Volume 3, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2452-0063
  • E-ISSN: 2452-0071
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This exploratory study continues early first-level work on intermedia visual agenda setting, which asks what influences the visual media agenda, and extends it into the third level of network analysis. The top visual agenda of the Associated Press is compared to the top visual agenda of 45 U.S. newspapers (divided into three tiers of circulation) over two constructed weeks. Findings indicate some transfer of the visual agenda at both the first and third levels. Additionally, the networked visual agenda has a moderate significant correlation to all newspapers. Sports and local vs. national/international coverage are identified as key aspects of authority over how the visual agendas are formed and transferred. While the AP places sports images high on the visual agenda, newspapers relegate them to inside pages unless they are important events. Smaller-circulation papers put fewer international topics on their front page than medium and high-circulation newspapers.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Arpan, L., Baker, K., Lee, Y., Jung, T., Lorusso, L., & Smith, J.
    (2006) News coverage of social protests and the effects of photographs and prior attitudes. Mass Communication and Society, 9(1), 1–20. 10.1207/s15327825mcs0901_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327825mcs0901_1 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandar, Ashwaq
    (2013) World news agencies. Are you still the main source of news?Retrieved fromhttps://aawsat.com/home/article/13349
  3. Breed, W.
    (1955) Social control in the newsroom: A functional analysis, Social forces, 33 (4), 326–335. 10.2307/2573002
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2573002 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boumans, J. W.
    (2016) Outsourcing the news? An empirical assessment of the role of sources and news agencies in the contemporary news landscape. The Amsterdam School of Communication Research, Department of Communication. University of Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boumans, J. W., Vliegenthart, R., & Boomgaarden, H. G.
    (2016) Nuclear voices in the news: A comparison of source, news agency and newspaper content about nuclear energy over time. European Journal of Communication, 31 (3), 260–282. 10.1177/0267323116629879
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323116629879 [Google Scholar]
  6. Borgatti, S.
    (2002) NetDraw Software for network visualization. Lexington, KY: Analytic Technologies.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Borgatti, S., Everett, M., & Freeman, L.
    (2002) Ucinet for Windows: Software for social network analysis. Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coleman, R., & Wu, H. D.
    (2015) Image and emotion in voter decisions: The affect agenda. Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. D’Andréa, C., & Careta, I. C.
    (2013) Intermedia agenda setting in the 2012 election: relations between social media and regional web journals in two Brazilian capital cities. Revista da Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em, 16 (2), 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Du, Y. R.
    (2013) Inter-media agenda-setting in the age of globalization: A multinational agenda setting test. Global Media and Communication, 9 (1), 19–36. 10.1177/1742766512463038
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1742766512463038 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fahmy, S., Kelly, J. D., & Kim, Y. S.
    (2007) What Katrina Revealed: A Visual Analysis of the Hurricane Coverage by News Wires and U.S. Newspapers. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(3), 546–561. 10.1177/107769900708400309
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900708400309 [Google Scholar]
  12. Freelon, D.
    (2010) ReCal: Intercoder reliability calculation as a web service. International Journal of Internet Science, 5(1), 20–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gibson, R., & Zillmann, D.
    (2000) Reading between the photographs: The influence of incidental pictorial information on issue perception. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 77(2), 355–366. 10.1177/107769900007700209
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900007700209 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gold, D., & Simmons, J. L.
    (1965) News selection patterns among Iowa dailies. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(3), 425–430. 10.1086/267342
    https://doi.org/10.1086/267342 [Google Scholar]
  15. Heim, K.
    (2013) Framing the 2008 Iowa democratic caucuses political blogs and second level inter-media agenda setting. Journalism and mass communication quarterly, 90 (3), 500–519. 10.1177/1077699013493785
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699013493785 [Google Scholar]
  16. Jang, S.
    (2010) Inter-media agenda-setting effects between internet bulletin boards and traditional news media in US and Korean presidential campaigns. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Texas at Austin, Faculty of the Graduate School, Austin, TX.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kramer, M.
    (2015) Why does local matter? Let’s ask our audience. Retrieved fromwww.poynter.org/2015/why-does-local-matter-lets-ask-our-audience/352419/
  18. Ku, G., Kaid, L., & Pfau, M.
    (2003) The Impact of web site campaigning on traditional news media and public information processing. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80 (3), 528–547. 10.1177/107769900308000304
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900308000304 [Google Scholar]
  19. Kushin, M. J.
    (2010) Tweeting the issues in the age of social media? Intermedia agenda setting between New York Times and Twitter. Doctor of Philosophy, Washington state University, Edward R. Murrow College of Communication.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Landis, J. R. & Koch, G. G.
    (1977) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 159–174. 10.2307/2529310
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2529310 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lee, K. J., Lee, B., & Lancendorfer, K. M.
    (2005) Agenda setting and the internet: The Inter-media influence of internet bulletin boards on newspaper coverage of the 2000 general election in South Korea. Asian Journal of Communication, 15 (1), 57–71. 10.1080/0129298042000329793
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0129298042000329793 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lim, J.
    (2006) A cross-lagged analysis of agenda setting among online news media. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 83, 298–312. 10.1177/107769900608300205
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900608300205 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lough, K.
