. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bourdieu, P.
    (1977) The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information16, 6: 645–668. doi: 10.1177/053901847701600601
    https://doi.org/10.1177/053901847701600601 [Google Scholar]
  3. Cole, A. L. and J. G. Knowles
    , (in press) Researching lives-in-context: self, relationships, and artfulness in life history research. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cole, M.
    (1985) The zone of proximal development: where culture and cognition create each other. In J. V. Wertsch (ed.) Culture, communication and cognition: Vygotskian perspective, 146–161. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cummins, J.
    (1984) Bilingualism and special education: issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (1989) Empowering minority students. Ontario, CA: CABE.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1996) Negotiating identities: education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: CABE.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cummins, J. and M. Danesi
    (1990) Heritage languages: the development and denial of Canada’s linguistic resources. Toronto: Our Schools/Our Selves.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Engeström, Y.
    (1999) Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Y. Engeström , R. Miettinen and R-L Punamäki (eds) Perspectives on activity theory, 19–38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511812774.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812774.003 [Google Scholar]
  10. Fishman, J. A.
    (1991) Reversing language shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2001a) From theory to practice (and vice versa): review, reconsideration and reiteration. In J. A. Fishman (ed.), Can threatened languages be saved?451–483. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2001b) Why is it so hard to save a threatened language?In J. A. Fishman (ed.) Can Threatened Languages be Saved?1–22. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Genesee, F.
    (1989) Early bilingual development: one language or two?Journal of Child Language16: 161–179. doi: 10.1017/S0305000900013490
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900013490 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hakuta, K. and E. E. Garcia
    (1989) Bilingualism and education. American Psychologist44, 2: 374–379. doi: 10.1037/0003‑066X.44.2.374
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.374 [Google Scholar]
  15. Harding, E. and P. Riley
    (1986) The bilingual family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hatch, J. A. and R. Wisniewski
    (1995) Life history and narrative: questions, issues, and exemplary works. In J. A. Hatch and R. Wisniewski (eds) Life history and narrative, 113–135. London, UK: Falmer Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lantolf, J. P.
    (2000) (ed.) Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nieto, S.
    (2nd ed. 1996) Affirming diversity: the sociopolitical context of multicultural education. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Romaine, S.
    (1995) Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Saunders, G. W.
    (1982) Bilingual children: a guide for the family. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1988) Bilingual children: from birth to teens. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Snow, C. E.
    (1992) Perspectives on second language development: implications for bilingual education. Educational Researcher21, 2: 16–19. doi: 10.3102/0013189X021002016
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X021002016 [Google Scholar]
  23. Vygotsky, L. S.
    (1981) The genesis of higher mental functions. In J. Wertsch (ed.) The concept of activity in Soviet psychology. Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wells, G.
    (1996) Using the tool-kit of discourse in the activity of learning and teaching. Mind, Culture, and Activity3, 2: 74–101. doi: 10.1207/s15327884mca0302_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327884mca0302_2 [Google Scholar]
  25. Wertsch, J. V.
    (1995) The need for action in sociocultural research. In J. V. Wertsch , P. Del Río and A. Alvarez (eds) Sociocultural studies of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139174299.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174299.004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Wertsch, J. V. and C. Addison Stone
    (1985) The concept of internalization in Vygotsky’s account of the genesis of higher mental functions. In J. V. Wertsch (ed.) Culture, communication and cognition: Vygotskian perspective, 162–179. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wong Fillmore, L.
    (1991a) Language and cultural issues in early education of language minority children. In S. L. Kagan (ed.) The care and education of America’s young children: obstacles and opportunities, The 90th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (1991b) When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly6: 323–346. doi: 10.1016/S0885‑2006(05)80059‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(05)80059-6 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.24.2.04sak
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error