Volume 64, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0521-9744
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9668
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The process of literary translation includes the source culture-specific elements that constitute an integral part of the source text. This paper aims to identify and analyse various translation strategic processes that could be adopted in translating cultural factors within the parameters of a Maltese bilingual, but not necessarily bicultural, context. Each of the suggested strategic procedures is presented in useful flow-chart formats, varying from source language/source culture to target language/target culture bias approach in order to keep cultural losses to a minimum whilst maximising cultural gains and, therefore, to make the transformation of the source text into the target text successful. Such flow-charts are aimed to provide the literary translator with a rapid means of achieving an adequate and satisfying suggested solution for a quality cross-cultural transposition of the cultural elements encountered within a bilingual context. In certain instances, it is also suggested that some strategies are used concurrently with others. To achieve this aim, an extended practical translation exercise by the author himself is used. This paper also helps to strengthen further both the level of research in narrative translation studies in general, and the research done in Maltese narrative literary translation from a cultural point of view.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Baker, Mona
    1992In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge.10.4324/9780203327579
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203327579 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bateni, Mohammed R.
    2010 “Collocations and Idioms and their Translatability”. Iranian Studies43 (5): 591–597.10.1080/00210862.2010.518023
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210862.2010.518023 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bhabha, Homi K.
    1994The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brincat, Joseph M.
    2000Il-Malti: elf sena ta’ storja [Maltese: A one thousand year old story]. Malta: Pubblikazzjoni Indipendenza.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bruner, Jerome
    1993 “The Autobiographical Process”. InThe Culture of Autobiography: Constructions of Self-Representation, ed. by Robert Folkenflik , 38–56. California: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Byram, Michael ; and Karen Risager
    1999Language Teachers, Politics and Cultures, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Caruana, Rose Mary
    2007 “The Depiction of Reality in Francis Ebejer’s Novel Requiem for a Malta Fascist (or the Interrogation) and its Translation”. M.A. thesis, University of Malta.
  8. De Oliveira Branco, Sinara
    2011 “Describing the Methodological Procedure of a Translation Studies Investigation Based on Corpora”. Revista Eletrônica de Linguística5 (3): 95–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dickins, James ; Hervey, Sándor ; and Ian Higgins
    2002Thinking Arabic Translation: A Course in Translation Method: Arabic to English. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ettobi, Mustapha
    2006 “Cultural Representation in Literary Translation: Translators as Mediators/Creators”. Journal of Arabic Literature37 (2): 206–229.10.1163/157006406778660340
    https://doi.org/10.1163/157006406778660340 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ginter, Anna
    2002 “Cultural Issues in Translation”. Studies About Languages3: 27–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. González Davies, Maria ; and Christopher Scott-Tennent
    2005 “A Problem-Solving and Student-Centred Approach to the Translation of Cultural References”. Meta: Journal des Traducteurs/Meta: Translators’ Journal50 (1): 160–179.10.7202/010666ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/010666ar [Google Scholar]
  13. Heim, Michael H.
    2008 “Function as an Element in Conveying Cultural Difference in Literary Translation from the Diary of a Translator”. Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature54: 74–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hongwei, Chen
    1999 “Cultural Differences and Translation”. Meta: Journal des Traducteurs/Meta: Translators’ Journal44 (1): 121–132.10.7202/002224ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/002224ar [Google Scholar]
  15. Lefevere, André ; and Susan Bassnett
    1995 “Introduction: Proust’s Grandmother and the Thousand and One Nights. The Cultural Turn in Translation Studies”. InTranslation, History and Culture, ed. by Susan Bassnett ; and André Lefevere , 1–13. London: Cassell.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1998 “Introduction: Where are we in Translation Studies.” InConstructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation, ed. by Susan Bassnett ; and André Lefevere , 1–11. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Leppihalme, Ritva
    1997Culture Bumps: An Empirical Approach to the Translation of Allusions. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Liu, Yang
    2010 “Cultural Loss in the English Translation of Chinese Poetry”. Babel56 (1): 168–185.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lughermo, Stephen
    2004 “L-iżvilupp tat-traduzzjoni fin-narrattiva Maltija: Mill-addattament għall-fedeltà” [The development in the translation of Maltese narrative: From adaptation to fidelity]. B.A. (Hons.) thesis, University of Malta.
