1887
Volume 11, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-7031
  • E-ISSN: 1877-8798
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Memes as online graphic semiotic resources have developed into a globalized genre and a cultural form. The vernacularization of this global cultural form on Chinese social media is (literally, ‘facial expression’). Biaoqing is a phenomenon and a genre engendered by the development of information technology and growing accessibility to the internet. The most prominent features of Biaoqing on Chinese social media (cute, mischievous, decadent, dirty, violent) are spawned by and therefore reflect the structure of society. The ludic nature of Biaoqing enables them to serve as resources for new forms of communication, potential of reshaping existing social norms, the landscape of online culture, and culture and society at large. The results of this contribution constitute an invitation for a reimagination of the role of graphic semiotic signs and digital infrastructures in society, and a rethinking of theories for sociolinguistic research in a digital era.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/cld.20009.lu
2020-11-24
2021-05-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Al Zidjaly, Najma
    2017 “Memes as Reasonably Hostile Laments: A Discourse Analysis of Political Dissent in Oman.” Discourse & Society28 (6): 573–94. 10.1177/0957926517721083
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926517721083 [Google Scholar]
  2. Appadurai, Arjun
    1996Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bauman, Richard, and Charles L. Briggs
    1990 “Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and Social Life.” Annual Review of Anthropology19: 59–88. 10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.000423
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.000423 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bauman, Richard, and Joel Sherzer
    1975 “The Ethnography of Speaking.” Annual Review of Anthropology4: 95–119. 10.1146/annurev.an.04.100175.000523
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.04.100175.000523 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blommaert, Jan
    2007 “On Scope and Depth in Linguistic Ethnography.” Journal of Sociolinguistics11 (5): 682–88. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2007.00346.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2007.00346.x [Google Scholar]
  6. 2018aDurkheim and the Internet: On Sociolinguistics and the Sociological Imagination. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 2018b “Online with Garfinkel.” Ctrl+Alt+Dem. https://alternative-democracy-research.org/2018/01/17/online-with-garfinkel/
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2018c “Are Chronotopes Helpful?” Ctrl+Alt+Dem. https://alternative-democracy-research.org/2018/06/22/are-chronotopes-helpful/
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blommaert, Jan, and Chris Bulcaen
    2000 “Critical Discourse Analysis.” Annual Review of Anthropology29: 447–66. 10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.447
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.447 [Google Scholar]
  10. Blommaert, Jan, and Dong Jie
    2020Ethnographic Fieldwork: A Beginner’s Guide. 2nd ed.Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/BLOMMA7130h
    https://doi.org/10.21832/BLOMMA7130h [Google Scholar]
  11. Blommaert, Jan, and Anna De Fina
    2017 “Chronotopic Identities: On the Timespace Organization of Who We Are.” InDiversity and Super-Diversity: Sociocultural Linguistic Perspectives, edited byAnna De Fina, Didem Ikizoglu, and Jeremy Wegner. 1–15. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blommaert, Jan, Lu Ying, and Kunming Li
    2019 “From the Self to the Selfie.” Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies, no. paper 222 (February).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blommaert, Jan, and Ico Maly
    2019 “Invisible Lines in the Online-Offline Linguistic Landscape.” Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies, no. paper 223 (February).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Changping
    Changping 2015 “‘哈哈’,江泽民形象咸鱼翻身? [‘Haha’, U-Turn of Jiang Zemin’s Image?].” Deutsche Welle. www.dw.com/zh/长平观察哈哈江泽民形象咸鱼翻身/a-18803421
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chen, Guyuan
    2011中国法制史概要 [Brief Chinese Legal History]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chen, Hui
    2008 “后现代主义与‘贱客文化’ [Postmodernism and ‘Jian Culture’].” Journal of Shanxi Normal University35: 11–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chen, Juanli
    2019 “青年‘丧文化’现象解读与消解策略 [Interpretation and Countermeasure of Youth ‘Sang Culture’ Phenomena].” Journal of Hebei Youth Administrative Cadres College31 (4): 25–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. CNNIC
    CNNIC 2019 “第44次《中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》 [The 44th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China].” August 30, 2019. www.cac.gov.cn/2019zt/44/index.htm
  19. Dentith, Simon
    1995Bakhtinian Thought: An Introductory Reader. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. De Seta, Gabriele
    2018 “Biaoqing: The Circulation of Emoticons, Emoji, Stickers, and Custom Images on Chinese Digital Media Platforms.” First Monday23 (9). https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/9391/7566. 10.5210/fm.v23i9.9391
    https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i9.9391 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dong, Kouyan
    2017 “‘丧文化’现象与青年社会心态透视 [‘Sang Culture’ Phenomena and Social Mentality of Youth].” China Youth Study 2017 (11): 23–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dong, Zhongshu
    . n.d. “春秋繁露 [Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals].” Chinese Text Project. AccessedMarch 2, 2019. https://ctext.org/chun-qiu-fan-lu/zhs
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Du, Caixia
    2016 “The Birth of Social Class Online: The Chinese Precariat on the Internet.” PhD diss., Tilburg University.
