Volume 39, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0155-0640
  • E-ISSN: 1833-7139
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The teaching of writing in English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) has been a challenging task for many teachers due to its multifaceted nature. This paper is a reflection on ESL/EFL writing teaching in three countries, namely China, Singapore, and New Zealand, with particular reference to professionalizing ESL/EFL writing and ESL/EFL writing-teacher education. It first addresses issues facing EFL writing and writing-teacher education that relate to the offering of English at various levels in China. It then moves on to elaborate on how western pedagogical practices have been implemented in Singapore, especially that of a genre-based pedagogy. Nestled in the context of globalization, I focus on New Zealand, positing that globalization has exacerbated the challenge in teaching ESL writing because of large numbers of students who are seeking higher education in western countries in English as the medium of instruction, and yet their first language is not English. I conclude the paper with recommendations that professionalizing L2 writing (even in school settings) is a mission for all those who are in this enterprise. Proper teacher preparation programs for training L2 writing teachers should be in place in order for this to happen. China needs to critically appraise, and learn from, successful experiences such as Singapore and many institutions in the USA and Canada. New Zealand is yet to formalize ESOL writing teacher preparation programs, where English-as-an-L2 writing-teacher education for primary and secondary schools is still not a priority in most teacher-education institutions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. ARWU
    (2015) Academic ranking of world universities. Retrieved fromwww.shanghairanking.com/.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Atkinson, D
    (2004) Contrasting rhetorics/contrasting cultures: Why contrastive rhetoric needs a better conceptualization of culture. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 277–290. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2004.07.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2004.07.002 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atkinson, D. , & Matsuda, P. K
    (2013) Intercultural rhetoric: A conversation – The sequel. In D. Belcher & G. Nelson (Eds.), Critical and corpus-based approaches to intercultural rhetoric (pp. 227–242). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Belcher, D
    (2014) What we need and don’t need intercultural rhetoric for: A retrospective and prospective look at an evolving research area. Journal of Second Language Writing, 25, 59–67. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2014.06.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2014.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bhatia, V
    (1991) A genre-based approach to ESP materials. World Englishes, 10, 153–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1991.tb00148.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1991.tb00148.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Bitchener, J
    (2009) Writing an applied linguistics thesis or dissertation. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bitchener, J. , & Ferris, D
    (2012) Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. New York, NY: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Blommaert, J
    (2010) The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511845307
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bourdieu, P
    (1986) The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cai, J
    (2003) 英汉写作修辞对比 [Contrastive rhetoric in English and Chinese writing]. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Canagarajah, A. S
    (2006) The place of World Englishes in composition: Pluralization continued. College Composition and Communication, 57, 586–619.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2015) Clarifying the relationship between translingual practice and L2 writing: Addressing learner identities. Applied Linguistics Review, 6, 415–440. doi: 10.1515/applirev‑2015‑0020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0020 [Google Scholar]
  13. Carter, S. , Kelly, F. , & Brailsford, I
    (2012) Structuring your research thesis. London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑00936‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-00936-4 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chan, C. K. K. , & Rao, N
    (2010a) Moving beyond paradoxes: Understanding Chinese learners and their teachers. In C. K. K. Chan & N. Rao (Eds.), Revisiting the Chinese learner: Changing contexts, changing education (pp.3–33). New York: Springer on behalf of the Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong. doi: 10.1007/978‑90‑481‑3840‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3840-1 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2010b) Revisiting the Chinese learner changing contexts, changing education (CERC Studies in Comparative Education 25). New York: Springer on behalf of the Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cheng, A
    (2007) Transferring generic features and recontextualizing genre awareness: Understanding writing performance in the ESP genre-based literacy framework. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 287–307. doi: 10.1016/j.esp.2006.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2006.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cheng, X
