Volume 13, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0817-9514
  • E-ISSN: 2542-5102
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In Japan it has long been considered that university entrance exams have a negative impact on teaching and learning of English in schools. Recent research, however, suggests that the relationship between testing and teaching is not so simple and requires finegrained ethnographic research in order to fully understand its complexities. This paper argues the case for the necessity of conducting empirical research before any conclusions about the presence or absence of washback can be drawn. An example of this type of research is offered and the processes involved in investigating washback in the Japanese context are described in such a way as to provide a model for future research in this area.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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