Volume 24, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
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This paper adopts the view that bilingualism is a result of numerous societal forces. In this paper, the data collected from five Japanese immigrant families residing in Toronto, Canada are dynamically represented within the framework of Engeström’s (1999) Activity Model. Results identify family bonding as the most significant reason for L1 maintenance. Other important social factors include the information disseminated by professionals in the field, stories shared among immigrant families, the availability of school programmes, access to technology and resources, availability of caregivers who speak the target language, teachers well-versed in language learning mechanisms, frequent visits to the country of origin, multicultural surroundings, and the clear division of labour between school and home. However, the paper calls for a more co-operative education system that bridges the schism between homes and schools. A new model is proposed which is thought to be conducive to bilingualism.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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