    (Ed.) (2011) Toward professionalization in EFL writing teaching and research: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Teaching and Researching EFL Writing in China. Beijing, CN: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Connor, U
    (1996) Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second language writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524599
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524599 [Google Scholar]
  19. (2004) Intercultural rhetoric research: Beyond texts. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 291–304. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2004.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2004.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2011) Intercultural rhetoric in the writing classroom. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. doi: 10.3998/mpub.3488851
    https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.3488851 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cortazzi, M. , & Jin, L
    (Eds.) (2013) Researching cultures of learning: International perspectives on language learning and education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137296344
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137296344 [Google Scholar]
  22. Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. , & Silver, R. E
    (2012) Educational reforms, cultural clashes and classroom practices. Cambridge Journal of Education, 42, 141–161. doi: 10.1080/0305764X.2012.676631
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2012.676631 [Google Scholar]
  23. Davison, C
    (2007) Different definitions of language and language learning: Implications for assessment. In C. Davison & J. Cummins (Eds.), International handbook of English language teaching (pp. 533–548). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑46301‑8_38
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-46301-8_38 [Google Scholar]
  24. Deng, L. , Chen, Q. , & Zhang, Y
    (2014) Developing Chinese EFL learners’ generic competence: A genre-based process genre approach. New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑54845‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54845-1 [Google Scholar]
  25. Derewianka, B
    (1996) Exploring the writing of genres. London: UK Reading Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ding, W. , & Wu, B
    (1982).《英语写作基础教程》 [A basic course in English writing]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ding, W. , Wu, B. , Zhong, M. , & Guo, L
    (1994) 《英语写作手册》[An English writing handbook]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ding, W. , Wu, B. , Zhong, M. , & Guo, L
    (2009. 《英语写作手册》 [An English writing handbook, 3rd ed.]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Duff, P
    (2010) Language socialization into academic discourse communities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 169–192. doi: 10.1017/S0267190510000048
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190510000048 [Google Scholar]
  30. English Department of Shanghai International Studies University (SISU)
    (1980) 《中国学生英语常见错误分析》 [An analysis of Chinese EFL students’ common errors]. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fang, Z. , & Schleppegrell, M. J
    (2008) Reading in secondary content areas: A language-based pedagogy. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. doi: 10.3998/mpub.309314
    https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.309314 [Google Scholar]
  32. Fang, Z. , & Wang, Z
    (2011) Beyond rubrics: Using functional language analysis to evaluate student writing. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 34, 147–165.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ferris, D. R. , & Hedgcock, J. S
    (2014) Teaching L2 composition: Purpose, process, and practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fischer, M. M. J
    (2015) Ethnography for aging societies: Dignity, cultural genres, and Singapore’s imagined futures. American Ethnologist, 42, 207–229. doi: 10.1111/amet.12126
    https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12126 [Google Scholar]
  35. Flower, L. , & Hayes, J
    (1981) A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32(4), 365–387. doi: 10.2307/356600
    https://doi.org/10.2307/356600 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gentil, G
    (2011) A biliteracy agenda for genre research. Journal of Second Language Writing20, 6–23. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gieve, S. , & Clark, R
    (2005) The Chinese approach to learning: Cultural trait or situated response?System, 33, 261–276. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2004.09.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.09.015 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gilliland, B
    (2015) High school teacher perspectives and practices: Second language writing and language development. Language and Education, 29(4), 287–301. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2014.1001398
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.1001398 [Google Scholar]
  39. Halliday, M. A. K
    (1978) Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (1985) Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Geelong, Vic., Australia: Deakin University.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hinkel, E
    (2003) Simplicity without elegance: Features of sentences in L1 and L2 academic texts. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 275–301. doi: 10.2307/3588505
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588505 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hirvela, A. , & Belcher, D
