1887
Teachers’ Plurilingual Identities in Transnational Contexts
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139

Abstract

The success of Canada’s immigration policy is intrinsically tied to employment of an immigrant workforce. Teaching is the fourth largest profession among Canadian immigrants, yet immigrants whose occupations are in education are three times less likely to be employed in their matching profession. Failure to incorporate an immigrant workforce not only affects economic success, but has repercussions for immigrant professional identity. This paper reflects on the development of professional identity for twelve internationally educated immigrant teachers (IETs) seeking to reposition themselves as teachers in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. Through qualitative interviews and Life Positioning Analysis (Martin, 2013), this research explored the role of significant others in facilitating or impeding IETs’ inclusion into the teaching force and subsequent effects on professional identity development. Language and linguistic abilities emerged as a pervasive theme. Participants found acceptance and validation of their language and cultural differences through the perspectives of the students with whom they came into contact. In contrast, the professional teaching community’s perspectives in regard to accents and language proficiency caused IETs to question their competence and negatively impacted their professional identities. Implications for practice with respect to supporting IETs repositioning are offered.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/aral.38.3.04fra
2015-01-01
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Amin, N.
    (2006) Language, race, and the poetics of anti-racism: Concluding thoughts. In N. Amin & G. S. Dei , (Eds.), The poetics of anti-racism (pp.149–158). Halifax: Fernwood.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bascia, N.
    (1996a) Making sense of the lives and work of racial minority immigrant teachers. In D. Thiessen , N. Bascia , & I. Goodson (Eds.), Making a difference about difference: The lives and careers of racial minority immigrant teachers (pp.1–14). Toronto, Ontario: REMTEL/Garamond Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (1996b) Inside and outside: Minority immigrant teachers. In D. Thiessen , N. Bascia , & I. Goodson (Eds.), Making a difference about difference: The lives and careers of racial minority immigrant teachers (pp.157–178). Toronto, Ontario: REMTEL/Garamond Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2006a) Profile of diversity in B.C. communities: Burnaby. Retrieved fromwww.welcomeB.C.ca/local/wB.C./docs/immigration/2006/Burnaby.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2006b) Profile of diversity in B.C. communities: Coquitlam. Retrieved fromwww.welcomeB.C.ca/local/wB.C./docs/immigration/2006/Coquitlam.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2006c) Profile of diversity in B.C. communities: Richmond. Retrieved fromwww.welcomeB.C.ca/local/wB.C./docs/immigration/2006/Richmond.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  7. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2006d) Profile of diversity in B.C. communities: Surrey. Retrieved fromwww.welcomeB.C.ca/local/wB.C./docs/immigration/2006/Surrey.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  8. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2006e) Profile of diversity in B.C. communities: Vancouver. Retrieved fromwww.welcomeB.C.ca/local/wB.C./docs/immigration/2006/Vancouver.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  9. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2011a) British Columbia regional district migration components. Retrieved fromwww.B.C.stats.gov.B.C.ca/data/pop/mig/rdcomp.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  10. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2011b) Immigration labour force survey. Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey. Retrieved fromwww.B.C.stats.gov.B.C.ca/data/lss/lfs/imm/ILFS2010.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  11. BC Stats
    BC Stats (2011c) Earnings & employment trends. Retrieved fromwww.B.C.stats.gov.B.C.ca/pubs/eet/eet1105.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Beynon, J. , Ilieva, R. , & Dichupa, M.
    (2001) Teachers of Chinese ancestry: Interaction of identities and professional roles. Teaching Education, 12(2), 133–151. doi: 10.1080/10476210124514
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210124514 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2004) Re-credentialing experiences of immigrant teachers: Negotiating institutional structures, professional identities and pedagogy. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 10(4), 429–444. doi: 10.1080/1354060042000224160
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1354060042000224160 [Google Scholar]
  14. Beynon, J. , Toohey, K. & Kishor, N.
    (1992) Do visible minorities in British Columbia want careers in teaching?Canadian Ethnic Studies, 24(3), 145–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Canadian Teachers’ Federation
    Canadian Teachers’ Federation (2006) Submission to the labour program of human resources and social development Canada: Review of the Employment Equity Act: Into the future. Retrieved fromwww.ctf-fce.ca/publications/Briefs/Subm-toHRSDC-reEmplymtEquityAct-eng.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chase, M. , Dowd, A. , Pazich, L. & Bensimon, E.
    (2014) Transfer equity for “minoritized” students: A critical policy analysis of seven states. Educational Policy, 28(5), 669–717. doi: 10.1177/0895904812468227
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904812468227 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cruickshank, K.
    (2004) Towards diversity in teacher education: Teacher preparation of immigrant teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 125–138. doi: 10.1080/0261976042000223006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0261976042000223006 [Google Scholar]
  18. Deters, P.
    (2011) Identity, agency and the acquisition of professional language and culture. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dodds, A. E. , Lawrence, J. A. , & Valsiner, J.
