1887
Volume 68, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0521-9744
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9668
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

With the rapid development of digitization and the emergence of social networks and streaming platforms, audiovisual translation (AVT) has become one of the most prolific expressions of global communication in today’s society, able to overcome linguistic barriers when disseminating culture across the world. While audiovisual productions originally shot in English seem to be able to take full advantage of this situation, China’s domestic programs frequently encounter more challenges to make it overseas. Adopting a primarily translational approach, this paper borrows the concept of “cultural discount,” coined by Hoskins and Mirus (1988), to capture the notion that audiovisual productions are rooted in one culture and, therefore, may have diminished appeal among viewers from other communities. The study holds that the degree of cultural discount audiovisual productions may encounter when exported depends on numerous factors, which are explored through examples of recently localized films and TV series of Chinese origin.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/babel.00255.dia
2022-02-15
2022-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Andrews, Nigel
    2017 “I Am Not Madame Bovary – Gleaming with Perfection.” Financial Times, 25May. www.ft.com/content/10544d56-4137-11e7-82b6-896b95f30f58
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beaumont-Thomas, Ben
    2014 “Audiences Baffled by UAE Cut of The Wolf of Wall Street.” Guardian, 14January. www.theguardian.com/film/2014/jan/14/wolf-of-wall-street-uae-cut-leonardo-dicaprio-martin-scorsese
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chaume, Frederic
    2004 “Film Studies and Translation Studies: Two Disciplines at Stake in Audiovisual Translation.” Meta49 (1): 12–24. 10.7202/009016ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/009016ar [Google Scholar]
  4. 2012Audiovisual Translation: Dubbing. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2013 “The Turn of Audiovisual Translation: New Audiences and New Technologies.” Translation Spaces2: 105–123. 10.1075/ts.2.06cha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.2.06cha [Google Scholar]
  6. Cieply, Michael
    2014 “Hollywood Works to Maintain Its World Dominance.” New York Times, 3November. www.nytimes.com/2014/11/04/business/media/hollywood-works-to-maintain-its-world-dominance.html
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Crane, Diana
    2014 “Cultural Globalization and the Dominance of the American Film Industry: Cultural Policies, National Film Industries, and Transnational Film.” International Journal of Cultural Policy20 (4): 365–382. 10.1080/10286632.2013.832233
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2013.832233 [Google Scholar]
  8. Díaz-Cintas, Jorge
    1999 “Dubbing or Subtitling: The Eternal Dilemma.” Perspectives7 (1): 31–40. 10.1080/0907676X.1999.9961346
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.1999.9961346 [Google Scholar]
  9. 2012 “Clearing the Smoke to See the Screen: Ideological Manipulation in Audiovisual Translation.” Meta57 (2): 279–293. 10.7202/1013945ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1013945ar [Google Scholar]
  10. 2019 “Audiovisual Translation in Mercurial Mediascapes.” InAdvances in Empirical Translation Studies: Developing Translation Resources and Technologies, edited byMeng Ji and Michael Oakes, 177–197. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108525695.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108525695.010 [Google Scholar]
  11. Díaz-Cintas, Jorge, and Aline Remael
    2021Subtitling: Concepts and Practices. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Eurostat
    Eurostat 2021Pupils by Education Level and Modern Foreign Language Studied – Absolute Numbers and % of Pupils by Language Studied. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/educ_uoe_lang01
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Freer, Ian
    2017 “I Am Not Madame Bovary Review.” Empire, 21May. www.empireonline.com/movies/reviews/madame-bovary-2-review
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fu, W. Wayne, and Tracy K. Lee
    2008 “Economic and Cultural Influences on the Theatrical Consumption of Foreign Films in Singapore.” Journal of Media Economics21 (1): 1–27. 10.1080/08997760701806769
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08997760701806769 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gil Bardaji, Anna
    2009 “Procedures, Techniques, Strategies: Translation Process Operators.” Perspectives17 (3): 161–173. 10.1080/09076760903249372
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09076760903249372 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hans, Simran