    (2001) Coming back to voice: The multiple voices and identities of mature multilingual writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 83–106. doi: 10.1016/S1060‑3743(00)00038‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00038-2 [Google Scholar]
  43. Holliday, A
    (1994) Appropriate methodology and social context. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hu, S
    (1987).《对比修辞学研究》[Comparative studies in English and Chinese rhetoric]. Shanghai: Foreign Language Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hyland, K
    (2002) Authority and invisibility: Authorial identity in academic writing. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 1091–1112. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00035‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00035-8 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2012) Disciplinary identities: Individuality and community in academic discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jeurissen, M. J
    (2012) 'Perhaps I didn’t really have as good a knowledge as I thought I had’: What do primary school teachers know and believe about grammar and grammar teaching?Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 35, 301–316.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Jin, L. , & Cortazzi, M
    (2013) Introduction: Research and levels of intercultural learning. In L. Jin & M. Cortazzi (Eds.), Researching intercultural learning: Investigations in language and education (pp.1–17). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137291646_1
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137291646_1 [Google Scholar]
  49. Johns, A. M
    (1997) Text, role and context: Developing academic literacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524650
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524650 [Google Scholar]
  50. (2008) Genre awareness for the novice student: An ongoing quest. Language Teaching, 41, 237–252. doi: 10.1017/S0261444807004892
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444807004892 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kaplan, R. B
    (1966) Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education. Language Learning, 16, 1–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1966.tb00804.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1966.tb00804.x [Google Scholar]
  52. (1987) Cultural thought patterns revisited. In U. Connor & R. B. Kaplan (Eds.), Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text (pp.9–21). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kirkpatrick, A. , & Xu, Z
    (2012) Chinese rhetoric and writing: An introduction for language teachers. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lee, I. , Mak, P. , & Burns, A
    (2015) EFL teachers’ attempts at feedback innovation in the writing classroom. Language Teaching Research. doi: 1‑15.10.1177/1362168815581007
    https://doi.org/1-15.10.1177/1362168815581007 [Google Scholar]
  55. Li, B
    (Ed.) (2010) Writing across the curriculum in teaching and researching EFL writing in China: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Teaching and Researching EFL Writing in China. Beijing, CN: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ma, W. , & Wang, C
    (Eds.) (2014) Learners’ privilege and responsibility: A critical examination of learners from Chinese backgrounds in the United States. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Manchon, R. M
    (2012) L2 writing development: Multiple perspectives. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9781934078303
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781934078303 [Google Scholar]
  58. Matalene, C
    (1985) Contrastive rhetoric: An American writing teacher in China. College English, 47, 789–808. doi: 10.2307/376613
    https://doi.org/10.2307/376613 [Google Scholar]
  59. Matsuda, A. , & Matsuda, P. K
    (2010) World Englishes and the teaching of writing. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 369–374. doi: 10.5054/tq.2010.222222
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2010.222222 [Google Scholar]
  60. Matsuda, P. K
    (1998) Situating ESL writing in a cross-disciplinary context. Written Communication, 15, 99–121. doi: 10.1177/0741088398015001004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088398015001004 [Google Scholar]
  61. (2013) Response: What is second language writing? – And why does it matter?Journal of Second Language Writing, 22, 448–450. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2013.08.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2013.08.011 [Google Scholar]
  62. Matsuda, P. K. , & Silva, T
    (1999) Cross-cultural composition: Mediated integration of US and international students. Composition Studies, 27, 15–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. May, S. A
    (2011) The disciplinary constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive bilingualism and second language acquisition, teaching and learning. Linguistics and Education, 22, 233–247. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2011.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ministry of Education, China
    (2011) Yearbook of China education. Beijing: People’s Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ministry of Education, New Zealand
    (2007) The New Zealand curriculum for English-medium teaching and learning in years 1-13. Wellington: Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. (2009) The New Zealand curriculum: Reading and writing standards for years 1-8. Wellington: Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. (2010) The literacy learning progressions: Meeting the reading and writing demands of the curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Ministry of Education, Singapore
