Volume 12, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-7031
  • E-ISSN: 1877-8798
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study examines the language choices among four- to six-year old Chinese-Indonesian children in various social domains to identify patterns of choice and analyze sociocultural factors that significantly affect their language choices. The results show that Chinese-Indonesian children’s language choice is highly patterned based on the type of social domains and interlocutors. Their choices are influenced by three major factors: (1) language attitude including parental attitude and the attitude of the indigenous population; (2) language habit formed at home; (3) social domain and context of communication.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bandura, Albert
    1989 “Social Cognitive Theory.” InAnnals of Child Development: Six Theories of Child Development – Revised Formulations and Current Issues, ed. byR. Vasta, Vol.6. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barron-Hauwaert, Suzanne
    2014Language Strategies for Bilingual Families: The One-parent-one-language Approach. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. BPHN (Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional) [National Law Development Agency]
  4. Clyne, Michael G.
    1991Community language: The Australian Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511597084
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597084 [Google Scholar]
  5. 2003Dynamics of Language Contact: English and Immigrant Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511606526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511606526 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2005Australia’s Language Potential. Australia: UNSW Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Collins, Elizabeth F.
    2002 “Indonesia: A Violent Culture?” Asian Survey42 (4): 582–605. 10.1525/as.2002.42.4.582
    https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2002.42.4.582 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cribb, Robert and Charles A. Coppel
    2009 “A Genocide that never was: Explaining the Myth of Anti-Chinese Massacres in Indonesia, 1965–66.” Journal of Genocide Research11 (4): 447–465. 10.1080/14623520903309503
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14623520903309503 [Google Scholar]
  9. Dumanig, Francisco P. and Maya K. David
    2011 “Malaysian-Filipino Couples and Language Choice: Heritage Language or International Language?” InNational Language Planning and Language Shifts in Malaysian Minority Communities, ed. byMukherjee, D. and M. K. David, 71–86. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 10.1017/9789048513383.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9789048513383.006 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dumanig, Francisco P., Maya K. David & Thila Shanmuganathan
    2013 “Language Choice and Language Policies in Filipino-Malaysian Families in Multilingual Malaysia.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development34 (6): 582–596. 10.1080/01434632.2013.784323
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.784323 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fishman, Joshua A.
    1968Readings in the Sociology of Language. Paris: The Hague, Mouton. 10.1515/9783110805376
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805376 [Google Scholar]
  12. 1989Language and Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic Perspective. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2001 “300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States.” InHeritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource, ed. byJ. K. Peyton, D. A. Ranard, and S. McGinnis, 81–89. Washington, DC and McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gal, Susan
    1987 “Linguistic repertoire.” InEuropean multilingualism: Current perspectives and challenges, ed. byR. Schjerve and E. Vetter, 286–292. United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Green, David W. and Jubin Abutelabi
    2013 “Language Control in Bilinguals: The Adaptive Control Hypothesis.” Journal of Cognitive Psychology25 (5): 515–530. 10.1080/20445911.2013.796377
    https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2013.796377 [Google Scholar]
  16. Grosjean, Francois
    1982Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gumperz, John J.
    1964 “Linguistic and Social Interaction in Two Communities.” American Anthropologist66 (6): 137–153. 10.1525/aa.1964.66.suppl_3.02a00100
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1964.66.suppl_3.02a00100 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gyogi, Eiko
    2014 “Children’s Agency in Language Choice: A Case Study of Two Japanese-English Bilingual Children in London.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism18 (6): 749–764. 10.1080/13670050.2014.956043
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.956043 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hamers, Josiane F. and Michel H. A. Blanc
    1989Bilinguality and Bilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hymes, Dell
    1972 “On Communicative Competence.” InSociolinguistics. Selected Readings, ed. byJohn B. Pride and J. Holmes, 269–293. Auckland: Penguin Books Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jing-Schmidt, Zhuo, Zhen Zhang, and Jing-Yun Chen
    2016 “Identity Development in the Ancestral Homeland: A Chinese Heritage Perspective.” The Modern Language Journal100 (4): 797–812. 10.1111/modl.12348
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12348 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kapiley, Keerthana and Ramesh K. Mishra
    2018 “What do I Choose? Influence or Interlocutor Awareness on Bilingual Language Choice during Voluntary Object Naming.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition22 (5): 1–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kemppainen, Raija P., Scott Ellis-Ferrin, Steven J. Hite, and Sterling C. Hilton
    2008 “Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents’ Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia.” Comparative Education Review52 (1): 93–119. 10.1086/524307
    https://doi.org/10.1086/524307 [Google Scholar]
  24. Kuhl, Patricia K.
    2004 “Early Language Acquisition: Cracking the Speech Code.” Nature Review Neuroscience5 (11): 831–843. 10.1038/nrn1533
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1533 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lantolf, James P. and Steven L. Thorne
    2007 “Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning.” InTheories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction, ed. byB. van Patten van and J. Williams, 201–224. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lim, Hermanto and David Mead
    2011Chinese in Indonesia: A Background Study. Dallas: SIL International.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ma, Rosey W.