    2017 “I Am Not Madame Bovary Review – Slow Boat from China.” Guardian, 28May. www.theguardian.com/film/2017/may/28/i-am-not-madame-bovary-review-china-kafkaesque
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hao, Ye, Binbei Lu, and Guy Starkey
    2018 “Economic and Cultural Implications of China’s One Belt One Road Initiative for the Film Industry: Cultural Distance and Taste Preference.” Australian Economic Papers. Wiley Online Library.   10.1111/1467‑8454.12116
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8454.12116 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ho, Wing Shan
    2018 “Chinese In-law-themed TV Drama as Affective Labor in China and African Countries.” American Journal of Chinese Studies25 (1): 47–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Holz-Mänttäri, Justa
    1984Translatorisches Handeln: Theorie und Methode [Translation action: Theory and method]. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoskins, Colin, and Rolf Mirus
    1988 “Reasons for the U.S. Dominance of the International Trade in Television Programmes.” Media, Culture and Society10: 499–515. 10.1177/016344388010004006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/016344388010004006 [Google Scholar]
  21. House, Juliane
    1981A Model for Translation Quality Assessment. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Keane, Michael
    2013Creative Industries in China: Art, Design, Media. London: Polity.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2015The Chinese Television Industry. London: Palgrave BFI. 10.1007/978‑1‑84457‑686‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84457-686-9 [Google Scholar]
  24. 2019 “China’s Digital Media Industries and the Challenge of Overseas Markets.” Journal of Chinese Cinemas13 (1): 244–256. 10.1080/17508061.2019.1678480
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17508061.2019.1678480 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kilborn, Richard
    1989 “They Don’t Speak Proper English: A New Look at the Dubbing and Subtitling Debate.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development10 (5): 421–434. 10.1080/01434632.1989.9994387
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1989.9994387 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kuo, Lily, and Niko Kommenda
    2018 “What Is China’s Belt and Road Initiative?.” Guardian, 30July. www.theguardian.com/cities/ng-interactive/2018/jul/30/what-china-belt-road-initiative-silk-road-explainer
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kuo, Marie-Claire
    2018 “Translation and Distribution of Chinese Films in France: A Personal Account.” Journal of Chinese Cinemas12 (3): 237–249. 10.1080/17508061.2018.1522804
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17508061.2018.1522804 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lee, Francis L. F.
    2008 “Hollywood Movies in East Asia: Examining Cultural Discount and Performance Predictability at the Box Office.” Asian Journal of Communication18 (2): 117–136. 10.1080/01292980802021855
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980802021855 [Google Scholar]
  29. Maher, Kevin
    2017 “Film Review: I Am Not Madame Bovary.” Times, 26May. www.thetimes.co.uk/article/film-review-i-am-not-madame-bovary-0jzgfp9lx
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Matamala, Anna, Elisa Perego, and Sara Bottiroli
    2017 “Dubbing versus Subtitling Yet Again? An Empirical Study on User Comprehension and Preferences in Spain.” Babel63 (3): 423–441. 10.1075/babel.63.3.07mat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.63.3.07mat [Google Scholar]
  31. McFadyen, Stuart, Colin Hoskins, and Adam Finn
    2003 “Measuring the Cultural Discount in the Price of Exported U.S. Television Programs.” InEconomics of Art and Culture Invited Papers at the 12th International Conference of the Association of Cultural Economics International Economics of Art and Culture, edited byVictor A. Ginsburgh, 49–60. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 10.1108/S0573‑8555(2003)0000260007
    https://doi.org/10.1108/S0573-8555(2003)0000260007 [Google Scholar]
  32. Newmark, Peter
    1977 “Communicative and Semantic Translation.” Babel23 (4): 163–180. 10.1075/babel.23.4.07new
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.23.4.07new [Google Scholar]
  33. Nida, Eugene A., and Charles R. Taber
    1969The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Nikolić, Kristijan
    2015 “The Pros and Cons of Using Templates in Subtitling.” InAudiovisual Translation in a Global Context: Mapping an Ever-changing Landscape, edited byRocío Baños Piñero and Jorge Díaz-Cintas, 192–202. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137552891_11
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137552891_11 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nye, Joseph S.
