1887
Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion in Australia
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139

Abstract

Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board’s reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been paid to questions of language and culture. Assimilatory aspects of policy are foregrounded, and language is mainly mentioned in relation to the provision of classes in English as a Second Language. There is some recognition of linguistic diversity but the implications of this for inclusion and intercultural communication are not developed. Australian society can now be characterised as super-diverse, containing numerous ethnic groups each with multiple and different affiliations. We argue that a social inclusion policy that supports such linguistic and cultural diversity needs an evidence-based approach to the role of language and we evaluate existing policy approaches to linguistic and cultural diversity in Australia to assess whether inclusion is construed primarily in terms of enhancing intercultural communication, or of assimilation to the mainstream.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.37.3.01mus
2014-01-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anderson, B.
    (2006) Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (new ed.). London and New York: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) 2011 Census community profiles: Greater Melbourne. Retrieved fromwww.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/communityprofile/2GMEL?opendocument&navpos=220
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Australian Government
    Australian Government (2013) Strategic research priorities. Retrieved fromwww.industry.gov.au/research/Documents/SRP_fact_sheet_web.PDF.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blommaert, J. , & Rampton, B.
    (2011) Language and superdiversity: A position paper. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies (No. 70) (pp.1–22). London: King’s College. Retrieved fromwww.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/education/research/ldc/publications/workingpapers/70.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bradshaw, J. , Deumert, A. , & Burridge, K.
    (2008) Victoria’s languages: Gateway to the world. VITS Language Link. Retrieved fromwww.vits.com.au/publications.htm.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bradshaw, D.
    , (this volume). ‘Like a fish not in water’: How language and race mediate the social and economic inclusion of women migrants to Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clyne, M.
    (2005) Australia’s language potential. Sydney: UNSW Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cohen, R.
    (1997) Global diasporas: An introduction. London: UCL Press. doi: 10.4324/9780203228920
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203228920 [Google Scholar]
  9. Correa-Velez, I. , Gifford, S. M. , & Barnett, A. M.
    (2010) Longing to belong: Social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 71(8), 1399–1408. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.018 [Google Scholar]
  10. Crisp, B. R.
    (2010) Belonging, connectedness and social exclusion. Journal of Social Inclusion, 1(2), 123–132.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. DeWall, C. N. , Deckman, T. , Pond, R. S. , & Bonser, I.
    (2011) Belongingness as a core personality trait: How social exclusion influences social functioning and prsonality expression. Journal of Personality, 79(6), 1281–1314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2010.00695.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00695.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Dickson, G.
    (2010) No Warlpiri, no school?: A preliminary look at attendance in Warlpiri schools since introducing the First Four Hours of English policy. Ngoonjook, 35, 97–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dixon, S. , & Angelo, D.
    (this volume). Dodgy data, language invisibility and the implications for social inclusion: A critical analysis of Indigenous student language data in Queensland schools.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fiske, S. T.
    (2009) Social beings: Core motives in social psychology. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hatoss, A. , Sheely, T.
    (2009) Language maintenance and identity among Sudanese-Australian refugee-background youth. Journal of Multicultural and Multilingual Development, 30(2), 127–144. doi: 10.1080/01434630802510113
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630802510113 [Google Scholar]
  16. Iuliano, S. , & Baldassar, L.
    (2008) Deprovincialising Italian migration studies: An overview of Australian and Canadian research. Flinders University Languages Group Online Review, 3(3), 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kipp, S. , Clyne, M. , & Pauwels, A.
    (1995) Immigration and Australia’s language resources. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Le Page, R. B. , Tabouret-Keller, A.
    (1985) Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Major, G. , Terraschke, A. , Major, E. , & Setijadi, C.
    (this volume). Working it out: Migrants’ perspectives of social inclusion in the workplace.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Markus, A.
    (2013) Mapping social cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation surveys national report 2013 (pp.. 1–54). Caulfield East, Victoria: ACJC, Faculty of Arts, Monash University. Retrieved frommonash.edu/mapping-population/social-cohesion-report.html.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Martin-Jones, M. , Romaine, S.
