1887
Volume 35, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139

Abstract

Despite growing interest in the theorisation of teacher-based assessment (TBA), very little research has paid close attention to how teachers practice assessment embedded in real classroom contexts. This longitudinal study over one school term reports on the TBA of young learners with English as an additional language (EAL) in New Zealand primary schools. Taking a grounded, emic, inductive approach, using teacher logs, classroom observations and interviews, four language support teachers and one classroom teacher across three schools were observed assessing the language abilities of six EAL students. The results of this study identify five key strategies used by teachers to scaffold students at the implementation stage of the assessment process in relation to different summative and formative purposes of assessment. It suggests ways in which scaffolding may prove crucial to the effective implementation of assessing the complex needs of L2 learners and confirms how scaffolding may play an important role in identifying a learner’s potential. This study particularly highlights the need for clear communication between home class and L2 teachers, especially at the planning and monitoring stages of the assessment process where results may be used by different stakeholders for different purposes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.35.1.01boo
2012-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Black, P. & Wiliam, D.
    (1998) Inside the blackbox: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Retrieved fromwww.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm. [c3]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bachman, L.
    (1990) Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bachman, L. & Palmer, A.
    (1996) Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biggs, J.
    (1998) Assessment and classroom learning: a role for formative assessment?Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5, 103–110. doi: 10.1080/0969595980050106
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050106 [Google Scholar]
  5. Booth, D.
    (2005) Assessment of primary students with English as an additional language: An investigation of formal assessment practice in three schools. Unpublished dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brindley, G.
    (2001) Outcomes based assessment in practice: Some examples an emerging insights. Language Testing, 18(4), 393–407. doi: 10.1177/026553220101800405
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220101800405 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, G. & Hattie, J.
    (2003) A national teacher-managed, curriculum-based assessment system: Assessment tools for teaching and learning (asTTle). Project asTTle Technical Report 41. University of Auckland/Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carless, D.
    (2008) Developing productive synergies between formative and summative assessment processes. In M. F. Hui & D. Grossman , (Eds.), Improving teacher education through action research (pp.9–23). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Davison, C.
    (2007) Different definitions of language and language learning: Implications for assessment. In E. Hinkel , (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.533–548). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Davison, C. & Hamp-Lyons, L.
    (2009) The Hong Kong Certificate of Education: School-based assessment reform in Hong Kong English language education. In L.-Y Cheng & A. Curtis , (Eds.), English language assessment and the Chinese learner. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Davison, C. & Leung, C.
    (2009) Current issues in English language teacher-based assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 43, 393–415. doi: 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2009.tb00242.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2009.tb00242.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Donato, R. & McCormick, D.
    (2000) Teacher questions as scaffolded assistance in an ESL classroom. In J. K. Hall & L. S. Verplatse , (Eds.), The development of second and foreign language learning through classroom interaction. Mahwah, NJ/London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Faheem, A.
    (2003) Teaching critical thinking in the English language classroom: The case of Palestine. Mediterranean Journal of Education Studies, 8(2) 137–162.[c4]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Franken, M. & McCornish, J.
    (2003) Improving English language outcomes for students receiving ESOL services in New Zealand schools, with a particular focus on new immigrants. Contract Research, Wellington: Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gattullo, F.
    (2000) Formative assessment in ELT primary (elementary) classrooms: an Italian case study, Language Testing, 17(2) 278–288. doi: 10.1177/026553220001700210
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220001700210 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hall, K. , Webber, B. , Varley, S. , Young, V. & Dorman, P.
    (1997) A study of teacher assessment at Key Stage 1. Cambridge Journal of Education, 27, 107–122. doi: 10.1080/0305764970270109
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764970270109 [Google Scholar]
  17. Harlen, W.
    (2005) Teacher’s summative practices and assessment for learning – tensions and synergies. The Curriculum Journal, 16(2) 207–223. doi: 10.1080/09585170500136093
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09585170500136093 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hill, M.
    (2000) Dot, slash, cross. How assessment can drive teachers to ticking instead of teaching. Set, no. 1, 21–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lightbown, P. & Spada, N.
    (2006) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mavrommatis, Y.
    (1997) Understanding assessment in the classroom: Phases of the assessment process – the assessment episode. Assessment in Education, 4(3) 381–399. doi: 10.1080/0969594970040305
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594970040305 [Google Scholar]
  21. Mackey, A. & Gass, S.
    (2005) Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Maybin, J. , Mercer, N. & Stierer, B.
    (1992) Scaffolding learning in the classroom. In Norman, K. (Ed.), Thinking voices: The work of the National Curriculum Project. London: Hodder and Stoughton for the National Curriculum Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. McKay, P.
    (2006) Assessing young language learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2006a) English language learning framework. Wellington: Learning Media Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ministry of Education
    Ministry of Education (2006b) ESOL Progress assessment guidelines. Wellington: Learning Media Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ohta, A.
    (2001) Second language acquisition processes in the classroom: Learning Japanese. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. O’Malley, M. & Valdez Pierce, L.
    (1996) Authentic assessment for English language learners: practical approaches for teachers. United States of America: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Poehner, M. & Lantolf, J.
    (2003, October). Dynamic assessment of L2 development: Bringing the past into the future. Calper Working Papers, No. 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rea-Dickins, P.
    (2001) Mirror, mirror on the wall: identifying processes of classroom assessment, Language Testing, 18(4) 429–462. doi: 10.1177/026553220101800407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220101800407 [Google Scholar]
  30. (2004) Understanding teachers as agents of assessment. Language Testing, 21(3), 249–258. doi: 10.1191/0265532204lt283ed
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532204lt283ed [Google Scholar]
  31. (2007) Classroom based assessment: Possibilities and pitfalls. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.506–520). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rea-Dickins, P. & Gardner, S.
    (2000) Snares and silver bullets: disentangling the construct of formative assessment. Language Testing, 17(2) 215–243. doi: 10.1177/026553220001700206
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220001700206 [Google Scholar]
  33. Robinson, P.
    (2001) Task complexity, task difficulty and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 27–57. doi: 10.1093/applin/22.1.27
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.1.27 [Google Scholar]
  34. Short, D.
    (1993) Assessing integrated language and content instruction, TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 627–656. doi: 10.2307/3587399
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587399 [Google Scholar]
  35. Skehan, P.
    (1998) A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  36. Vygotsky, L.
    (1978) Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wells, G.
    (1999) Dialogic inquiry: Towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511605895
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605895 [Google Scholar]
  38. Wood, D. , Bruner, J. & Ross, G.
    (1976) The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, 17, 89–100. doi: 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.1976.tb00381.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Yu, G.
    (2004) Perception, practice and progress – significance of scaffolding and zone of proximal development for second or foreign language teachers. Asian EFL Journal, 6(4). Retrieved from[c5]www.asian-efl-journal.com/december_04_GY.php.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.35.1.01boo
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): assessment , dynamic assessment , L2 learners , scaffolding and young learners
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error