1887
Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2213-8722
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper investigates the use of animal-related concepts in the proverbs of English, French, Arabic, and Kabyle. Research in cognitive linguistics has highlighted the important role played by cultural influences in conceptual metaphor variation (Kövecses 2005). Animal-related proverbs constitute interesting examples of cultural influences upon conceptual metaphor and its instantiation in language (Belkhir 20142012). The principle of hierarchy underlying the Great Chain Metaphor Theory has been questioned. It has been demonstrated that in addition to the ranking of and concepts on a hierarchical scale, concepts were also ranked on the scale (Belkhir 2014). The present article attempts to show that there exists another type of ranking that seems to have never been explored to date; that is, the ranking of concepts within the same animal species. Therefore, this paper offers a cross-cultural cognitive study of some animal-related concepts’ use in a sample of English, French, Arabic, and Kabyle proverbs. Its aim is to explore the influence of cultural contexts and cultural models upon the main meaning foci characterizing the concepts , and leading to, not only a hierarchical classification of these animals, but to a classification of animals within one animal species as a result of the influences of cultural contexts and cultural models. The conclusion is that sociocultural contexts determine the main meaning foci characterizing the animal source domain concepts involved in the metaphor resulting in animal-animal rankings within different species, and animal-animal rankings within the same species.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00042.bel
2020-02-04
2020-08-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abd-Essalam, A., & Zaghlul, M. S.
    (Eds.) (1988) Kita:b jamharatu ‘al-‘amṯa:l (2nd ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Ilmiyya.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. At Mansur, R.
    (2010) Dictionnaire de proverbes kabyles. Tizi-Ouzou: Editions Achab.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Belkhir, S.
    (2012) Variation in source and target domain mappings in English and Kabyle dog proverbs. InS. Kleinke, Z. Kövecses, A. Musolff & V. Szelid (Eds.), Cognition and culture: The role of metaphor and metonymy (pp.213–227). Budapest: Eötvös University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (2014) Cultural influence on the use of dog concepts in English and Kabyle proverbs. InA. Musolff, F. MacArthur & G. Pagani (Eds.), Metaphor and intercultural communication (pp.131–146). London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blench, R.
    (2000) The history and spear of donkeys in Africa. InP. Starkey & D. Fielding (Eds.), Donkeys, people and development (pp.22–30). The Netherlands: ATNESA. Retrieved fromwww.atnesa.org/donkeys/donkeys-blench-history.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bough, J.
    (2011) The mirror has two faces: Contradictory reflections of donkeys in Western literature from Lucius to Balthazar. Animals1, 56–68. doi:  10.3390/ani1010056
    https://doi.org/10.3390/ani1010056 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, K., & Miler, J.
    (2013) Cambridge dictionary of linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139049412
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139049412 [Google Scholar]
  8. Camps, G., & Chaker, S.
    (1993) Cheval (origines). InG. Camps (Ed.), Encyclopédie berbère (Vol.12, pp.1907–1911). France: Edisud.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Camps, G., Musso, J. Cl., & Chaker, S.
    (1988) Ane. InG. Camps (Ed.), Encyclopédie berbère (Vol.5, pp.647–657). France: Edisud.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Camps, G., Peyron, M., & Chaker, S.
    (1996) Dromadaire. InG. Camps (Ed.), Encyclopédie berbère (Vol.17, pp.2541–2546). France: Edisud.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cartmill, M.
    (1995) Hunting and humanity in Western thought. Social research, 62 (3). 773–786.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dallet, J. M.
    (1982) Dictionnaire kabyle-français. Paris: Selaf.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dalziel, H.
    (1883) British dogs: Their varieties, history, characteristics, breeding, management, and exhibition. London: The Bazaar Office.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. D’Andrade, R. G.
    (1981) The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive science, 5, 179–195. 10.1207/s15516709cog0503_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0503_1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Espérandieu, G., Coppé, G. E. B., & Chaker, S.
    (1994) Chien. InG. Camps (Ed.), Encyclopédie berbère (Vol.13, pp.1919–1922). France: Edisud.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Epstein, H.
    (1954) Le dromadaire dans l’ancien orient. Revue d’histoire des sciences et de leur application, 7 (3), 247–268. 10.3406/rhs.1954.3439
    https://doi.org/10.3406/rhs.1954.3439 [Google Scholar]
  17. Fergusson, R.
    (2000) The Penguin dictionary of proverbs (2nd ed.). England: Market House Books Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fernando, P., & Starkey, P.
    (2000) Donkeys and development: socio-economic aspects of donkey use in Africa. InP. Starkey & D. Fielding (Eds.), Donkeys, people and development (pp.31–44). The Neherlands: ATNESA. Retrieved fromwww.animaltraction.com/StarkeyPapers/donkeys-fernando-socioeconomic.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Flexner, S. B.