  20. Malta, National Statistics Office
    Malta, National Statistics Office 2014 “Census of Population and Housing 2011: Final Report”. Last modifiedJune2. https://nso.gov.mt/en/publicatons/Publications_by_Unit/Documents/01_Methodology_and_Research/Census2011_FinalReport.pdf
  21. Mitchell, James B.
    2003 “Popular Autobiography as Historiography: The Reality Effect of Frank McCourt’s Angela’s Ashes ”. Biography26 (4): 607–624.10.1353/bio.2004.0016
    https://doi.org/10.1353/bio.2004.0016 [Google Scholar]
  22. Negro Alousque, Isabel
    2009 “Cultural Domains: Translation Problems”. Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas4: 137–145.10.4995/rlyla.2009.740
    https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2009.740 [Google Scholar]
  23. Newmark, Peter
    1981Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1988A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pedersen, Jan
    2005 “How is Culture Rendered in Subtitles?” Paper presented at theMarie Curie Euroconferences MuTra 2005: Challenges of Multidimensional Translation, Saarbrücken, Germany, May 2–6.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pickett, Joseph P.
    (ed.) 2000The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed.New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pym, Anthony
    2012 “Research Skills in Translation Studies: What We Need Training in”. Last modifiedMarch25. usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/on-line/research_methods/2012_research_skills.pdf
  28. Rao, Rama V. V. B.
    2009 “Literary Translation: Choices and Predilections”. ICFAI Journal of Earth Sciences3 (3): 60–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Reiss, Katharina
    1971 “Type, Kind and Individuality of Text”. InThe Translation Studies Reader, ed. by Lawrence Venuti , 160–171. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rodríguez-García, José María
    2004 “Literary into Cultural Translation”. Diacritics34 (3/4): 3–30.10.1353/dia.2006.0036
    https://doi.org/10.1353/dia.2006.0036 [Google Scholar]
  31. Savory, Theodore Horace
    1968The Art of Translation. 2nd edition. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schäffner, Christina ; and Beverly Adab
    1995 “Translation as Intercultural Communication – Contact as Conflict”. InTranslation as Intercultural Communication, ed. by Mary Snell-Hornby ; Zuzana Jettmarová ; and Klaus Kaindl , 325–338. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schiriha, Lydia ; and Vassallo Mario
    2006Living Languages in Malta. Malta: Print It Printing Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Serracino-Inglott, Erin
    1975Il-miklem Malti [The Maltese dictionary]. Volume2. Malta: Klabb Kotba Maltin.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sun, Yifeng
    2007a “Displacement and Intervention: Re-creating Literary Texts through Cross-Cultural Translation”. Neohelicon34 (2): 101–114.10.1007/s11059‑007‑2009‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11059-007-2009-3 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2007b “(Multi)-Cultural Context: Interpretation and Translation Adrift”. Babel53 (3): 241–259.10.1075/babel.53.3.04sun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.53.3.04sun [Google Scholar]
  37. 2009 “Cultural Translation in the Context of Glocalization”. Ariel40 (2): 89–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thake Vassallo, Claire
    2009 “The Role of Translation in Malta’s Expanding Linguistic and Cultural Landscape”. InCulture, Language and Literature Across Border Regions: Proceedings of the International Conference, Košice, 28–29 Apr, Poland: Krosno, ed. by Pavol Štekaver ; Slávka Tomasčikova ; and Władysław Witaliśz , 47–55. Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła, Władysław Witalisz.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tymoczko, Maria
    2007Enlarging Translation, Empowering Translators. Essex: 4edge Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Weissbrod, Rachel
    2010 “Translation and Cultural Transfer: Israeli Law as a Case in Point”. Translation Studies3 (3): 272–286.10.1080/14781700.2010.496922
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2010.496922 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error