  24. Durkheim, Emile
    2012Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Translated byJohn A. Spaulding and George Simpson. Plano, TX: Snowball Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fairbank, John King, and Merle Goldman
    2006China: A New History. 2nd ed.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 10.2307/j.ctvjghv1z
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjghv1z [Google Scholar]
  26. Fei, Xiaotong
    2004乡土中国 [From the Soil: The Foundations of Chinese Society]. Beijing: Beijing Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Frissen, Valerie, Sybille Lammes, Michiel de Lange, Jos de Mul, and Joost Raessens
    2015Playful Identities: The Ludification of Digital Media Cultures. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 10.5117/9789089646392
    https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089646392 [Google Scholar]
  28. Garfinkel, Harold
    2002Ethnomethodology’s Program: Working out Durkheim’s Aphorism. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Garrison, Anthony, Dirk Remley, Patrick Thomas, and Emily Wierszewski
    2011 “Conventional Faces: Emoticons in Instant Messaging Discourse.” Computers and Composition28 (2): 112–25. 10.1016/j.compcom.2011.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2011.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ge, Jing, and Susan C. Herring
    2018 “Communicative Functions of Emoji Sequences on Sina Weibo.” First Monday23 (11). https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/9413/7610. 10.5210/fm.v23i11.9413
    https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i11.9413 [Google Scholar]
  31. Goffman, Erving
    1959The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday Anchor.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1961Encounters: Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hansen, Mette Halskov, and Rune Svarverud
    eds. 2010IChina: The Rise of the Individual in Modern Chinese Society. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hsieh, Sara H., and Timmy H. Tseng
    2017 “Playfulness in Mobile Instant Messaging: Examining the Influence of Emoticons and Text Messaging on Social Interaction.” Computers in Human Behavior69: 405–14. 10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.052
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.052 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hu, Yue, Jichang Zhao, and Junjie Wu
    2015 “Emoticon-Based Ambivalent Expression: A Hidden Indicator for Unusual Behaviors in Weibo.” PLOS ONE11 (1): 147–79.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Huizinga, Johan
    1949Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hymes, Dell
    1974 “The Scope of Sociolinguistics.” InFoundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach, 12–22. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 1996Ethnography, Linguistics, Narrative Inequality: Toward an Understanding of Voice. Bristol: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Iedema, Rick
    2003 “Multimodality, Resemiotization: Extending the Analysis of Discourse as Multi-Semiotic Practice.” Visual Communication2 (1): 29–57. 10.1177/1470357203002001751
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357203002001751 [Google Scholar]
  40. Jiang, Jianguo, and Ying Li
    2017 “网络涂鸦表情包: 审丑狂欢抑或娱乐的大麻 [Web graffiti Biaoqingbao: Carnival of ugly aesthetic or marijuana for entertainment].” Exploration and Free Views1 (1): 131–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Jiang, Yaqian, and Camilla Vásquez
    2019 “Exploring Local Meaning-Making Resources: A Case Study of a Popular Chinese Internet Meme (Biaoqingbao).” Internet Pragmatics, no.November. doi:  10.1075/ip.00042.jia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00042.jia [Google Scholar]
  42. Jiang, Zhaolei, and Bing Ye
    2010 “关于都市 ‘萌文化’ 现象的研究 [Research on Urban ‘Meng Culture’ Phenomena].” China Youth Study 2010 (3): 75–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kleinman, Arthur, Yunxiang Yan, Jing Jun, Sing Lee, Everett Zhang, Tianshu Pan, Fei Wu, and Jianhua Guo
    2011Deep China: The Moral Life of the Person. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520950511
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520950511 [Google Scholar]
  44. Leppänen, Sirpa, Samu Kytölä, Henna Jousmäki, Saija Peuronen, and Elina Westinen
    2014 “Entextualization and Resemiotization as Resources for Identification in Social Media.” InThe Language of Social Media: Identity and Community on the Internet, edited byPhilip Seargeant and Caroline Tagg. 112–36. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137029317_6
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137029317_6 [Google Scholar]
  45. Liang, Qichao
    2012梁启超论中国文化史 [Liang Qichao on Chinese Cultural History]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Liang, Shuming
    2005中國文化要义 [Essentials of Chinese Culture]. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lu, Ying
    2020 “Biaoqing on Chinese Social Media: Practices, Products, Communities and Markets in a Knowledge Economy.” PhD diss., Tilburg University.