    (Ed.) (1987) Random house dictionary of the English language (2nd ed.). New-York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fuller, R.
    (2000) Les expressions animalières en anglais. Animal idioms. Toulouse: P.U.M.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Genevois, H.
    (1963) 350 Enigmes kabyles. Fort National: Contribution à l’Etude Ethnographique du Maghreb.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gillon, E., Hollier-Larousse, J., Ibos-Augé, J., Moreau, C., & Moreau, J.-L.
    (Eds.) (1972) Petit Larousse en couleurs. Paris: Librairie Larousse.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Haji, M., & Al-Akhdar, M.
    (Eds.) (1981) Zahr ’al ’akam fi ’al-amthal wa ’al-ḥikam (2nd ed.). Morroco: Dar Athaqafa.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Haru:n, A. S. M.
    (Ed.) (1965) ’al-ḥayawa:n (2nd ed.). Cairo: Mustafa Al-Ba:bi Al-Halabi and Sons Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Holland, D., & Quinn, N.
    (Eds.) (1987) Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607660
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607660 [Google Scholar]
  26. Ibrahim, A. A. M.
    (Ed.) (1996) Majma‘u ’al-’amṯa:l (2nd ed.)., Beirut: Dar Al-ji:l.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ibn Manḍur, M. B. M.
    (1990) Lisa:n ’al-‘arab. Beirut: Dar Sader Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kövecses, Z.
    (2002) Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2005) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  30. Lacoste-Dujardin, C.
    (2005) Dictionnaire de la culture berbère en Kabylie. Paris: Editions la Découverte.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lakoff, G.
    (1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  32. (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed.) (pp.202–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  33. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lakoff, G., & Turner, M.
    (1989) More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  35. Larousse 3 volumes en couleurs (Vol.2) (1966) Paris: Librairie Larousse.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Larousse 3 volumes en couleurs (Vol.1) (1970) Paris: Librairie Larousse.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lovejoy, A. O.
    (1936) The great chain of being. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ma‘louf, L.
    (1975) Al-Munjid Fi ’al-luġa wa’al-a‘la:mi. Beirut: Dar Al-mashriq.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Manser, M. H.
    (2007) Facts on file dictionary of proverbs (2nd ed.). New York: Facts on file.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Marks, J.
    (2008) Great chain of being. InJ. Hartwell Moore (Ed.), Encyclopedia of race and racism (Vol.2, pp.68–73). USA: the Gale Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Montreynaud, F., Pierron, A., & Suzonni, F.
    (Eds.) (1993) Dictionnaire des proverbes et dictons. Paris: Le Robert.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Muzzolini, A., Agabi, C., & Bernus, E.
    (1991) Boeuf. InG. Camps (Ed.), Encyclopédie berbère (Vol.10, pp.1547–1554). France: Edisud.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Nacib, Y.
    (2009) Proverbes et dictons kabyles (2nd ed.). Alger: Enag.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Nichols, W. R.
    (Ed.) (2001) Random house Webster’s unabridged dictionary (2nd ed.). New-York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Qatamish, A. M.
    (1988a) ’al-’amṯa:l al-‘arabiyya, dira:sa ta:rixiyya taḥli:liyya. Syria: Da:r ’al-fikr.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (Ed.) (1988b) ’aḏarra ’al-fa:xira fi: ’al-’amṯa:l ’assa:’ira (2nd ed.). Egypt: Dar Al-Maarif.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Rey, A., & Chantreau, S.
    (Eds.) (1993) Dictionnaire des expressions et locutions. Paris: Le Robert.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sharifian, F.
    (Ed.) (2015) The Routledge handbook of language and culture. Milton Park: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (2017) Cultural linguistics: The state of the art. InF. Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in cultural linguistics (pp.1–28). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_1 [Google Scholar]
  50. Summers, D.
    (Ed.) (2005) Longman dictionary of English language and culture. England: Pearson Education Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Taylor, P. W.
    (1984) Are humans superior to animals and plants?Environmental ethics. 6 (2). 149–160. doi:  10.5840/enviroethics19846239
    https://doi.org/10.5840/enviroethics19846239 [Google Scholar]
  52. Vigerie, P.
    (1992) La symphonie animale. Les animaux dans les expressions de la langue française. Paris: Larousse.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Watts, M.
    (1999) Working oxen. Great Britain: Shire publications. Abstract retrieved fromhttps://books.google.dz/books?id=HqUsvgAACAAJ&dq=Martin+Watts+working+oxen
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Williams, M.
    (2004) The living tractor. Farmers weekly. Retrieved fromwww.foxearth.org.uk/oxen.html
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wilson, F. P.
    (1970) Oxford dictionary of English proverbs (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00042.bel
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/cogls.00042.bel
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error