1887
Volume 5, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2213-8722
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explore the predominant metonymic and metaphoric conceptualizations of sadness in the Old English period. To this end, the Old English expressions for emotional distress recorded in and old English dictionaries have been analyzed. Taking as a starting point the experiential grounding of emotion conceptualization, we first present experimental evidence in support of the role of somato-behavioral reactions in emotion recognition, affective state induction and emotional information processing and interpretation, and review the most common metonymic and metaphoric expressions for sadness in Modern English. Next, we analyze the Old English vocabulary for sadness and the interplay between embodiment and culture in the conceptualization and linguistic description of emotional distress. Such analysis makes it clear that in ancient times, as in present day English, sadness and psychological distress were also conceptualized in terms of unpleasant physical conditions such as illness, cold, darkness or heaviness. Consequently, a long-term diachronic trend in the conceptualization of sadness can be traced even though its linguistic realization and motivation have varied through time.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00022.cas
2019-02-14
2019-08-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alexopoulos, T. , & Ric, F.
    (2007) The evaluation-behavior link: Direct and beyond valence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(6), 1010–1016. 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.10.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2006.10.017 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allan, K.
    (2006) On groutnolls and nog-heads: A case study of the interaction between culture and cognition in intelligence metaphors. InA. Stefanowitsch & S. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy (pp.175–190). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2008) Metaphor and metonymy: A diachronic approach. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (2010) Tracing metonymic polysemy through time: material for object mappings in the OED. InM. E. Winters, H. Tissari & K. Allan (Eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.163–196). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447 [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson, W. , Bramwell, E. , & Hough, C.
    (Eds.) (2016) Mapping English metaphor through time. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744573.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744573.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barcelona, A.
    (1986) On the concept of depression in American English: A cognitive approach. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 12, 7–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1995) Metaphorical models of romantic love in “Romeo and Juliet”. Journal of Pragmatics, 24(6), 667–88. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00007‑F
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00007-F [Google Scholar]
  8. (Ed.) (2000) Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads: A Cognitive Perspective. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (2003) On the plausibility of claiming a metonymic motivation for conceptual metaphor. InA. Barcelona (Ed.), Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads: A cognitive perspective (pp.31–58). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110894677
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110894677 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bargh, J. A., & Shalev, I.
    (2012) The substitutability of physical and social warmth in daily life. Emotion, 12(1), 154–162. 10.1037/a0023527
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023527 [Google Scholar]
  11. Boiten, F.
    (1996) Autonomic response patterns during voluntary facial action. Psychophysiology, 33(2), 123–131. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.1996.tb02116.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1996.tb02116.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Bosworth, J. , & Toller, T. N.
    (Eds.) (1882–1898) An Anglo-Saxon dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Available atbosworth.ff.cuni.cz/]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chen, M., & Bargh, J. A.
    (1999) Consequences of automatic evaluation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(2), 215–224. 10.1177/0146167299025002007
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167299025002007 [Google Scholar]
  14. Clark Hall, J. R.
    (1916) A concise Anglo-Saxon dictionary. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Coulson, M.
    (2004) Attributing emotion to static body postures: Recognition accuracy, confusions, and viewpoint dependence. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 28(2), 117–139. 10.1023/B:JONB.0000023655.25550.be
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JONB.0000023655.25550.be [Google Scholar]
  16. Deignan, A.
    (2003) Metaphorical expressions and culture: An indirect link. Metaphor and Symbol, 18(4), 255–71. 10.1207/S15327868MS1804_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1804_3 [Google Scholar]
  17. (2005) Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.6 [Google Scholar]
  18. Díaz Vera, J.
    (2011) Conceptualizing emotional distress in Late Middle English medical texts. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, 17, 59–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Díaz-Vera, J.
    (Ed.) (2014) Metaphor and metonymy across time and culture. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. DOE
    DOE (2008) The dictionary of Old English A to F. Toronto: DOE Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Duclos, S., & Laird, J. D.
    (2001) The deliberate control of emotional experience through control of expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 15(1), 27–56. 10.1080/02699930126057
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930126057 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ekman, P.