  48. Luo, Min, and Tingrong Zhi
    2019 “青年‘丧’文化的话语生成和情感实现 [Discourse Creation and Emotional Realization of Youth’s ‘Sang’ Culture].” Contemporary Youth Research, no.361: 57–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Maly, Ico
    2018 “Algorithmic Populism and Algorithmic Activism.” Diggit Magazine, November. https://www.diggitmagazine.com/articles/algorithmic-populism-activism
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Marcus, Aaron, Masaaki Kurosu, Xiaojuan Ma, and Ayako Hashizume
    2017Cuteness Engineering: Designing Adorable Products and Services. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑61961‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61961-3 [Google Scholar]
  51. Ma, Keyao
    1991 “中国和西欧封建制度比较研究 [A comparative Study of Chinese and West-European Feudal Institutions].” Journal of Peking University 1991 (2): 3–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Milner, Ryan M.
    2013 “Pop Polyvocality: Internet Memes, Public Participation, and the Occupy Wall Street Movement.” International Journal of Communication7: 2357–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Omasta, Matt, and Drew Chappell
    2015Play, Performance, and Identity: How Institutions Structure Ludic Spaces. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315780689
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315780689 [Google Scholar]
  54. Pariser, Eli
    2011The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Poell, Thomas, and José van Dijck
    2014 “Social Media and Journalistic Independence.” InMedia Independence: Working with Freedom or Working for Free?, edited byJames Bennett and Niki Strange. 182–201. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Seargeant, Philip
    2019The Emoji Revolution: How Technology Is Shaping the Future of Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108677387
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108677387 [Google Scholar]
  57. Shi, Heidi H., and Zhuo Jing-schmidt
    2020 “Little Cutie One Piece An Innovative Human Classifier and Its Social Indexicality in Chinese Digital Culture.” Chinese Language and Discourse11 (1): 31–54. 10.1075/cld.00023.shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cld.00023.shi [Google Scholar]
  58. Shifman, Limor
    2013 “Memes in a Digital World: Reconciling with a Conceptual Troublemaker.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication18 (3): 362–77. 10.1111/jcc4.12013
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12013 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2014Memes in Digital Culture. London: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Shi, Lei
    2017 “无力颓废与抵抗消解:网络 ‘丧文化’ 现象解读 [Powerless Decadence and Weakened Resistance: Research on ‘Sang Culture’ Online].” Journal of Fujian Normal University 2017 (6): 168–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Silverstein, Michael, and Greg Urban
    eds. 1996Natural History of Discourse. Chicago: The University of Chicage Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Sina
    Sina 2019 “微博月活跃用户达4.65亿 同比净增5400万 [Weibo Monthly Active Users Reach 465 Million, Net Increase 54 Million].” May 23, 2019. https://tech.sina.com.cn/i/2019-05-23/doc-ihvhiews4077548.shtml?source=cj&dv=1
  63. Skalski, Paul D., Kimberly A. Neuendorf, and Julie A. Cajigas
    2017 “Content Analysis in the Interactive Media Age.” InThe Content Analysis Guidebook, edited byKimberly A. Neuendorf. 201–403. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781071802878.n7
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071802878.n7 [Google Scholar]
  64. Standing, Guy
    2014A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sun, Longji
    2004中国文化的深层结构 [The Deep Structure of Chinese Culture]. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Tang, Hongfeng
    2016 “套层与滑脱: 表情包大战的图像分析 [Layering and Hilarious: Graphic Analysis of Biaoqingbao Battle].” China Book Review 2016 (6): 104–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tencent
    Tencent 2018 “2018 微信数据报告 [WeChat Statistic Report 2018].” https://support.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/mmsupport-bin/getopendays
  68. Tossell, Chad C., Philip Kortum, Clayton Shepard, Laura H. Barg-Walkow, Ahmad Rahmati, and Lin Zhong
    2012 “A Longitudinal Study of Emoticon Use in Text Messaging from Smartphones.” Computers in Human Behavior28 (2): 659–63. 10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.012 [Google Scholar]