    2005 “Hui Diaspora.” InEncyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World, ed. byM. Ember, Carol R. Ember, and Ian Skoggard, 113–124. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑29904‑4_12
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-29904-4_12 [Google Scholar]
  28. McBride-Chang, Catherine and Hsuan-Chih Chen
    (ed.) 2003Reading Development in Chinese Children. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mishina-Mori, Satomi
    2011 “A Longitudinal Analysis of Language Choice in Bilingual Children: The Role of Parental Input and Interaction.” Journal of Pragmatics43: 3122–3138. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.03.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.03.016 [Google Scholar]
  30. Mulyana, Deddy and Agustina Zubair
    2015 “Intercultural Communication Competence Developed by Chinese in Communicating With Malays in Bangka Island, Indonesia.” Sino-US English Teaching12 (4): 299–309.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Na’im, Akhsan and Hendry Syaputra
    (ed.) 2010Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia [Indonesian Citizenship, Ethnicity, Religion, and Daily Language]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ong, Aihwa and Donald Nonini
    2004Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Paradis, Johanne and Elena Nicoladis
    2007 “The Influence of Dominance and Sociolinguistic Context on Bilingual Preschoolers’ Language Choice.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism10 (3): 277–297. 10.2167/beb444.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/beb444.0 [Google Scholar]
  34. Polinsky, Maria and Olga Kagan
    2007 “Heritage Language: In the ‘Wild’ and in the Classroom.” Language and Linguistics Compass1 (5): 368–395. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00022.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00022.x [Google Scholar]
  35. Purdey, Jemma
    2006Anti-Chinese Violence in Indonesia, 1996–1999. Honolulu, H.I: University of Hawaii Press. 10.1163/9789004486560
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004486560 [Google Scholar]
  36. Romaine, Suzanne
    1994Language in Society. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schwarz, Adam
    1994A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1900s. Boulder: Westview Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Scontraz, Gregory, Zuzanna Fuchs, and Maria Polinsky
    2015 “Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory.” Front Psychol6: 1545.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Setiawan, Budi
    2019 “The Optimal Age of the Second-First Language Acquisition: The Relationship of Language and Physical-motor Development.” Lingua Cultura13 (1): 75–79. 10.21512/lc.v13i1.5324
    https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v13i1.5324 [Google Scholar]
  40. Setiono, Benny G.
    2008Tionghoa dalam Pusaran Politik [Chinese-Indonesian Community under Political Turmoil]. Jakarta: TransMedia Pustaka.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sevenhooven, J. L. Van
    1971Lukisan Tentang Ibukota Palembang [A Painting of the Capital City of Palembang]. Djakarta: Bhratara.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Shin, Chong
    2007 “Masyarakat Tionghoa Kalimantan Barat: Tinjauan Pemilihan Bahasa di Kota Sedau [Tionghoa in West Kalimantan: A Study of Language Choice in Sedau city].” Linguistik Indonesia, 25 (1): 19–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Slavkov, Nikolay
    2017 “Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context.” International Journal of Multilingualism, 14 (4): 378–400. 10.1080/14790718.2016.1229319
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2016.1229319 [Google Scholar]
  44. Starks, Donna and Brian Paltridge
    1996 “A Note on Using Sociolinguistic Method to Study Non-native Attitudes towards English.” World Englishes15 (2): 217–224. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1996.tb00107.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1996.tb00107.x [Google Scholar]
  45. Suryadinata, Leo
    (ed.) 2008Ethnic Chinese in Contemporary Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS-Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 10.1355/9789812308368
    https://doi.org/10.1355/9789812308368 [Google Scholar]
  46. Takasuku, Junjiro
    1896An Introduction to I Tsing’s record of The Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and Malay Archipelago(A.D. 671–695). Oxford: Horace Hart.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tan, Mely G.
    2008Etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia – Kumpulan Tulisan [Tionghoa in Indonesia: Papers Collection]. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Taqwa, M. Ridhah
    2013 Pola Segregasi Ekologis: Kelompok Etnis-suku vs Kelas Sosial di Kota Palembang [The Patterns of Ecological Segregation: Ethnic Group versus Social Class in Palembang City]. Unpublished Master Thesis. Palembang: Universitas Sriwijaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Thomas, Lee and Linh Cao
    1999 “Language Use in Family and in Society.” The English Journal89 (1): 107–113. 10.2307/821364
    https://doi.org/10.2307/821364 [Google Scholar]
  50. Valdes, Guadalupe
    2001 “Heritage Language Students: Profiles and Possibilities.” InHeritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource, ed. byJ. K. Peyton, D. A. Ranard, and S. McGinnis, 37–77. Washington, DC & McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Vygotsky, Lev S.
    1978Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Walker, Beverly M. and David A. Winter
    2007 “The Elaboration of Personal Construct Psychology.” Annual Review of Psychology58: 4553–477. 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085535
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085535 [Google Scholar]
  53. Wiley, Terrence G.
    2001 “On Defining Heritage Languages and Their Speakers.” InHeritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource, ed. byJ. K. Peyton, D. A. Ranard, and S. McGinnis, 29–36. Washington, DC & McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2005Literacy and language diversity in the United States (2nd edition). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Winford, Donald
    2003An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. UK: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wittenburg, Peter, Hennie Brugman, Albert Russell, Alex Klassman, and Han Sloetjes
    2006 “ELAN: A Professional Framework for Multimodality Research.” Proceeding of LREC 2006, Fifth International Conference on Language Resource and Evaluation. Genoa, Italy.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wolff, John U.
    1997 “Peranakan Chinese Speech and Identity.” Indonesia64: 29–44. 10.2307/3351434
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3351434 [Google Scholar]
  58. Yeung, Alexander S., Herbert W. Marsh, and Rosemary Suliman
    2000 “Can two tongues live in harmony: Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS88) longitudinal data on the maintenance of home language.” American Educational Research Journal37 (4): 1001–1026. 10.3102/000283120370041001
    https://doi.org/10.3102/000283120370041001 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): children; Chinese-Indonesian; heritage language; language choice; sociocultural factors
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error