Volume 68, Issue 4
  • ISSN 0521-9744
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9668
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Transcreation is a practice with a status that has to date not been consolidated in the field of Translation Studies. While some authors consider that the term brings little value to the discipline (Bernal Merino 2006Gambier and Munday 2014), others define transcreation as a service involving the creative adaptation of marketing and advertising content (Pedersen 2014TAUS 2019) or as a strategy adopted in creative areas like AVT (Malenova 2017Chaume 2018), localization (Mangirón and O’Hagan 2006Crosignani and Ravetto 2011) and literary translation (Lal 1996De Campos 2013). The above definitions reflect the perspectives of the language services industry and academia. However, the points of view of individual language professionals have not usually been considered when conceptualizing transcreation. The purpose of this paper is to address these perceptions by adopting a social qualitative approach by means of an instrument called “The DTP Survey.” The results of this survey seem to point to a dual definition of transcreation as both a service and a strategy, with both approaches being compatible and not mutually exclusive as they have been in previous characterizations of the practice.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Atkinson, Rowland, and John Flint
    2001 “Accessing Hidden and Hard-to-Reach Populations: Snowball Research Strategies.” Social Research Update331. https://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU33.html
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Benetello, Claudia
    2018 “When Translation Is Not Enough: Transcreation as a Convention-defying Practice. A Practitioner’s Perspective.” Jostrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation291: 28–44. https://www.jostrans.org/issue29/art_benetello.php
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2021 “Hybridisation Adds Value in Translation and Interpreting.” Cultus: The Journal of Intercultural Mediation and Communication141: 100–123. https://www.cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/Claudia_Benetello_Cultus_14.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bernal Merino, Miguel A.
    2006 “On the Translation of Video Games.” Jostrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation61: 22–36. https://www.jostrans.org/issue06/art_bernal.php
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Calvo, Elisa
    2018 “From Translation Briefs to Quality Standards: Functionalist Theories in Today’s Translation Processes.” The International Journal of Translation and Interpreting Research10 (1): 18–32. 10.12807/ti.110201.2018.a02
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.110201.2018.a02 [Google Scholar]
  6. Carreira, Oliver
    2020a “The Transcreation Brief: A Definition Proposal.” Transletters: International Journal of Translation and Interpreting31: 23–38. https://www.uco.es/ucopress/ojs/index.php/tl/article/view/12726/11717
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 2020b “Defining Transcreation from the Practitioners Perspective: An Interview-based Study.” InTranslatum Nostrum. La traducción y la interpretación en el ámbito humanístico [Translatum Nostrum. Translation and interpreting in humanities], edited byCarla Botella Tejera, Javier Franco Aixelá, and Catalina Gheorghiu, 191–204. Granada: Comares.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2021 “Quality Evaluation and Workflows in Transcreation: A Social Study.” InInnovative Perspectives on Corporate Communication in the Global World, edited byMaría Dolores Olvera-Lobo, Juncal Gutiérrez-Artacho, Irene Rivera-Trigueros, and Mar Díaz-Millón, 177–194. Hershey: IGI Global. 10.4018/978‑1‑7998‑6799‑9.ch010
    https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-6799-9.ch010 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chaume, Frederic
    2018 “Is Audiovisual Translation Putting the Concept of Translation up against the Ropes?.” Jostrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation301: 84–104. https://www.jostrans.org/issue30/art_chaume.php
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Crosignani, Simone, and Fabio Ravetto
    2011 “¡Coger el Buzz! (O cómo lograr la transcreación de un videojuego de ventas millonarias)” [Take the buzz! (Or how to transcreate a best-selling videogame)]. TRANS. Revista de traductología [TRANS. Journal of translation studies] 151: 29–38. 10.24310/TRANS.2011.v0i15.3193
    https://doi.org/10.24310/TRANS.2011.v0i15.3193 [Google Scholar]
  11. De Campos, Haroldo
    2013Metalinguagem: ensaios de teoria e crítica literaria [Metalanguage: Essays on literary theory and criticism]. São Paulo: Perspectiva.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dybiec-Gajer, Joanna, Riitta Oittinen, and Małgorzata Kodura
    2020Negotiating Translation and Transcreation of Children’s Literature: From Alice to the Moomins. Basingstoke: Springer Nature. 10.1007/978‑981‑15‑2433‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2433-2 [Google Scholar]
  13. Fink, Arlene
    2002The Survey Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gambier, Yves, and Jeremy Munday
    2014 “A Conversation between Yves Gambier and Jeremy Munday about Transcreation and the Future of the Professions.” Cultus: The Intercultural Journal of Mediation and Communication71: 20–36. www.cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/conversation_gambier_munday_3_p.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Glance, Vivienne, and Helene Jaccomard
    2019 “A Common Space: Translation, Transcreation, and Drama.” TEXT571: 1–14. www.textjournal.com.au/speciss/issue57/Glance&Jaccomard.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grotjahn, Rüdiger
    1987 “On the Methodological Basis of Introspective Methods.” InIntrospection in Second Language Research, edited byClaus Færch and Gabriele Kasper, 54–81. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gui, Qianyuan
    1995 “Das Wesen des Übersetzens ist kreativ” [Translation is creative by nature]. Babel: International Journal of Translation41 (3): 129–139. 10.1075/babel.41.3.02qia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.41.3.02qia [Google Scholar]
  18. Gutiérrez Bregón, Silvia
    2016 “La competencia intercultural en la profesión del traductor: aproximación desde la formación de traductores y presentación de un estudio de caso” [Intercultural competence in the translation profession: A translation training-based approach and a case study]. TRANS. Revista de traductología [TRANS. Journal of translation studies] 201: 57–74. 10.24310/TRANS.2016.v0i20.2064
