1887
Volume 35, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0774-5141
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9676

Abstract

Abstract

The present article focuses on semantic-pragmatic and sociolinguistic factors explaining the use of non-French words and constructions in the exolingual communicative context of French exams. On the basis of an oral and written exam corpus, this article looks into different types of cross-linguistic interactions to question the boundaries of codeswitching (CS) and propose a prototypical approach. Special attention is given to the correlations between the embedded languages (in this case, English or Dutch) and the type of influence these languages have on the participants’ French discourse. By taking into account the distribution of cross-linguistic interactions in the discourse of different groups of participants divided according to the levels of the European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR 2001), this study shows that, even if lower level participants resort to other languages to compensate for lexical deficiencies in French, they also choose to resort to non-French lexemes due to semantic and sociolinguistic factors, as is the case for advanced level speakers. From the perspective of language assessment, the notion of lexical error is central. Based on a typology of embedded units, this study aims at identifying the factors of acceptability of different types of transcodic marks.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/bjl.00064.ste
2022-02-15
2022-05-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/bjl.00064.ste.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/bjl.00064.ste&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abutalebi, Jubin, and David W. Green
    2008 “Control Mechanisms in Bilingual Language Production: Neural Evidence from Language Switching Studies.” Language and Cognitive Processes23(4): 557–582. 10.1080/01690960801920602
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960801920602 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alvanoudi, Angeliki
    2018 “Language Contact, Borrowing and Code Switching. A Case Study of Australian Greek.” Journal of Greek Linguistics18: 3–44. 10.1163/15699846‑01701001
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15699846-01701001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Auer, Peter
    1995 “The Pragmatics of Code-Switching: A Sequential Approach.” InOne Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching, ed. byLesley Milroy and Pieter Muysken. 115–135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620867.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620867.006 [Google Scholar]
  4. Backus, Ad
    2001 “The Role of Semantic Specificity in Insertional Codeswitching: Evidence from Dutch-Turkish.” InCodeswitching Worldwide, ed. byRodolfo Jacobson. 125–154. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110808742.125
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110808742.125 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blom, Jan-Petter, and John Gumperz
    2000 “Social Meaning in Linguistic Structure: Code-switching in Norway.” InThe Bilingualism Reader, ed. byLi Wei. 111–136. Oxford: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blommaert, Jan
    2011 “The Long Language-Ideological Debate in Belgium.” Journal of Multicultural Discourse6: 241–256. 10.1080/17447143.2011.595492
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2011.595492 [Google Scholar]
  7. de Bot, Kees
    1992 “A Bilingual Production Model: Levelt’s ‘Speaking’ Model Adapted.” Applied Linguistics13(1): 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2011 “Codemeshing in Academic Writing: Identifying Teachable Strategies of Translanguaging.” The Modern Language Journal95(3): 401–417. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01207.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01207.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Carrío-Pastor, María Luisa, and Eva María Mestre-Mestre
    2014 “Lexical Errors in Second Language Scientific Writing: Some Conceptual Implications.” International Journal of English Studies14(1): 97–108. 10.6018/ijes/14/1/154361
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/14/1/154361 [Google Scholar]
  10. CEFR = Council of Europe
    CEFR = Council of Europe 2001Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://rm.coe.int/1680459f97
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Côté, Marie-Hélène; and Wim Remysen
    2017 “Le « bon usage du français au Québec » selon le Multidictionnaire de la langue française : le cas de la prononciation.” Arborescences7: 33–48. 10.7202/1050967ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1050967ar [Google Scholar]
  12. Franceschini, Rita
    1998 “Code-Switching and the Notion of Code in Linguistics: Proposals for a Dual Focus Model.” InCode-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity, ed. byPeter. Auer. 51–72. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gafaranga, Joseph. and Maria-Carme Torras
    2002 “Interactional Otherness: Towards a Redefinition of Codeswitching.” International Journal of Bilingualism6(1): 1–22. 10.1177/13670069020060010101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069020060010101 [Google Scholar]
