Volume 45, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1810-7478
  • E-ISSN: 2589-5230



This paper examines the morpho-syntactic properties of elements that realize adverbial meanings in Isbukun Bunun and investigates how its adverbs are syntactically represented. I show that most adverbial meanings are realized as verbs in this language, with only a few adverbial expressions realized as adverbs in the traditional sense. Specifically, the adverbial verbs, just like typical verbs, have to occur sentence-initially, take inflectional morphology and attract cliticization, whereas the genuine adverbs are invariable in form and exhibit relatively free distribution. The paper also presents evidence which bears on the debate concerning the syntax of adverbials and shows that a hybrid treatment is needed in which phrasal adverbs are adjoined to clauses while adverbial verbs are located in strictly-ordered functional projections in the backbone of the clause.

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