    (2007) The directed dacial action task. Emotional response without appraisal. InJ. A. Coan & J. B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (pp.47–53). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R.
    (2003) Appraisal processes in emotion. InR. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp.572–595). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Enticott, P., Johnston, P., Herring, S. E., Hoy, K. E., & Fitzgerald, P.
    (2008) Mirror neuron activation is associated with facial emotion processing, Neuropsychologia, 46 (11), 2851–2854. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.04.022
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.04.022 [Google Scholar]
  25. Etymology Online
    Etymology Online (n.d.). Retrieved fromwww.etymonline.com/
  26. Foroni, F., & Semin, G.
    (2009) Language that puts you in touch with your bodily feelings: The multimodal responsiveness of affective expressions. Psychological Science, 20(8), 974–980. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2009.02400.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02400.x [Google Scholar]
  27. Ganze, R.
    (2015) The neurological and physiological effects of emotional duress on memory in two Old English elegies. InA. Jorgensen, F. McCormack, & J. Wilcox (Eds.), Anglo-Saxon emotions: Reading the heart in Old English literature, language, and culture (pp.211–226). Surrey: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Geeraerts, D., & Gevaert, C.
    (2008) Hearts and (angry) minds in Old English. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture and language: Looking for the mind inside the body (pp.319–347). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Geeraerts, D., Gevaert, C., & Speelman, D.
    (2011) How anger rose: Hypothesis testing in diachronic semantics. InK. Allan & J. A. Robinson (Eds.), Current methods in historical semantics (pp.109–13). Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110252903.109
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110252903.109 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gevaert, C.
    (2001) Anger in Old and Middle English: A “hot” topic?Belgian Essays on Language and Literature, 89–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (2002) The evolution of the lexical and conceptual field of anger in Old and Middle English. InJ. Díaz Vera (Ed.), A changing world of words. Studies in English historical lexicography, lexicology and semantics (pp.275–299). Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (2005) The anger is heat question: Detecting cultural influence on the conceptualization of anger through diachronic corpus analysis. InN. Delbecque, J. van der Auwera & D. Geeraerts (Eds.), Perspectives on variation: Sociolinguistic, historical, comparative (pp.195–208). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110909579.195
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110909579.195 [Google Scholar]
  33. Glenberg, A., Havas, D., Becker, R., & Rinck, M.
    (2005) Grounding language in bodily states: The case for emotion. InD. Pecher & R. A. Zwaan (Eds.), The grounding of cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language and thinking (pp.115–128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511499968.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499968.006 [Google Scholar]
  34. Grady, J., Oakley, T., & Coulson, S.
    (1997) Blending and metaphor. InR. W. Gibbs & G. J. Steen (Eds.), Metaphor in cognitive linguistics (pp.101–124). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Györi, G.
    (1998)  Cultural variation in the conceptualization of emotions: A historical study. InE. Tabakowska & A. Athanasiadou (Eds.), Speaking of emotions: Conceptualisation and Expression (pp.99–124). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806007.99
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806007.99 [Google Scholar]
  36. Havas, D., Glenberg, A., & Rinck, M.
    (2007) Emotion simulation during language comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 436–441. 10.3758/BF03194085
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03194085 [Google Scholar]
  37. Huis in’t Veld, E. M. J., Van Boxtel, G. J. M., & de Gelder, B.
    (2014) The body action coding system I: Muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion. Social Neuroscience, 9(3), 249–264. 10.1080/17470919.2014.890668
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2014.890668 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ijzerman, H., & Semin, G.
    (2009) The thermometer of social relations: Mapping social proximity on temperature. Psychological Science, 20(10), 1214–20. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2009.02434.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02434.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Inagaki, T., & Eisenberger, N.
    (2013) Shared neural mechanisms underlying social warmth and physical warmth. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2272–80. 10.1177/0956797613492773
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613492773 [Google Scholar]
  40. Izard, C.
    (2000) Sadness. InA. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (pp.137–139). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Klinck, A.
    (2001) The Old English elegies: A critical edition and genre study. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kövecses, Z.