  14. García, Ofelia, Susana Ibarra Johnson, and Kate Seltzer
    2017The Translanguaging Classroom. Leveraging Student Bilingualism for Learning. Philadelphia: Caslon.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Granger, Sylviane and Guy Monfort
    1994 “La description de la compétence lexicale en langue étrangère: perspectives méthodologiques.” Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère3: 1–16. 10.4000/aile.4890
    https://doi.org/10.4000/aile.4890 [Google Scholar]
  16. Grosjean, François
    2001 “The Bilingual’s Language Modes.” InOne Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing, ed. byJanet Nicol. 1–22. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Haspelmath, Martin
    2009 “Lexical Borrowing: Concepts and Issues.” InLoanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook, ed. byMartin Haspelmath, and Uri Tadmor. 35–54. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218442.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442.35 [Google Scholar]
  18. Heller, Monica
    1995 “Code-Switching and the Politics of Language.” InOne Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching, ed. byLesley Milroy, and Pieter Muysken. 158–174. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620867.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620867.008 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hemchua, Saengchan, and Norbert Schmitt
    2006 “An Analysis of Lexical Errors in the English Compositions of Thai Learners.” Prospect21(3): 3–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Heredia, Roberto, and Jeanette Altarriba
    2001 “Bilingual Language Mixing: Why Do Bilinguals Codeswitch?” Current Directions in Psychological Science10(5): 164–168. 10.1111/1467‑8721.00140
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00140 [Google Scholar]
  21. Holmes, Janet, and Miriam Meyerhoff
    1999 “The Community of Practice: Theories and Methodologies in Language and Gender Research.” Language in Society28: 173–183. 10.1017/S004740459900202X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740459900202X [Google Scholar]
  22. Hubers, Ferdy, Thijs Trompenaars, Sebastian Collin, Kees De Schepper, and Helen De Hoop
    2020 “Hypercorrection as a By-product of Education.” Applied Linguistics41(4): 552–574. 10.1093/applin/amz001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amz001 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kemp, Charlotte
    2009 “Defining Multilingualism.” InThe Exploration of Multilingualism: Development of Research on L3, Multilingualism, and Multiple Language Acquisition, ed. byLarissa Aronin, and Britta Hufeisen. 11–26. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.6.02ch2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.6.02ch2 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lamiroy, Béatrice
    2008 “Les expressions figées: à la recherche d’une définition.” InLes séquences figées : entre langue et discours, ed. byPeter Blumenthal, and Salah Mejri. 85–98. Stuttgart: Steiner.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Li, Wei
    1998 “The ‘Why’ and ‘How’ Questions in the Analysis of Conversational Code-Switching.” InCode-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity, ed. byPeter Auer. 156–176. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lin, Angel
    2017 “Code-Switching in the Classroom: Research Paradigms and Approaches.” InResearch Methods in Language and Education, ed. byKendall King, Yi-Ju Lai, and Stephen. May. 487–501. Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02249‑9_34
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02249-9_34 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lüdi, Georges
    1987 “Les marques transcodiques: Regards nouveaux sur le bilinguisme.” InDevenir bilingue – Parler bilingue, ed. byGeorges Lüdi. 1–21. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111594149.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111594149.1 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lüdi, Georges, Katharina Höchle Meier, Fee Steinbach Kohler and Patchareerat Yanaprasart
    2012 “Stratégies d’inclusion et formes d’exclusion dans des interactions exolingues au travail.” InInteractions cosmopolites. L’organisation de la participation plurilingue, ed. byLorenza Mondada, and Luci Nussbaum. 29–62. Limoges: Lambert Lucas.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Macaro, Ernesto
    2005 “Codeswitching in the L2 Classroom: A Communication and Learning Strategy.” InNon-Native Language Teachers: Perceptions, Challenges, and Contributions to the Professions, ed. byEnric Llurda. 63–84. Springer. 10.1007/0‑387‑24565‑0_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-24565-0_5 [Google Scholar]
  30. MacSwan, Jeff
    2013 “Code Switching and Linguistic Theory.” InHandbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, ed. byTej K. Bhatia, and William Ritchie. 223–350. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Muysken, Pieter
    2000Bilingual Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    1995 “A Lexically Based Model of Code-Switching.” InOne Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching, ed. byLesley Milroy, and Pieter Muysken. 233–256. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620867.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620867.011 [Google Scholar]
