1887
Volume 34, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139

Abstract

Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper presents a description of an Australian Afrikaans-speaking community in the small Queensland city of Toowoomba. The study shows a high degree of bilingualism amongst the first generation Afrikaans community but also shows incipient signs of language shift within the home and a weak connection between language and identity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.34.1.01hat
2011-01-01
2019-11-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007a) Census of population and housing: Cat. No. 2068.0 – 2006 Census Tables. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007b) Migration: permanent additions to Australia’s population. Reference, 4102.0 Australian Social trends 07/08/2007. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  3. Baker, C.
    (2001) Foundations of bilingual sducation and bilingualism (3rd ed.). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  4. Barkhuizen, G.
    (2005) Missing Afrikaans: ‘linguistic longing’ among Afrikaans-speaking immigrants in New Zealand. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 26, 216–232. doi: 10.1080/01434630508668405
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630508668405 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2006) Immigrant parents’ perceptions of their children’s language practices: Afrikaans speakers living in New Zealand. Language Awareness, 15, 63–79. doi: 10.1080/09658410608668851
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410608668851 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barkhuizen, G. & de Klerk, V.
    (2006) Imagined identities: pre-immigrants’ narratives on language and identity. International Journal of Bilingualism, 10, 277–299. doi: 10.1177/13670069060100030201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069060100030201 [Google Scholar]
  7. Barkhuizen, G. & Knoch, U.
    (2006) Macro-level policy and micro-level planning: Afrikaans-speaking immigrants in New Zealand. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 29, 1–18. doi: 10.2104/aral0603
    https://doi.org/10.2104/aral0603 [Google Scholar]
  8. Batibo, H.
    (2005) Language decline and death in Africa. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  9. Bernard, H. R.
    (2002) Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press.
  10. Bourhis, R.
    (2001) Acculturation, language maintenance, and language shift. In J. Klatter-Folmer & P. van Avermaet , (Eds.), Theories of maintenance and loss of minority languages: Towards a more integrated explanatory framework (pp.5–37). Berlin: Waxmann.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Clyne, M.
    (2003) Dynamics of language contact: English and immigrant languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511606526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511606526
  12. Conklin, N. F. & M. A. Lourie
    (1983) A host of tongues: language communities in the United States. New York: The Free Press.
  13. de Klerk, V.
    (2001) Case study: the cross marriage language dilemma: his language or hers?International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4, 197–216. doi: 10.1080/13670050108667728
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050108667728 [Google Scholar]
  14. de Klerk, V. & Barkhuizen, G.
    (2002) English in the prison services: a case of breaking the law?World Englishes, 21, 9–22. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00228
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00228 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dyers, C.
    (2008) Truncated multilingualism or language shift? An examination of language use in intimate domains in a new non-racial working class township in South Africa. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29, 110–126. doi: 10.2167/jmmd533.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/jmmd533.0 [Google Scholar]
  16. Edwards, J.
    (1992) Sociopolitical aspects of language maintenance and loss: Towards a typology of minority language situations. In W. Fase , K. Jaspaert & S. Kroon , (Eds.), The Maintenance and Loss of Minority Languages (pp.37–54). Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.1.05edw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.1.05edw [Google Scholar]
  17. Finlayson, R. & Caulteaux, K. & Myers-Scotton, C.
    (1998) Orderly mixing and accommodation in South African code-switching. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2/3, 395–420. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9481.00052
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00052 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fishman, J. A.
    (1991) Reversing language shift: theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  19. (2000) Can threatened languages be saved? Reversing language shift revisited: a 21st century perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
  20. (Ed.) (1966) Language and loyalty in the United States: the maintenance and perpetuation of non-English mother tongues by American ethnic and religious Groups. The Hague: Mouton.
  21. Gal, S.
    (1979) Language shift: social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. New York: Academic Press.
  22. Hatoss, A.
    (2006) Language, acculturation and identity in the German community of rural South East Queensland. Language Awareness, 15(2), 80–96. doi: 10.1080/09658410608668852
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410608668852 [Google Scholar]
  23. Holmes, J.
    (1997) Keeping tabs on language shift in New Zealand: some methodological considerations. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18(1), 17–39. doi: 10.1080/01434639708666300
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639708666300 [Google Scholar]
  24. Ingram, D. E. & Wylie, E.
    (1993) The Australian second language proficiency ratings. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
  25. Jaspaert, K. & Kroon, S.
    (1988, August). Social determinants of language shift by Italians in the Netherlands and Flanders. Paper presented atthe International workshop on the loss and maintenance of minority languages, Noordvijkerhout.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kamwangamalu, N. M.
    (2002) The social history of English in South Africa. World Englishes21, 1–8. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00227
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00227 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2004) Language, social history and identity in post-apartheid South Africa: a case study of the “coloured” community in Wentworth. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 170, 113–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kloss, H.
    (1966) German American language maintenance efforts. In J. Fishman (Ed.), Language loyalty in the United States (pp.206–252). The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kuiper, K.
    (2005) Invisible immigrants, inaudible language: Nederlands en Nederlanders in Nieuw Zeeland. In A. Bell , R. Harlow & D. Starks , (Eds.), Languages of New Zealand (pp.322–342). Wellington: Victoria University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Louw, P. E.
    (2004a) Anglicising post-Apartheid South Africa. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25, 318–332. doi: 10.1080/01434630408666535
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630408666535 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2004b) Political power, national identity, and language: the case of Afrikaans. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 170, 43–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Obied, V.
    (2010) How do siblings shape the language environment in bilingual families?International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12, 705–720. doi: 10.1080/13670050802699485
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802699485 [Google Scholar]
  33. Omoniyi, T. & White, G.
    (2006) Sociolinguistics of identity: advances in sociolinguistics. New York: Continuum.
  34. Rudwick, S.
    (2008) “Coconuts” and “oreos”: English-speaking Zulu people in a South African township. World Englishes, 27, 101–116. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2008.00538.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00538.x [Google Scholar]
  35. Schmid, M. S.
    (2002) First language attrition, use and maintenance: the case of German Jews in Anglophone countries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.24
  36. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (2000) Linguistic genocide in education - or worldwide diversity and human rights?London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  37. Smolicz, J. J.
    (1981) Core values and ethnic identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 4, 75–90. doi: 10.1080/01419870.1981.9993325
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1981.9993325 [Google Scholar]
  38. Smolicz, J.J.
    (1999) Who is an Australian? Identity, core values and the resilience of culture. In > Secombe & J. Zajda , (Eds.), J.J. Smolicz on education and culture (pp.11–49). Melbourne: James Nickolas Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sonntag, S. K.
    (2003) The local politics of Global English: case studies of linguistic globalization. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.34.1.01hat
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Afrikaans , Australia , language attitudes , language maintenance and language shift
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error