    (1986) Metaphors of anger, pride, and love: A lexical approach to the study of concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pb.vii.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pb.vii.8 [Google Scholar]
  43. (1988) The language of love: The semantics of passion in conversational english. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (1990) Emotion Concepts. Berlin and New York: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑3312‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3312-1 [Google Scholar]
  45. (1995) Anger: Its language, conceptualization, and physiology in the light of cross-cultural evidence. InJ. Taylor & R. Maclaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world (pp.181–196). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.181
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.181 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2000) Metaphor and emotion. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2007) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Kreibig, S. D.
    (2010) Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review. Biological Psychology, 84(3), 394–421. 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.010 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kreibig, S. D., Wilhelm, F. H., Roth, W. T., & Gross, J. J.
    (2007) Cardiovascular, electrodermal and respiratory response patterns to fear and sadness inducing films. Psychophysiology, 44(5), 787–806. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.2007.00550.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00550.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  51. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Lakoff, G., & Kövecses, Z.
    (1987) The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English. InD. Holland & N. Quinn (Eds.), Cultural models in language and thought (pp.195–221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009 [Google Scholar]
  54. Lee, T. W., Josephs, O., Dolan, R. J., & Critchley, H. D.
    (2006) Imitating expressions: Emotion-specific neural substrates in facial mimicry. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(2), 122–35. 10.1093/scan/nsl012
    https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsl012 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lewis, C. S.
    (1964) The discarded image. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lockett, L.
    (2015) The limited role of the brain in mental and emotional activity according to Anglo-Saxon medical learning. InA. Jorgensen, F. McCormack & J. Wilcox (Eds.), Anglo-Saxon emotions: Reading the heart in Old English literature, language, and culture (pp.35–52). Surrey: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Matsumoto, D.
    (2001) Culture and emotion. InD. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp.171–194). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Matsumoto, D., Keltner, D., Shiota, M. N., O’Sullivan, M., & Frank, M.
    (2008) What’s in a face? Facial expressions as signals of discrete emotions. InM. Lewis, J. M. Haviland & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp.211–234). New York: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Michalak, J., Mischnat, J., & Teismann, T.
    (2014) Sitting posture makes a difference-embodiment effects on depressive memory bias. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 21(6), 519–524.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Mischler, J.
    (2013) Metaphor across time and conceptual space. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.3 [Google Scholar]
  61. Mouilso, E., Glenberg, A., Havas, D., & Lindeman, L. M.
    (2007) Differences in action tendencies distinguish anger and sadness after comprehension of emotional sentences. InD. S. McNamara & G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th annual Cognitive Science Society (pp.1325–1330). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Nair, S., Sagar, M., Sollers, J., Consedine, N., & Broadbent, E.
    (2014) Do slumped and upright postures affect stress responses? A randomized trial. Health Psychology, 34(6), 632–41. 10.1037/hea0000146
    https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000146 [Google Scholar]
  63. Nicholson, S.
    (1995) The expression of emotional distress in Old English prose and verse. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 19 (3), 327–338. 10.1007/BF01381916
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01381916 [Google Scholar]
  64. Niedenthal, P., Winkielman, P., Mondillon, L., & Vermeulen, N.
    (2009) Embodiment of emotion concepts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96 (6), 1120–1136. 10.1037/a0015574
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015574 [Google Scholar]
  65. Peña Cervel, M. S.
    (1997) The role of the event structure metaphor and of image-schematic structure in metaphors for happiness and sadness. Miscelánea: A journal of English and American Studies, 18, 253–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Peters, H.
    (2004) The vocabulary of Pain. InC. Kay & J. Smith (Eds.) Categorization in the history of English (pp.193–220). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.261.11pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.261.11pet [Google Scholar]
  67. Philippot, P., & Rimé, B.
    (1997) The perception of bodily sensations during emotion: A cross-cultural perspective. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 28(2), 175–188.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Radden, J.
    (2000) The nature of melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Rimé, B., & Giovanni, D.
    (1986) The physiological patterns of reported emotional states. InK. R. Scherer, H. G. Wallbott & A. B. Summerfield (Eds.), Experiencing emotion: A cross-cultural study (pp.84–97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Riskind, J. H.