    (1997) The personal and the social: Mead’s theory of the ‘generalized other’. Theory & Psychology, 7(4), 483–503. doi: 10.1177/0959354397074003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354397074003 [Google Scholar]
  20. Duchesne, C. , & Stitou, M.
    (2011) Conceptions of learning: The challenge for immigrant student teachers. Canada Education, 51(4). Retrieved fromwww.cea-ace.ca/educationcanada/article/conceptions-learning-challenge-immigrant-student-teachers
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Galindo, R.
    (1996) Reframing the past in the present: Chicana teacher role identity as a bridging identity. Education and Urban Society, 29(1), 85–102. doi: 10.1177/0013124596029001007
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124596029001007 [Google Scholar]
  22. Harvey, E. , & Houle, R.
    (2006) Demographic changes in Canada and their impact on public education. The Learning Partnership. Retrieved fromwww.thelearningpartnership.ca/page.aspx?pid=470
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hirji, S. & Beynon, J.
    (2000) Teachers of Punjabi Sikh ancestry: Their perceptions of their roles in the British Columbia education system. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, XLVI(3), 250–266.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. McNamara, O. & Basit, T.
    (2004) Equal opportunities or affirmative action? The induction of minority ethnic teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 30(2), 97–115. doi: 10.1080/0260747042000229735
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0260747042000229735 [Google Scholar]
  25. Martin, J.
    (2013) Life positioning analysis: An analytic framework for the study of lives and life narratives. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 33(1), 1–17. doi: 10.1037/a0025916
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025916 [Google Scholar]
  26. Martin, J. , & Gillespie, A.
    (2010) A neo-Meadian approach to human agency: Relating the social and the psychological in the ontogenesis of perspective-coordinating persons. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 44(3), 252–272. doi: 10.1007/s12124‑010‑9126‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12124-010-9126-7 [Google Scholar]
  27. Mawhinney, H. , & Xu, F.
    (1997) Reconstructing the professional identity of foreign-trained teachers in Ontario schools. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 632–639. doi: 10.2307/3587847
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587847 [Google Scholar]
  28. Myles, J. , Cheng, L. , & Wang, H.
    (2006) Teaching in elementary school: Perceptions of foreign-trained teacher candidates on their teaching practicum. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 233–245. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2005.09.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.09.001 [Google Scholar]
  29. Phillion, J.
    (2003) Obstacles to accessing the teaching profession for immigrant women. Multicultural Education, 11(1), 41–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Quiocho, A. , & Rios, F.
    (2000) The power of their presence: Minority group teachers and schooling. Review of Educational Research, 70(4), 485–528. doi: 10.3102/00346543070004485
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543070004485 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ryan, J. , Pollock, K. , & Antonelli, F.
    (2009) Teacher diversity in Canada: Leaky pipelines, bottlenecks, and glass ceilings. Canadian Journal of Education, 32(3), 591–617.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schmidt, C.
    (2010a) Systemic discrimination as a barrier for immigrant teachers. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 4(4), 235–252. doi: 10.1080/15595692.2010.513246
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15595692.2010.513246 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2010b) Moving from the personal to the political in IET scholarship. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 100, 1–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schmidt, C. , & Block, L. A.
    (2010) Without and within: The implications of employment and ethnocultural equity policies for internationally educated teachers. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 100, 1–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schmidt, C. , Young, J. , & Mandzuk, D.
    (2010) The integration of immigrant teachers in Manitoba, Canada: Critical issues and perspectives. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 11, 439–452. doi: 10.1007/s12134‑010‑0149‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-010-0149-1 [Google Scholar]
  36. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada (2006a) Study: Immigrants working in regulated occupations. Retrieved fromwww.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100224/dq100224d-eng.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Statistics Canada [Google Scholar]
  38. Su, Z.
    (1997) Teaching as a profession and as a career: Minority candidates’ perspectives. Teaching & Teacher Education, 13(3), 325–340. doi: 10.1016/S0742‑051X(96)00021‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(96)00021-2 [Google Scholar]
  39. Walsh, S. & Brigham, S.
    , & the Women, Diversity, and Teaching Group (2007) Internationally educated female teachers who have immigrated to Nova Scotia: A research/performance text. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 6(3), 1–28. Available atejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/issue/view/34.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Walsh, S. , & Brigham, S.
    (2008) Internationally educated teachers and teacher education programs in Canada: Current practices. Atlantic Metropolis Centre Working Paper Series: Working Paper No. 18/2-08. RetrievedJune 10, 2015, fromcommunity.smu.ca/atlantic/documents/WP18--WalshandBrigham2.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Walton-Roberts, M.
    (2005) Regional immigration and dispersal: Lessons from small-and medium-sized urban centres in British Columbia. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 37(3), 12–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Xu, F.
    (1999) Competence, opportunity, negotiation and the reconstruction of a professional identity by foreign-trained teachers in Canada. PhD Thesis, University of Ottawa. Available atwww.ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/8738.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zhao, Y.
    (2010) Preparing globally competent teachers: A new imperative for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 422–431. doi: 10.1177/0022487110375802
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487110375802 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/aral.38.3.04fra
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error