Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2213-8722
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8730
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The present pilot study compared the effects of cognitive and non-cognitive approaches on the development of Japanese learners’ knowledge about the different degrees of sureness attached to certain, probable, and possible items. The results showed that the cognitive approach group outperformed the non-cognitive approach and control groups in writing and comparison judgment tests, and that both the cognitive and non-cognitive approach groups performed better than the control group in the categorization judgment test. These results suggest that the cognitive approach with 3D image content through computers can promote L2 language learning because it may have made the target structures more salient and also enabled the participants to connect spatial concepts with different degrees of sureness attached to the certain, probable, and possible items, thereby facilitating deep processing of form-meaning pairings.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): awareness; certain; metaphor; possible; probable
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