    (2001) The English language syllabus. Singapore: Author.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. (2010) English Language syllabus 2010: Primary and secondary (Express/Normal [Academic]). Singapore: Author. Retrieved fromwww.moe.gov.sg/education/syllabuses/english-language-and-literature/files/english-primary-secondary-express-normal-academic.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Mu, C. , Zhang, L. J. , Ehrich, J. , & Hong, H
    (2015) The use of metadiscourse for knowledge construction in Chinese and English research articles. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 20, 135–148. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2015.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  71. Paltridge, B
    (2001) Genre and the language learning classroom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. doi: 10.3998/mpub.23749
    https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.23749 [Google Scholar]
  72. (2014) Genre and second-language academic writing. Language Teaching, 47(3), 303–318. doi: 10.1017/S0261444814000068
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444814000068 [Google Scholar]
  73. Parr, J. M. , & Jesson, R
    (2016) Mapping the landscape of writing instruction in New Zealand primary school classrooms. Reading and Writing, 29)5),981–1011. doi: 10.1007/s11145‑015‑9589‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9589-5 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pennington, M
    (2015) Crossing over: Forming linkages for writing pedagogy. Writing and Pedagogy, 7, 1–13. doi: 10.1558/wap.v7i1.27496
    https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v7i1.27496 [Google Scholar]
  75. Polio, S. , & Shi, L
    (2012) Perceptions and beliefs about textual appropriation and source use in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(2), 95–101. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  76. Qin, J. , & Karabacak, E
    (2010) The analysis of Toulmin elements in Chinese EFL university argumentative writing. System, 38, 444–456. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2010.06.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2010.06.012 [Google Scholar]
  77. Read, J
    (2015) Assessing English proficiency for university study. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137315694
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137315694 [Google Scholar]
  78. Rose, D. , & Martin, J. R
    (2012) Learning to write/reading to learn: Genre, knowledge and pedagogy in the Sydney school. London, England: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Rothery, J
    (1996) Making the changes: Developing an educational linguistics. In R. Hasan & G. Williams (Eds.), Literacy in society (pp. 86–123). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Shi, L
    (2012) Rewriting and paraphrasing source texts in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 134–148. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.003 [Google Scholar]
  81. Silver, R. E
    (2005) The discourse of linguistic capital: Language and economic policy planning in Singapore. Language Policy, 4, 47–66. doi: 10.1007/s10993‑004‑6564‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-004-6564-4 [Google Scholar]
  82. Skuja-Steele, R. V
    (2004) Pupil experience: A handbook for teacher training. Singapore: National Institute of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Spring, J
    (2008) Research on globalization and education. Review of Educational Research, 78, 330–363. doi: 10.3102/0034654308317846
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308317846 [Google Scholar]
  84. Stapleton, P. , & Wu, Y. M. A
    (2015) Assessing the quality of arguments in students’ persuasive writing: A Case study analyzing the relationship between surface structure and substance. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 17, 12–23. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2014.11.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2014.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  85. Storch, N
    (2009) The impact of studying in a second language (L2) medium university on the development of L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 103–118. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  86. Swales, J
    (1990) Genre analysis: English is academic and research settings. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Tardy, C. M
    (2009) Building genre knowledge. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. (2012) A rhetorical genre theory perspective on L2 writing development. In R. M. Manchon (Ed.), L2 writing developmentL2 writing development: Multiple perspectives (pp.165–190). Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9781934078303.165
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781934078303.165 [Google Scholar]
  89. Toulmin, S
    (2003) The uses of argument (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511840005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840005 [Google Scholar]
  90. Viesca, K. M. , & Hutchison, K
    (2014) Reflections on effective writing instruction: The value of expectations, engagement, feedback, data, and sociocultural instructional practices. Writing and Pedagogy, 6, 681–696. doi: 10.1558/wap.v6i3.681
    https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v6i3.681 [Google Scholar]
  91. Wang, L
