Volume 39, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0929-7332
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9919
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In this paper, we investigate whether non-native speakers of Dutch use the interpersonal discourse particle differently than native speakers of Dutch. Particles such as are considered to be very difficult to learn for non-native speakers. might be even more difficult to learn than other particles, because of its complex effect on the discourse. We tested whether non-native speakers of Dutch used differently than native speakers of Dutch by means of an online cloze test in which native speakers (control group,  = 109) and non-native speakers ( = 73) had to choose between and an adverb in a variety of contexts. Results indicated that non-native speakers used differently than native speakers, but non-native speakers did somewhat understand that marks a contrast with a contextually raised expectation. Moreover, more proficient native speakers were more similar to native speakers in their use of than less proficient native speakers.


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