Volume 13, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1877-7031
  • E-ISSN: 1877-8798
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Critical discourse analysis (CDA) has been broadly applied to understand the social implications of discourse, yet few studies have compared different forms of discourse in Chinese media, especially on the topic of race. Referencing the CDA framework, this study compares two sample news items from Mainland China and Taiwan about the killing of George Floyd and the associated social movements, analyzing their presentational forms, sourcing patterns, headlines, lexical and syntactic choices. A racial analysis is also conducted to better comprehend how racism is constructed and potentially reproduced in Chinese media. The results suggest that the two media sources bifurcate in reporting styles – due to respective journalistic environments and regulations – and their attitudes towards the cause of the reported event. However, they both explicitly identify the issue of racism in the US. This study applies CDA in a non-US context to uncover the reporting styles and racial connotations in Chinese news discourse from Mainland China and Taiwan, identifying future directions for racial discourse analysis in Chinese media.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Ahva, Laura
    2013 “Public journalism and professional reflexivity.” Journalism14 (6): 790–806. 10.1177/1464884912455895
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912455895 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alim, H. Samy, Angela Reyes, and Paul V. Kroskrity
    (eds) 2020The Oxford handbook of language and race. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190845995.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190845995.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Archetti, Cristina
    2010 “Comparing international coverage of 9/11: Towards an interdisciplinary explanation of the construction of news.” Journalism11 (5): 567–588. 10.1177/1464884910373536
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884910373536 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barker, Martin
    1981The new racism: Conservatives and the ideology of the tribe. Junction Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bednarek, Monika, and Helen Caple
    2014 “Why do news values matter? Towards a new methodological framework for analyzing news discourse in Critical Discourse Analysis and beyond.” Discourse & Society25 (2): 135–158. 10.1177/0957926513516041
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926513516041 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bell, Allan
    1991The language of news media. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bird, S. Elizabeth, and Robert W. Dardenne
    1990 “News and storytelling in American culture: Reevaluating the sensational dimension.” The Journal of American Culture13 (2): 33–37. 10.1111/j.1542‑734X.1990.1302_33.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1990.1302_33.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Boesman, Jan, and Irene Costera Meijer
    2018 ““Don’t Read me the News, Tell me the Story”: How News Makers and Storytellers Negotiate Journalism’s Boundaries When Preparing and Presenting News Stories.” ISOJ: The Official Research Journal of the International Symposium on Online Journalism8 (1): 13–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo
    2006Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cann, David J., and Philip B. Mohr
    2001 “Journalist and source gender in Australian television news.” Journal of Broadcasting & electronic media45 (1): 162–174. 10.1207/s15506878jobem4501_10
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4501_10 [Google Scholar]
  11. Carlson, Matt, and Seth C. Lewis
    (eds) 2015Boundaries of journalism: Professionalism, practices and participation. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chandler, Daniel
    2007Semiotics: The basics (2nd ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203014936
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203014936 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chang, Tsan-Kuo, Jian Wang, and Chih-Hsien Chen
    1994 “News as social knowledge in China: The changing worldview of Chinese national media.” Journal of Communication44 (3): 52–69. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.1994.tb00688.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1994.tb00688.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Cheng, Yinghong
    2011 “From Campus Racism to Cyber Racism: Discourse of Race and Chinese Nationalism.” The China Quarterly207: 561–579. 10.1017/S0305741011000658
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741011000658 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chiang, Chun-Fang, and Hsiu-Han Shih
    2017 “Consumer Preferences regarding News Slant and Accuracy in News Programs.” Jing Ji Lun Wen Cong Kan45 (4), 515–545.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chiang, Wen-Yu, and Ren-Feng Duann
    2007 “Conceptual metaphors for SARS: ‘war’ between whom?.” Discourse & society18 (5): 579–602. 10.1177/0957926507079631
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926507079631 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cooper-Chen, Anne, and James F. Scotton
    2010 “Television: News.” New Media For A New China: 98–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bickel, Balthasar, Bernard Comrie, and Martin Haspelmath
    2008 “The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses.” Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Department of Linguistics of the University of Leipzig.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Desmond, Roger, and Anna Danilewicz
    2010 “Women are on, but not in, the news: Gender roles in local television news.” Sex Roles62 (11): 822–829. 10.1007/s11199‑009‑9686‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-009-9686-5 [Google Scholar]
  20. De Swert, Knut, and Ine Kuypers
    2020 “Ordinary People Regularly Reported? Looking for Patterns in the Presence of Ordinary Citizens in Television News in 20 European Countries.” Journalism Studies21 (8): 1037–1054. 10.1080/1461670X.2020.1745664
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2020.1745664 [Google Scholar]
  21. Domke, David, Philip Garland, Andre Billeaudeaux, and John Hutcheson
    2003 “Insights into US racial hierarchy: Racial profiling, news sources, and September 11.” Journal of Communication53 (4): 606–623. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.2003.tb02913.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2003.tb02913.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Eberl, Jakob-Moritz, Christine E. Meltzer, Tobias Heidenreich, Beatrice Herrero, Nora Theorin, Fabienne Lind, Rosa Berganza, Hajo G. Boomgaarden, Christian Schemer, and Jesper Strömbäck
    2018 “The European media discourse on immigration and its effects: A literature review.” Annals of the International Communication Association42, no. 3: 207–223. 10.1080/23808985.2018.1497452
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2018.1497452 [Google Scholar]