    (1983) Nonverbal expressions and the accessibility of life experience memories: A congruency hypothesis. Social Cognition, 2(1), 62–86. 10.1521/soco.1983.2.1.62
    https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1983.2.1.62 [Google Scholar]
  71. Ritchie, L. D.
    (2013) Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Roberts, J., Kay, C., & Grundy, L.
    (Eds.) (2000) A Thesaurus of Old English, 2vols. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Scherer, K. R., & Wallbott, H. G.
    (1994) Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (2), 310–328. 10.1037/0022‑3514.66.2.310
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.2.310 [Google Scholar]
  74. Scherer, K. R., Wallbott, H. G., & Summerfield, A. B.
    (Eds.) (1986) Experiencing emotion: A cross-cultural study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Schnall, S., & Laird, J. D.
    (2003) Keep smiling: Enduring effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience and memory. Cognition and Emotion, 17(5), 787–797. 10.1080/02699930302286
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930302286 [Google Scholar]
  76. Schouwstra, S., & Hoogstraten, J.
    (1995) Head position and spinal position as determinants of perceived emotional state. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81(2), 673–674. 10.1177/003151259508100262
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003151259508100262 [Google Scholar]
  77. Seidel, E. M., Habel, U., Kirschner, M., Gur, R., & Derntl, B.
    (2010) The impact of facial emotional expressions on behavioral tendencies in women and men. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception & Performance, 36(2), 500–7. 10.1037/a0018169
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018169 [Google Scholar]
  78. Simon, B.
    (1978) Mind and madness in Ancient Greece: The classical roots of modern psychiatry. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Stefanowitsch, A.
    (2004) HAPPINESS in English and German: A metaphorical-pattern analysis. InM. Achard & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Language, culture and mind (pp.137–149). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. (2006) Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. InA. Stefanowitsch & S. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy (pp.61–105). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199895
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199895 [Google Scholar]
  81. Tissari, H.
    (2008) On the concept of sadness: Looking at words in contexts derived from corpora. InB. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Corpus linguistics, computer tools, and applications – state of the Art (pp.291–308). Frankfurt: Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. (2010) English words for emotions and their metaphors. InM. E. Winters, H. Tissari & K. Allan (eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.298–329). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447 [Google Scholar]
  83. Trim, R.
    (2010) Conceptual networking theory in metaphor evolution: Diachronic variation in models of love. InM. Winters, H. Tissari & K. Allan (Eds.), Historical cognitive linguistics (pp.223–260). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447.223 [Google Scholar]
  84. (2011) Metaphor and the historical evolution of conceptual mapping. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230337053
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230337053 [Google Scholar]
  85. (2014) The interface between synchronic and diachronic conceptual metaphor. The role of embodiment, culture and semantic field. InJ. Díaz Vera (Ed.), Metaphor and metonymy across time and cultures (pp.95–120). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Vrticka, P., Simioni, S., Fornari, E., Schluep, M., Vuilleumier, P., & Sander, D.
    (2013) Neural substrates of social emotion regulation: A fMRI study on imitation and expressive suppression to dynamic facial signals. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(95), 1–10. 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00095
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00095 [Google Scholar]
  87. Wicker, B., Keysers, C., Plailly, J., Royet, J. P., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G.
    (2003) Both of us disgusted in my insula: the common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron, 40(3), 655–664. 10.1016/S0896‑6273(03)00679‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00679-2 [Google Scholar]
  88. Wilkowski, M., Meier, B. P., Robinson, M. D., Carter, M. S., & Feltman, R.
    (2009) Hot-headed is more than an expression: The embodied representation of anger in terms of heat. Emotion, 9(4), 464–477. 10.1037/a0015764
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015764 [Google Scholar]
  89. Wilson, V. E., & Peper, E.
    (2004) The effects of upright and slumped postures on the recall of positive and negative thoughts. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(3), 189–195. 10.1023/B:APBI.0000039057.32963.34
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:APBI.0000039057.32963.34 [Google Scholar]
  90. Yu, N.
    (1995) Metaphorical expressions of anger and happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10(2), 59–82. 10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00022.cas
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00022.cas
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): conceptual metaphor and metonymy , emotions , Old English and sadness related vocabulary
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error