  33. Nanthasilp, Sukanya
    2004 “Les stratégies de communication dans l’interaction exolingue.” Damrong Journal2547. www.damrong-journal.su.ac.th/upload/pdf/67_24.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Odlin, Terence
    2003 “Cross-Linguistic Influence.” InThe Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. byCatherine Doughty, and Michael Long. 436–486. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch15
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch15 [Google Scholar]
  35. Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam, and Suzie Beaulieu
    2015 “Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development37(2): 167–183. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1049180
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1049180 [Google Scholar]
  36. Paradis, Michel
    1993 “Multilingualism and Aphasia.” InLinguistic Disorders and Pathologies. An International Handbook, ed. byGerhard Blanken, Jürgen Dittman, Hannelore Grimm, John Marshall, and Claus Wallesch. 278–288. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Peace-Hughes, Tracy, Philomena de Lima, Bronwen Cohen, Lynn Jamieson, E. Kay M. Tisdall, and Antonella Sorace
    2021 “What Do Children Think of Their Own Bilingualism? Exploring Bilingual Children’s Attitudes and Perceptions.” International Journal of Bilingualism, 1–17. 10.1177/13670069211000853
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069211000853 [Google Scholar]
  38. de Pietro, Jean-François
    1988 “Vers une typologie des situations de contacts linguistiques.” Langage & société43: 65–89. 10.3406/lsoc.1988.3002
    https://doi.org/10.3406/lsoc.1988.3002 [Google Scholar]
  39. de Pietro, Jean-François, Marinette Matthey, and Bernard Py
    1988 “Acquisition et contrat didactique: les séquences potentiellement acquisitionnelles dans la conversation exolingue.” InActes du troisième Colloque Régional de Linguistique. Strasbourg28–29avril 1988, ed. byDominique Weil, and Huguette Fugier. 99–119. Strasbourg: Université des Sciences Humaines et Université Louis Pasteur.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Poplack, Shana
    1980 “Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Toward a Typology of Code-Switching.” Linguistics18: 581–618. 10.1515/ling.1980.18.7‑8.581
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581 [Google Scholar]
  41. Porquier, Rémy
    1994 “Communication exolingue et contextes d’appropriation: le continuum acquisition/apprentissage.” Bulletin VALS/ASLA59: 159–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Py, Bernard
    1989 “L’acquisition vue dans la perspective de l’interaction.” Documentation et recherche en linguistique allemande contemporain – Vincennes41: 83–100. 10.3406/drlav.1989.1085
    https://doi.org/10.3406/drlav.1989.1085 [Google Scholar]
  43. 1995 “Quelques remarques sur les notions dʼexolinguisme et de bilinguisme.” Cahiers de praxématique25: 79–96. 10.4000/praxematique.3085
    https://doi.org/10.4000/praxematique.3085 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ringbom, Hakan
    1987The Role of the First Language in Foreign Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Skiba, Richard
    1997 “Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference.” The Internet TESL Journal3(10). Article 199710: iteslj.org/Articles/Skiba-CodeSwitching.html
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Treffers-Daller, Jeanine
    2009 “Code-Switching and Transfer: An Exploration of Similarities and Differences.” InThe Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-Switching, ed. byBarbara E. Bullock, and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 58–74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.005 [Google Scholar]
  47. Vasseur, Marie-Thérèse and Joseph Arditty
    1996 “Les activités réflexives en situation de communication exolingue.” Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère8: 57–87. 10.4000/aile.1245
    https://doi.org/10.4000/aile.1245 [Google Scholar]
  48. Vincent, Diane
    1993Les ponctuants de la langue et autres mots du discours. Québec: Nuit Blanche Éditeur.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Vogh, Kendall
    2018 “Ressources linguistiques et visée référentielle chez des individus bilingues français-anglais : L’alternance codique comme stratégie d’expression sur le plan lexical.” MA dissertation, Université Laval.
  50. Wlosowicz, Teresa Maria
    2016 “L’alternance codique entre L2 et L3.” Recherches en didactique des langues et des cultures13(2). Online: journals.openedition.org/rdlc/892. 10.4000/rdlc.892
    https://doi.org/10.4000/rdlc.892 [Google Scholar]
  51. Yanaprasart, Patchareerat
    2003 “Interaction exolingue et processus de résolution des malentendus. Linx49. Online: https://journals.openedition.org/linx/548. 10.4000/linx.548
    https://doi.org/10.4000/linx.548 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/bjl.00064.ste
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/bjl.00064.ste
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error