  23. Entman, Robert M.
    1992Blacks in the news: Television, modern racism and cultural change. Journalism quarterly69 (2): 341–361.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Entman, Robert M., and Andrew Rojecki
    2000The black image in the white mind: Media and race in America, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fairclough, Norman
    1989Language and Power. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 1992Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1995Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fang, Yew-Jin
    1994 “Riots’ and demonstrations in the Chinese press: a case study of language and ideology.” Discourse & Society5 (4): 463–481. 10.1177/0957926594005004003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926594005004003 [Google Scholar]
  29. 2001 “Reporting the same events? A critical analysis of Chinese print news media texts.” Discourse & Society12 (5): 585–613. 10.1177/0957926501012005002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926501012005002 [Google Scholar]
  30. Feng, Debing
    2013 “National voice: A discourse analysis of China central television’s news simulcast.” Discourse & Communication7 (3): 255–273. 10.1177/1750481313487619
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481313487619 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2016 “Doing “authentic” news: Voices, forms, and strategies in presenting television news.” International Journal of Communication10: 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fowler, Roger
    1991Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the British Press. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fowler, Roger, Bob Hodge, Gunther Kress, and Tony Trew
    1979Language and Control. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 10.4324/9780429436215
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429436215 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gandy, Oscar H.
    1998Communication and race: A structural perspective. London: Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gray, Herman
    1987 “Race relations as news.” American Behavioral Scientist30: 381–396. 10.1177/000276487030004004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/000276487030004004 [Google Scholar]
  36. Liu, Ke, and Fang Guo
    2016 “A Review on Critical Discourse Analysis.” Theory and Practice in Language Studies6 (5): 1076–1084. 10.17507/tpls.0605.23
    https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0605.23 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hallin, Daniel C.
    1986The uncensored war: The media and Vietnam. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hendriks Vettehen, Paul, Koos Nuijten, and Johannes Beentjes
    2005 “News in an age of competition: The case of sensationalism in Dutch television news, 1995–2001.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media49 (3): 282–295. 10.1207/s15506878jobem4903_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4903_2 [Google Scholar]
  39. Jha, Sonora, and Ralph Izard
    2005 “Who got to talk about it: Sourcing and attribution in broadcast news coverage of the first 24 hours of the 9/11 tragedy.” Seattle Journal for Social Justice4 (1): 101–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Jing-Schmidt, Zhuo and Ting Jing
    2011 “Embodied semantics and pragmatics: Empathy, sympathy and two passive constructions in Chinese media discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics43: 2826–2844. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.04.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.04.005 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kendon, Adam
    1967 “Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction.” Acta psychologica26: 22–63. 10.1016/0001‑6918(67)90005‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(67)90005-4 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kim, Kyung Hye
    2014 “Examining US news media discourses about North Korea: A corpus-based critical discourse analysis.” Discourse & Society25 (2): 221–244. 10.1177/0957926513516043
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926513516043 [Google Scholar]
  43. Konnikova, Maria
    2014 “How Headlines Change the Way We Think.” The New Yorker. AccessedSeptember 11, 2020. https://www.newyorker.com/science/maria-konnikova/headlines-change-way-think
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kress, Gunther, and Robert Hodge
    1979Language as Ideology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Merlino, Andrew, Daryl Morey, and Mark Maybury
    1997 “Broadcast news navigation using story segmentation.” InProceedings of the fifth ACM international conference on Multimedia: 381–391. 10.1145/266180.266390
    https://doi.org/10.1145/266180.266390 [Google Scholar]
  46. Montgomery, Martin
    2007The discourse of broadcast news: A linguistic approach. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203006634
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203006634 [Google Scholar]
  47. Nir, Raphael and Itzhak Roeh