    (1986) Semilingualism: A half-baked theory of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics, 7(1), 26–38. doi: 10.1093/applin/7.1.26
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/7.1.26 [Google Scholar]
  22. Maslow, A. H.
    (1975) Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Miller, C.
    (2000) Juba Arabic as a way of expressing a Southern Sudanese identity in Khartoum. In A. Youssi (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of AÏDA – Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe – held in Marrakesh 1–4 April 2000 (pp.114–122). Marrakesh: Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Musgrave, S. , Hajek, J.
    (2010) Sudanese languages in Melbourne: Linguistic demography and language maintenance. In Y. Treis & R. de Busser (Eds.), Selected Papers from the 2009 Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society (pp.) 1–17). Retrieved fromwww.als.asn.au/proceedings/als2009/musgravehajek.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Musgrave, S. , & Hajek, J.
    (2013) Minority language speakers as migrants: some preliminary observations on the Sudanese community in Melbourne. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(4), 394–410. dio: 10.1080/14790718.2013.832121
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2013.832121 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nguyen, X. T.
    (1997) The reconvergence of Vietnamese. In M. Clyne (Ed.), Undoing and redoing corpus planning (pp.143–164). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Otsuji, E. , Pennycook, A.
    (2011) Social inclusion and metrolingual practices. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(4), 413–426. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2011.573065
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.573065 [Google Scholar]
  28. Piller, I.
    (2012) Multilingualism and social exclusion. In M. Martin-Jones , A. Blackledge , & A. Creese (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of multilingualismpp.281–296). London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Piller, I. , & Takahashi, K.
    (2011) Linguistic diversity and social inclusion. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(4), 371–381. dio: 10.1080/13670050.2011.573062
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.573062 [Google Scholar]
  30. Sharifian, F. , Musgrave, S.
    (2013) Migration and multilingualism: focus on Melbourne. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(4), 361–374. dio: 10.1080/14790718.2013.832119
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2013.832119 [Google Scholar]
  31. Simpson, J. H. , Caffery, J. , McConvell, P.
    , & Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (2009) Gaps in Australia’s indigenous language policy: dismantling bilingual education in the Northern Territory. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (1978) Semilingualism and the education of migrant children as a means of reproducing the caste of assembly line workers. In N. Dittmar & U. Teleman (Eds.), Papers for the first Scandanavian-German Symposium on the Language of Immigrant Workers and their Children (pp.. 4–22). Roskilde: Universetscenter, Linguistgruppen.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Snyder, I.
    (2008) The literacy wars: Why teaching children to read and write is a battleground in Australia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Social Inclusion Unit
    Social Inclusion Unit (2009) A stronger, fairer Australia. Canberra: Social Inclusion Unit, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved fromtrove.nla.gov.au/work/36779062.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. South Eastern Region Migrant Resource Centre
    South Eastern Region Migrant Resource Centre (2007) Sudanese in south east Melbourne: Perspectives of a new and emerging community. South Eastern Region Migrant Resource Centre. Retrieved fromwww.sailprogram.org.au/site/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/2007-Sudanese-Community-Profile-for-MRC-website.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Steinert, H.
    (2003) Introduction: The cultures of welfare and exclusion. In H. Steinert & A. Pilgram (Eds.), Welfare policy from below: struggles against social exclusion in Europe (pp.1–12). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Vertovec, S.
    (2007) Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1024–1054. doi: 10.1080/01419870701599465
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701599465 [Google Scholar]
  38. Watson, R. L.
    (1989) An introduction to Juba Arabic. Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Language, 6, 95–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yates, L.
    (2011) Interaction, language learning and social inclusion in early settlement. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(4), 457–471. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2011.573068
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.573068 [Google Scholar]
  40. Zetter, R. , Griffiths, D. , Sigona, N. , Fynn, D. , Pasha, T. , & Beynon, R.
    (2006) Immigration, social cohesion and social capital: What are the links? (pp.1–36). York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrieved fromwww.jrf.org.uk/publications/immigration-social-cohesion-and-socialcapital-what-are-links.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.37.3.01mus
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arabic , language policy , multilingual Melbourne , Sudanese migrants and super-diversity
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error