    1990 “Soft Power.” Foreign Policy80: 153–171. 10.2307/1148580
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1148580 [Google Scholar]
  36. Oberhofer, Tom
    1989 “The Changing Cultural Discount Rate.” Review of Social Economy47 (1): 43–54. 10.1080/00346768900000004
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00346768900000004 [Google Scholar]
  37. Olander, Eric
    2019 “A Behind the Scenes Tour of StarTimes HQ in Beijing.” LinkedIn, 10June. https://tinyurl.com/c6v3uxxt
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rong, Xiaoqing
    2015 “U.S. Audiences Baffled by Short Empresses.” Global Times, 2April. www.globaltimes.cn/content/915136.shtml
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rosen, Stanley
    2020 “Obstacles to Using Chinese Film to Promote China’s Soft Power: Some Evidence from the North American Market.” Journal of Chinese Film Studies1 (1): 205–221. 10.1515/jcfs‑2021‑0009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jcfs-2021-0009 [Google Scholar]
  40. Schleiermacher, Friedrich
    (1813) 2006 “On the Different Methods of Translation.” InWestern Translation Theory: From Herodotus to Nietzsche, edited byDouglas Robinson, 225–238. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schlütz, Daniela, and Beate Schneider
    2014 “Does Cultural Capital Compensate for Cultural Discount? Why German Students Prefer US-American TV Series.” InCritical Reflections on Audience and Narrativity: New Connections, New Perspectives, edited byValentina Marinescu, Silvia Branea, and Bianca Mitu, 7–26. Stuttgart: Ibidem.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sinclair, John
    1999Latin American Television: A Global View. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Straubhaar, Joseph
    1991 “Beyond Media Imperialism: Asymmetrical Interdependence and Cultural Proximity.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication8 (1): 39–59. 10.1080/15295039109366779
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15295039109366779 [Google Scholar]
  44. 2003 “Choosing National TV: Cultural Capital, Language, and Cultural Proximity in Brazil.” InThe Impact of International Television: A Paradigm Shift, edited byMichael G. Elasmar, 77–110. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Su, Wendy
    2016China’s Encounter with Global Hollywood: Cultural Policy and the Film Industry 1994–2016. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. 10.5810/kentucky/9780813167060.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.5810/kentucky/9780813167060.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tang, Yuankai
    2015 “Winning Foreign Hearts.” China Report, 7. www.chinafrica.cn/china_report/txt/2015-11/02/content_707267.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Toury, Gideon
    2012Descriptive Translation Studies – and beyond. Revised edition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.100
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.100 [Google Scholar]
  48. Uniglo
    Uniglo 2020 “What Are the Most Learned Languages in the World?.” 4April. https://howdoyou.do/what-are-the-most-learned-languages-in-the-world
  49. Varis, Tapio
    1984 “The International Flow of Television Programmes.” Journal of Communication34 (1): 143–152. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.1984.tb02993.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1984.tb02993.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Venuti, Lawrence
    1995The Translator’s Invisibility. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Vöge, Hans
    1977 “The Translation of Films: Sub-titling versus Dubbing.” Babel23 (3): 120–124. 10.1075/babel.23.3.05vog
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.23.3.05vog [Google Scholar]
  52. Volz, Yong, Francis L. F. Lee, Ge Xiao, and Xianglin Liu
    2010 “Critical Events and Reception of Foreign Culture: An Examination of Cultural Discount of Foreign-language Films in the U.S. before and after 9/11.” International Communication Gazette72 (2): 131–149. 10.1177/1748048509353865
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048509353865 [Google Scholar]
  53. Waterman, David, and Krishna P. Jayakar
    2000 “The Competitive Balance of the Italian and American Film Industries.” European Journal of Communication15 (4): 501–528. 10.1177/0267323100015004003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323100015004003 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wissmath, Bartholomäus, David Weibel, and Rudolf Groner
    2009 “Dubbing or Subtitling? Effects on Spatial Presence, Transportation, Flow, and Enjoyment.” Journal of Media Psychology21: 114–125. 10.1027/1864‑1105.21.3.114
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105.21.3.114 [Google Scholar]
  55. Xiong, Bing 熊兵
    2014 “Fanyi yanjiu zhong de gainian hunxiao: Yi ‘fanyi celvüe’, ‘fanyi fangfa’, ‘fanyi jiqiao’ weili” 翻译研究中的概念混淆:以 “翻译策略”、“翻译方法” 和 “翻译技巧” 为例 [Conceptual confusion in translation studies: A case study of translation strategies, methods and techniques]. Zhongguo fanyi中国翻译 [Chinese translators journal] 35 (3): 82–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Yang, Suzanne Xiao
    2017 “Soft Power and the Strategic Context for China’s ‘Media Going Global’ Policy.” InChina’s Media Go Global, edited byDaya Kishan Thussu, Hugo de Burgh, and Anbin Shi, 80–100. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315619668‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315619668-6 [Google Scholar]
  57. Zhang, Shasha, and Katerina Perdikaki
    2017 “Empresses Adapted to Impress: Examining Adaptation and Translation in the TV Series Empresses in the Palace.” New Voices in Translation Studies17: 105–131. https://openresearch.surrey.ac.uk/discovery/delivery/44SUR_INST:ResearchRepository/12139483230002346#13140477520002346
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhang, Xingjian
    2017 “Chinese TV Dramas Bring World Closer.” China Daily, 15May. www.chinadaily.com.cn/culture/2017-05/15/content_29351284.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Zhou, Honghong, Xinjie Chen, Jiahui Liu, and Hong Sun
    2016 “Evaluation on the Subtitle Translations of Empresses in the Palace in Light of the Register Theory.” Modern Linguistics4 (3): 81–89. 10.12677/ML.2016.43009
    https://doi.org/10.12677/ML.2016.43009 [Google Scholar]
  60. Zhou, Marrian
    2019 “Embattled Chinese Studio Hops on Belt and Road Bandwagon.” Nikkei Asia, 7August. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Media-Entertainment/Embattled-Chinese-studio-hops-on-Belt-and-Road-bandwagon
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/babel.00255.dia
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/babel.00255.dia
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error