  69. Tufekci, Zeynep
    2014 “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls.” InProceedings of the Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 505–14. Palo Alto, USA: The AAAI Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 2015 “Algorithmic Harms beyond Facebook and Google: Emergent Challenges of Computational Agency.” Colorado Technology Law Journal13 (2): 203–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Varis, Piia
    2016 “Digital Ethnography.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication, edited byAlexandra Georgakopoulou and Tereza Spilioti. 55–68. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Varis, Piia, and Jan Blommaert
    2015 “Conviviality and Collectives on Social Media: Virality, Memes and New Social Structures.” Multilingual Margins2 (1): 31–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Varis, Piia, and Mingyi Hou
    2020 “Digital Approaches in Linguistic Ethnography.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Ethnography, edited byKarin Tusting. 229–40. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Wang, Feng-hsu, and Hsiu-mei Shao
    2004 “Effective Personalized Recommendation Based on Time-Framed Navigation Clustering and Association Mining.” Expert Systems with Applications27 (3): 365–377. 10.1016/j.eswa.2004.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2004.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  75. Weber, Max
    1959The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Translated byHans H. Gerth. Glencoe: The Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Wiggins, Bradley E., and G. Bret Bowers
    2015 “Memes as Genre: A Structurational Analysis of the Memescape.” New Media & Society17 (11): 1886–1906. 10.1177/1461444814535194
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814535194 [Google Scholar]
  77. Wu, Ming
    2015 “萌:当代视觉文化中的柔性政治 [Moé: Soft Politics in Contemporary Visual Culture].” Theoretical Studies in Literature and Art 2015 (3): 61–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Yan, Daocheng, and Susu Ma
    2018 “网络‘丧文化’现象浅论 [The Phenomenon of Internet ‘Depression Culture’].” Contemporary Youth Research 2018 (5): 23–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Yang, Minghui
    2013 “新三纲五常: 中国传统孝养思想的现代转化 [The New Three Cardinal Guides and Five Constant Virtues: Transformation of Chinese Traditional Thoughts of Filial Piety and Support].” Journal of Jiangsu University15 (2): 18–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Yi, Na
    2018 “丧文化:一种对现代性的激烈反抗 [‘Sang Culture’: A Radical Resistance to Modernity].” Shanghai Culture 2018 (12): 41–45, 123.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Yu, Xiaodong, and Yayin Huang
    2016 “从‘帝吧出征’看表情包在网络交流中的功能 [Explore the Function of Biaoqingbao in Online Communication from the ‘Di Bar Expedition’].” 新媒体研究 2016 (9): 20–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Zhang, Ning
    2016 “消解作为抵抗:‘表情包大战’ 的青年亚文化解析 [Dispelling as Resistance: Analysis of the Youth Sub-Culture ‘Biaoqingbao Battle’].” Modern Communication 2016 (242): 126–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Zhang, Xiaoqing
    2019 “‘丧文化’背景下的青年积极社会心态培育研究 [Nurturing Positive Mentality in Youth in the Background of ‘Sang Culture’].” China Youth Study 2019 (6): 113–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Zhao, Yufei
    2011 “加强师生礼仪教育:改善高校师生关系的重要途径 [Reinforcing Education of Teacher and Student Etiquette: An Important Way to Improve the Relationship Between Teachers and Students in Colleges and Universities].” Modern Education Science 2011 (1): 103–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Zheng, Manning
    2016 “网络表情包的流行与话语空间的转向 [The Popularity Biaoqingbao Online and and the Shift of Discourse Space].” Editorial Friend 2016 (8): 42–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Zhou, Yan
    2016 “媒介贱文化批判 [Criticism of Jian Culture on Social Media].” Social Science of Beijing 2016 (2): 11–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Zittrain, Jonathan
    2014 “Engineering an Election.” Harvard Law Review127 (8): 335–41.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/cld.20009.lu
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/cld.20009.lu
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error