    https://doi.org/10.24310/TRANS.2016.v0i20.2064 [Google Scholar]
  19. International Organization for Standardization
    International Organization for Standardization 2015ISO 17100 Translation Services – Requirements for Translation Services.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Katan, David
    2016 “Translation at the Cross-Roads: Time for the Transcreational Turn?” Perspectives24 (3): 365–381. 10.1080/0907676X.2015.1016049
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2015.1016049 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2018 “Translatere or Transcreate: In Theory and in Practice, and by Whom?.” InTranslation or Transcreation? Discourses, Texts and Visuals, edited byCinzia Spinzi, Alessandra Rizzo, and Marianna Lya Zummo, 15–38. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2021 “Transcreation.” InHandbook of Translation Studies – Volume 5, edited byYves Gambier, and Luc van Doorslaer, 221–225. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/hts.5.tra19
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hts.5.tra19 [Google Scholar]
  23. Koskinen, Kaisa, and Helle V. Dam
    2016 “Academic Boundary Work and the Translation Profession: Insiders, Outsiders and (Assumed) Boundaries.” Jostrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation251: 234–267. https://www.jostrans.org/issue25/art_koskinen.php
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kussmaul, Paul
    2017 “A Cognitive Framework for Looking at Creative Mental Processes.” InIntercultural Faultlines: Research Models in Translation Studies: v. 1: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, edited byMaeve Olohan. London: Routledge 2017 10.4324/9781315759951‑5
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315759951-5 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kuznik, Anna, Amparo Hurtado Albir, and Anna Espinal Berenguer
    2010 “The Use of Social Surveys in Translation Studies: Methodological Characteristics.” MonTI21: 1–20. 10.6035/MonTI.2010.2.14
    https://doi.org/10.6035/MonTI.2010.2.14 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lal, Purushottama
    1996Transcreation: Seven Essays on the Art of Transcreation. Kolkata: Writers Workshop.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lefevere, Andre
    2016Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame. Oxfordshire: Taylor and Francis 2016 10.4324/9781315458496
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315458496 [Google Scholar]
  28. Malenova, Evgeniya D.
    2017 “Subtitling Practice: From Translation to Transcreation.” Journal of Siberian Federal University: Humanities and Social Sciences10 (4): 526–536. elib.sfu-kras.ru/handle/2311/3233710.17516/1997‑1370‑0060
    https://doi.org/10.17516/1997-1370-0060 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mangirón, Carme, and Minako O’Hagan
    2006 “Game Localisation: Unleashing Imagination with ‘Restricted’ Translation.” Jostrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation61: 10–21. https://www.jostrans.org/issue06/art_ohagan.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pedersen, Daniel
    2014 “Exploring the Concept of Transcreation: Transcreation as ‘More than Translation?” Cultus: The Intercultural Journal of Mediation and Communication71: 57–71. www.cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/pedersen_5_p.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 2017 “Managing Transcreation Projects.” Translation Spaces6 (1): 44–61. 10.1075/ts.6.1.03ped
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.6.1.03ped [Google Scholar]
  32. Pérez, Lorena
    2017 “Análisis de las percepciones en torno a la práctica de la posedición en el sector profesional de la traducción en España” [Analysis of the perceptions on post-editing in the Spanish translation industry]. Ph.D. diss., Pablo de Olavide University. https://rio.upo.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10433/6934/perez-macias-tesis-16-17.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  33. Philips, Josian
    2014 “Transcreation: What is Transcreation?” Brightlines Translation (blog). https://www.brightlines.co.uk/the-complete-introduction-to-transcreation
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Pielmeir, Hélène, and Paul O’Mara
    2020The State of the Linguist Supply Chain – Translators and Interpreters in 2020. CSA. https://insights.csa-research.com/reportaction/305013106/Toc
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Price, Paul C., Rajiv S. Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Chiang, Dana C. Leighton, and Carrie Cuttler
    . Research Methods in Psychology, 3rd ed.Fresno: California State University 2017https://opentext.wsu.edu/carriecuttler/open/download?type=mpdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pym, Anthony, François Grin, Claudio Sfreddo, and Andy Chan
    2012The Status of the Translation Profession in the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/4e126174-ea20-4338-a349-ea4a73e0d850
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ray, Rebecca, and Nataly Kelly
    2010Reaching New Markets through Transcreation. Lowell, MA: Common Sense Advisory.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Risku, Hanna, Theresa Pichler, and Vanessa Wieser
    2017 “Transcreation as a Translation Service: Process Requirements and Client Expectations.” Across Languages and Cultures18 (1): 53–77. 10.1556/084.2017.18.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1556/084.2017.18.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  39. Robson, Colin, and Kieran McCartan
    2016Real World Research. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sattler-Hovdar, Nina
    2019Get Fit for the Future of Transcreation: A Handbook on How to Succeed in an Undervalued Market. Independent Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Silverman, David
    2013Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. TAUS
    TAUS 2019Transcreation Best Practices and Guidelines. TAUS Signature Editions. https://info.taus.net/taus-transcreation-best-practices-and-guidelines
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zaretskaya, Anna, Gloria Corpas Pastor, and Miriam Seguiri
    2015 “Integration of Machine Translation in CAT Tools: State of the Art, Evaluation and User Attitudes.” SKASE Journal of Translation and Interpretation8 (1): 76–88. www.skase.sk/Volumes/JTI09/pdf_doc/04.pdf
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error