    (Ed.) (2008) Chinese perspectives on teaching and researching English writing: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Teaching and Researching EFL Writing in China. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Wang, J. J
    (2014) Xianzhuang yu xianxiang: Guonei eryu xiezuo yanjiu shengtai zhenghe [A synthesis of the L2 writing research in the Chinese context]. Journal of EFL Writing: Teaching and Research, 1, 11–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Wang, J. J. , & Lin, D. F
    (Eds.) (2014) Teaching and researching EFL writing from psycho-cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Teaching and Researching EFL Writing in China. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Wang, L. F
    (2014) Guo neiwai eryu xiezuo jiaoxue yanjiu de xinjinzhan heyingyong [Current developments of L2 writing research in China and abroad and its application]. Journal of EFL Writing: Teaching and Research, 1, 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Wang, L. , & Wang, J
    (Eds.) (2012) Journal of EFL Writing: Teaching and Research. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Watson, A
    (2015) The problem of grammar teaching: A case study of the relationship between a teacher’s beliefs and pedagogical practice. Language and Education, 29, 332–346. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2015.1016955
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2015.1016955 [Google Scholar]
  97. Wee, L
    (2015) Language without rights. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Xu, F
    (2012) Teaching and researching English writing. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Yang, L. , & Gao, S
    (2013) Beliefs and practices of Chinese university teachers in EFL writing instruction. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 26, 125–145. doi: 10.1080/07908318.2013.794817
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2013.794817 [Google Scholar]
  100. Yang, X
    (1984).《英语修辞及惯用法常见错误分析》 [Common errors in English rhetoric and usage]. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. (1990).《英文写作与修辞》[English composition and rhetoric]. Hefei, China: Anhui Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Yang, Y
    (2011) Experiencing English writing (Books 1-4, revised ed.). Beijing: Higher Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. You, X
    (2004) ‘The choice made from no choice’: English writing instruction in a Chinese university. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 97–110. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2003.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2003.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  104. (2010) Writing in the devil’s tongue: A history of English composition in China. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Zhan, J
    (Ed.) (2012) English writing in sociocultural contexts: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Teaching and Researching EFL Writing in China. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Zhang, L. J
    (2008) Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Instructional Science, 36, 89–116. doi: 10.1007/s11251‑007‑9025‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-007-9025-6 [Google Scholar]
  107. (2011) The ecology of communicative language teaching. In J. P. Chen & Y. Liu (Eds.), Innovating English teaching in China: Selected papers from the 3rd International Conference on CLT in China (pp.51–80). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. (2013) Second language writing as and for second language learning. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22, 446–447. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2013.08.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2013.08.010 [Google Scholar]
  109. (2014a A dynamic metacognitive systems perspective on developing academic writing skills: Writing across the genre and the curriculum. In H. P. Widodo , & N. T. Zacharias (Eds.), Recent issues in English language education: Challenges and directions (pp.161–179). Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia: Sebelas Maret University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. (2014b) Toward a biliteracy agenda in teaching and researching academic writing: What opportunities are we awaiting? Invited plenary keynote paper at the 9th Biennial Conference on EFL Writing Teaching and Research in China , Lanzhou, China, 19-21 September.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Zhang, L. J. , Aryadoust, V. , & Zhang, D
    (2016) Taking stock of the effects of strategies-based instruction on writing in Chinese and English in Singapore primary schools. In R. E. Silver & W. Bokhorst-Heng (Eds.), Quadrilingual education in Singapore: Pedagogical innovation in language education (pp.103–126). Singapore: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑981‑287‑967‑7_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-967-7_7 [Google Scholar]
  112. Zhang, L. J. , & Ben Said, S
    (2014) Toward a global understanding of local initiatives in language teaching and teacher education: Global rules, local roles. In S. Ben Said & L. J. Zhang (Eds.), Language teachers and teaching: Global perspectives, local initiatives (pp.xviii–xxx). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Zhang, L. J. , & Zhang, D
    (2015) Identity matters: An ethnography of two non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) struggling for legitimate professional participation. In Y. L. Cheung , S. B. Said , & K. Park (Eds.), Advances and current trends in language teacher identity research (pp.116–131). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error