    1992 “Intifada Coverage in the Israeli Press: Popular and Quality Papers Assume a Rhetoric of Conformity.” Discourse & Society3 (1): 47–60. 10.1177/0957926592003001003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003001003 [Google Scholar]
  48. O’Keeffe, Kate, Michael C. Bender, and Chun Han Wong
    2020 “Coronavirus Casts Deep Chill Over US-China Relations.” Wall Street Journal. AccessedOctober 12, 2020. https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-casts-deep-chill-over-u-s-china-relations-11588781420
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Oriola, Temitope B., and W. Andy Knight
    2020 “COVID-19, George Floyd and Human Security.” African Security13 (2): 111–115. 10.1080/19392206.2020.1783760
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19392206.2020.1783760 [Google Scholar]
  50. Pager, Devah, and Hana Shepherd
    2008 “The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.” Annual review of sociology34: 181–209. 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740 [Google Scholar]
  51. Parenti, Michael
    1986Inventing Reality: The Politics of the Mass Media. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rawnsley, Ming-yeh, James Smyth, and Jonathan Sullivan
    2016 “Taiwanese Media Reform.” Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies6 (6): 66–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ross, Karen
    2007 “The journalist, the housewife, the citizen and the press: Women and men as sources in local news narratives.” Journalism8 (4): 449–473. 10.1177/1464884907078659
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884907078659 [Google Scholar]
  54. Sarrina Li, Shu-Chu
    2001 “New media and market competition: A niche analysis of television news, electronic news, and newspaper news in Taiwan.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media45 (2): 259–276. 10.1207/s15506878jobem4502_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4502_4 [Google Scholar]
  55. Shah, Hemant, and Michael C. Thornton
    1994 “Racial ideology in US mainstream news magazine coverage of Black-Latino interaction, 1980–1992.” Critical Studies in Media Communication11 (2): 141–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Tang, Wenfang, and Shanto Iyengar
    2011 “The emerging media system in China: Implications for regime change.” Political Communication28 (3): 263–267. 10.1080/10584609.2011.572446
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2011.572446 [Google Scholar]
  57. Teo, Peter
    2000 “Racism in the news: A critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers.” Discourse & society11 (1): 7–49. 10.1177/0957926500011001002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926500011001002 [Google Scholar]
  58. Van Dijk, Teun. A.
    1992 “Discourse and the denial of racism.” Discourse & society3 (1), 87–118. 10.1177/0957926592003001005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003001005 [Google Scholar]
  59. 1993Analyzing racism through discourse analysis: Some methodological reflections. Sage Publications, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 1993 “Principles of critical discourse analysis.” Discourse & society4 (2): 249–283. 10.1177/0957926593004002006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006 [Google Scholar]
  61. 2000 “New (s) racism: A discourse analytical approach.” Ethnic minorities and the media37: 33–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Winfield, Betty Houchin, and Zengjun Peng
    2005 “Market or Party Controls?: Chinese Media in Transition.” Gazette (Leiden, Netherlands)67 (3): 255–270. 10.1177/0016549205052228
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0016549205052228 [Google Scholar]
  63. Wong, Chun Han and Natasha Khan
    2020 “China Votes to Override Hong Kong’s Autonomy on National Security” The Wall Street Journal. AccessedAugust 29, 2020. https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-legislature-approves-imposing-hong-kong-national-security-laws-11590653322
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Wang, Tai-Li
    2012 “Presentation and impact of market-driven journalism on sensationalism in global TV news.” International Communication Gazette74 (8): 711–727. 10.1177/1748048512459143
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048512459143 [Google Scholar]
  65. Yin, Jing
    2006 “China’s second long march: A review of Chinese media discourse on globalization.” The Review of Communication6 (1–2): 32–51. 10.1080/15358590600763268
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15358590600763268 [Google Scholar]
  66. 三立iNews
    三立iNews 2020 美國又爆種族歧視!?黑人男子因警察執法過當喪命!!黑人上街抗議爆發警民衝突!!! [The issue of racism explodes again in the US!?A Black man lost his life due to police brutality!! Black people launch protests on the street, which triggers police-citizen conflicts!!!] AccessedJuly 10, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XB4apTQ1tNg
  67. 看看新闻Knews综合
    看看新闻Knews综合 2020 美国警察涉嫌暴力执法致黑人死亡. [American police are suspected to cause a black man’s death with brutality.] AccessedJuly 12, 2020. www.kankanews.com/a/2020-05-30/0019263524.shtml

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error