    (2018) Intermedia visual agenda setting-Comparing wire service top photo distribution to what makes the front page. The Agenda Setting Journal, 2(1), 25–40. 10.1075/asj.17002.lou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/asj.17002.lou [Google Scholar]
  24. McCombs, M.
    (2005) A look at agenda setting: past, present and future. Journalism Studies, 6 (4), 543–557. 10.1080/14616700500250438
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700500250438 [Google Scholar]
  25. McCombs, M. E.
    (2014) Setting the agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion (2nd ed.). Malden, USA: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Meraz, S.
    (2016) An expanded perspective on network agenda setting between traditional media and Twitter political discussion groups in “every day talk”. InL. Guo, & M. McCombs, The power of information networks: new directions for agenda setting (1st ed., p.235). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Miller, A., & LaPoe, V.
    (2016) Visual agenda-setting, emotion, and the BP Oil disaster. Visual Communication Quarterly, 23(1), 53–63. 10.1080/15551393.2015.1128335
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15551393.2015.1128335 [Google Scholar]
  28. Miller, A., & Roberts, S.
    (2010) Visual agenda-setting & proximity after Hurricane Katrina: A study of those closest to the event. Visual Communication Quarterly, 17(1), 31–46. 10.1080/15551390903553697
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15551390903553697 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mohammed, S.
    (2013) The role of science journalism in providing university students with health information within media richness theory “a survey study”, Master thesis, Minia University, Faculty of Arts, Media department, Egypt.
  30. (2018) Inter-media agenda setting between Egyptian and international online newspapers within the framework of political groups’ agenda. PhD in Media, Minia University, Faculty of Arts, Egypt
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Pollock, J.
    (2007) Tilted mirrors: media alignment with political and social change: a community structure approach, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Qian, X.
    (2009) Inter-media agenda setting effects among Chinese newspapers, Chinese blogs of the Beijing 2008 Olympic games. Master of science, Iowa State university.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reisner, A. E.
    (1992) The news conference: How daily newspaper editors construct the front page. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 69(4), 971–986. 10.1177/107769909206900416
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909206900416 [Google Scholar]
  34. Riffe, D., Aust, C. F., & Lacy, S. R.
    (1993) The effectiveness of random, consecutive day and constructed week sampling in newspaper content analysis. Journalism Quarterly, 70(1), 133–139. 10.1177/107769909307000115
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909307000115 [Google Scholar]
  35. Roberts, M., Wanta, W., & Dzwo, T.-H.
    (2002) Agenda setting and issue salience online. Communication Research, 29 (4), 452–465. 10.1177/0093650202029004004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650202029004004 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sikanku, E. G.
    (2013) Inter-media agenda-setting in Ghana newspapers Vs. online and state Vs. private. Master of Science, Iowa state university.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2014) Consolidating inter-media agenda-setting research in Ghana: A study of associational relationships among wire, online, and print news media. Journal of Black Studies, 45 (5), 396–414. 10.1177/0021934714533966
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934714533966 [Google Scholar]
  38. Silver, N. C., & Dunlap, W. P.
    (1987) Averaging correlation coefficients: Should Fisher’s z transformation be used?Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(1), 146. 10.1037/0021‑9010.72.1.146
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.1.146 [Google Scholar]
  39. Stempel, G. H.
    (1952) Sample size for classifying subject matter in dailies. Journalism Quarterly, 29(3), 333–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sweetser, K. D., Golan, G. J., & Wanta, W.
    (2008) Intermedia agenda setting in television, advertising, and blogs during the 2004 election. Mass Communication and Society, 11 (2).10.1080/15205430701590267
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15205430701590267 [Google Scholar]
  41. The New York Times
    The New York Times (2017) Journalism That Stands Apart. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nytimes.com/projects/2020-report/
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Todd, R.
    (1983) New York Times advisories and national/international news selection. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 676, 705–708. 10.1177/107769908306000418
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908306000418 [Google Scholar]
  43. Vargo, C. J., & Guo, L.
    (2016) Networks, big data, and intermedia agenda setting: An analysis of traditional, partisan and emerging online US news. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 1–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Vu, H., Guo, L., & McCombs, M.
    (2014) Exploring the world outside and the pictures in our heads: A network agenda setting study. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 91, 669–686. 10.1177/1077699014550090
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699014550090 [Google Scholar]
  45. Wallesten, K.
    (2007) Agenda setting and the blogosphere: An analysis of the relationship between mainstream media and political blogs. Review of Policy Research, 24 (6), 567–587. 10.1111/j.1541‑1338.2007.00300.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2007.00300.x [Google Scholar]
  46. Wanta, W.
    (1988) The effects of dominant photographs: An agenda-setting experiment. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 65(1), 107–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. White, D. M.
    (1950) The “gate keeper”: A case study in the selection of news. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 383–390
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Welbers, K., Atteveldt, W. v., Kleinnijenhuis, J., & Ruigrok, N.
    (2016) A gatekeeper among gatekeepers: News agency influence in print and online newspapers in the Netherlands. Journalism Studies, 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Whitney, C., & Becker, B.
    (1982) “Keeping the Gates” for Gatekeepers: The effects of wire news. Journalism Quarterly, 59(1), 60–65. 10.1177/107769908205900109
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908205900109 [Google Scholar]
  50. Yu, J. J., & Aikat, D.
    (2005) News on the Web: Agenda setting of online news in Web sites of major newspaper, television and online news services. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association. New York.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error