Current trends in analyzing syntactic variation
  • ISSN 0774-5141
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9676
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The present work studies the grammatical properties of Spanish time constructions involving ‘to make’ from an empirical, quantitative perspective with insights from both competence and language use. The results show a big difference between the properties of the so-called clausal and adverbial constructions, something unnoticed until now. Whereas in the former, has properties not significantly different from other verbs, in the latter, it shows a strong erosion of its verbal and clausal properties like TAM morphology, negation, time adjunction or word order freedom. This contradicts earlier contributions to the topic and argues against those formal proposals positing a synchronic derivational relation between the two constructions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aelbrecht, Lobke , Liliane Haegeman Liliane , and Nye, Rachel
    2012Main Clause Phenomena: New Horizons. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.190
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.190 [Google Scholar]
  2. Boye, Kasper , and Peter Harder
    2012 “A Usage-Based Theory of Grammatical Status, and Grammaticalization.” Language88: 1–44. doi: 10.1353/lan.2012.0020
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2012.0020 [Google Scholar]
  3. Brewer, William Benjamin
    1987 “New, and Old Information in Spanish Sentences Containing hace+(TIME).” Hispania70: 895–899. doi: 10.2307/342563
    https://doi.org/10.2307/342563 [Google Scholar]
  4. Brucart, José María
    2015 “Un análisis derivacional de las construcciones temporales con “hacer”.” Studium Grammaticae: homenaje al profesor José A. Martínez, 165–180. Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Culicover, Peter W.
    1999Syntactic Nuts: Hard Cases, Syntactic Theory, and Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Demonte, Violeta , and Ignacio Bosque
    1999Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fábregas, Antonio
    2016 “On the Structure, and Variation of ‘hace’ as a Temporal Expression.” Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics45: 77–108.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. García Fernández, Luis
    1999 “Los complementos adverbiales temporales: La subordinación temporal.” InGramática descriptiva de la Lengua Española, Vol 3, ed. by I. Bosque , and V. Demonte , 3129–3208. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Haegeman, Liliane
    2012Adverbial Clauses, Main Clause Phenomena,, and Composition of the Left Periphery: The Cartography of Syntactic Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199858774.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199858774.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  10. Hagège, Claude
    2010Adpositions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575008.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575008.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Haspelmath, Martin
    1997From space to time: Temporal adverbials in the world’s languages. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 1998 “Does Grammaticalization Need Reanalysis?” Studies in Language22 (2): 315–351. doi: 10.1075/sl.22.2.03has
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.22.2.03has [Google Scholar]
  13. Herce, Borja
    2017 “Past-future Asymmetries in Time Adverbials, and Adpositions: a Cross-Linguistic, and Diachronic Perspective”. Linguistic Typology21 (1): 101–142.10.1515/lingty‑2017‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2017-0003 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2017b “The Diachrony of Spanish haber/hacer+time: a Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to Grammaticalization.” Journal of Historical Linguistics7 (3): 276–321.10.1075/jhl.15018.her
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhl.15018.her [Google Scholar]
  15. Hopper, Paul J. , and Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  16. Howe, Chad
    2011 “Structural Autonomy in Grammaticalization: Leveling, and Retention with Spanish hacer+time.” Probus23: 247–282. doi: 10.1515/prbs.2011.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/prbs.2011.007 [Google Scholar]
  17. Kurzon, Denis
    2008 “’Ago’, and its Grammatical Status in English, and Other Languages.” InAdpositions, pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic perspectives. Typological Studies in Language, ed. by D. Kurzon and S. Adler , 209–227. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.74.11kur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.74.11kur [Google Scholar]
  18. Lehmann, Christian
    1988 “Towards a Typology of Clause Linkage.” InClause Combining in Grammar, and Discourse, ed. by J. Haiman and S. A. Thompson , 181–225. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.18.09leh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.18.09leh [Google Scholar]
  19. Pérez Toral, Marta
    1992Sintaxis Histórica Funcional del Español: el verbo ‘hacer’ como impersonal. Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Plank, Frans
    2011 “Where’s Diachrony?” Linguistic Typology15: 455–471. doi: 10.1515/lity.2011.030
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2011.030 [Google Scholar]
  21. Rasmussen, Poul
    1981El verbo hacer en expresiones temporales: Estudio sintáctico y semántico. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. RAE-ASALE (= Real Academia Española / Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española)
    RAE-ASALE (= Real Academia Española / Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española) 2009Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Real Academia Española
    Real Academia Española. CORDE: Corpus diacrónico del español. [corpus.rae.es/cordenet.html]. AccessedAugust 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Real Academia Española
    Real Academia Española. CORPES XXI: Corpus del Español del Siglo XXI. www.rae.es/recursos/banco-de-datos/corpes-xxi (AccessedMay 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rebollo Torío, Miguel Ángel
    1979 “Otra interpretación de ‘hace’ y ‘ha’.” Anuario de Estudios Filológicos1: 149–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rigau, Gemma
    1999 “Temporal Existential Constructions in Romance.” InRomance Languages, and Linguistic Theory, ed. by Yves D’Hulst , Johan Rooryck , and Jan Schroten , 307–333. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sáez del Álamo, Luis Ángel
    1987 “Caracterización de ‘hace-expresión temporal’ en el marco de la Rección y Ligamiento.” InLenguajes Naturales y Lenguajes Formales. Actas del III congreso de lenguajes naturales y lenguajes formales, ed. by C. Martín Vide , 713–722. Barcelona: Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Stefanowitsch, Anatol
    2008 “Negative Entrenchment: A Usage-Based Approach to Negative Evidence.” Cognitive Linguistics19 (3): 513–531. doi: 10.1515/COGL.2008.020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/COGL.2008.020 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error